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by Google 



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DICTIONARY 

GREEK AKD ROMAN 

BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY. 
VOL. II. 



byGOOQiC 



Nvw-iUcet-Squve. 



byGooqlc 



DICTIONAKY 

GREEK AND SOMAN 

BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY. 

EDITED BY 

■fflLLIAM ^MITH, LL.D. 



ILLUSTRATED BT mmBROUB SMOE&VCfOS OH WOOD. 
IN TBAEE VOLUMES. 

VOL. n. 

EAEINUS — NTS. 



LONDON: 

TilLOB, WALTON, AND MABEELT, mTEE GOWEE STREET, 

AKD ITT LAMB, PATBRKOSTEB BOW: 

JOHN MUBRAY, AT.UKWABT.T^ STREET. 

..DOCciLii. i,„„...,Cooglc 







byGOOQlC 



LIST OF "\yaiTERS. 



k. A. Alexander Allkn, Ph. D. 

C.T.A. Charles Thomas Arnold, M.A. 

One of the Masters in Rugby Schod. 
J. LB. JuiiN Ekkest Bode, M. A. 

Student of Christ Cliureli, Osford. 
Ch. A. B. Christian A. BoAiniis, 

Profeb«ur in the University of Bonn. 
F. H. B. Edward Hkrbert Bunburt, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity Collegf , Cambridge. 
■^ J.C. Albaot Jakes Christie, H.A. 

lAte Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 
A. JL C. Abthdb Hdou Cujugh, M. A. 

Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 
G.E.LC. Gbobur Edward LiNCH Cottok, M.A. 

Fellow of Trinity Collide, Cambridge ; one of the Masters in 
Rugby School. 
^ ■>. Samcel Davidson, LL.D. 

*'. P. D. WlLUAH FlSBBUSN DoKKIN, M. A, 

Saviliao Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford. 
W. B. D. William Bodhau Donnr. 
1'' [>- TaoMAs Dtek. 
£. L Edward Eld£r, M.A. 

Head Master of Durhmm SchooL 
i. T. G. JoBN Tbohas Grates, H.A., F.R.S. 
^^'-A.G. William AlkxanderGrkrnhili, M.D. 

TriDtty Collie, Oxford. 
A.O. Aloerhon Grenfell, M.A. 

One of the Masters in Rugby SuliooL 

DiqitlzscbyGOOqlC 



vi LIST OF WKITEBS. 

W. M. G. WiLUAH Maxwell Gonm, 

One of the Masters ia the High School, Edinburgh. 
W. I. WiLLLUi Ihkb, Ph. D. 

Of the University of Bonn. 

B. J. Bbnjahik Jowett, M. A. 

Fellow &nd Tutor of Baliol Collie, Oxford. 
H. G. L. Henst Oeobqe Liddell, M. A. 

Head Master of Westminster Scho<d. 
G. L. Geobge Long, M.A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
J. M. M. John Mobell Mackehzib, M.A. 

C. P. M. Chables Peteb Mason, B. A. 

Fellow of University College, London. 
J. C. M. JosEPB Calbow Means. 
H. II. M. HEHirr Habt MtLUAN, M.A. 

Prebendary of St. Peter's, Westnunster. 
A. de M. AsonsTds de Morgan. 

Professor of Mathematics in University College, London. 
W.P. William Plate, LL.D. 

C. K P. Constamtine Estlin Pricbard, B. A. 

Fellow of Baliol College, Oxford. 
W.R. WilluxBahsat, M.A. 

PioteBBOT of Humanity in the Universiqf of OUsgow. 
L. S. Leomhabd Schkitz, Ph.D., F.B.S.K 

Rector of the High School of Edinburgh. 
P.S. Philip Swth, B.A. 

Of University College, London. 
A. P. S. Arthur Penrthn Stanlet, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of University College, Oxford. 
A. S. Adolfh Stabb, 

Professor in the Gymnanum of Oldenburg. 

L. U. LODWIO URtlCBS, 

Professor in the University of Bonn. 
R. W. BOBBRT WmSTON, M. A. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

The Articles which have no initjals attached to them are written by the Editor. 

D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



LSSr OF COINS ENGRAVED IN THE SECOND VOLUME. 



!■ Ik faltnrmg lul AV indiistei that tb* com ia of hi^ A of lilTCr, £ of copper, llE Ent bnmie 
l(Bn,lCKUDd bmua Ronui, 3JS third biiinie RiBiua. The weight of oil gold nod dim coins 
■ pnn, with tlw cxc^ciDD of tbo luni and dcmuii, which ua fbi tba mott part of ncirif the Bme 
■^|k R^idtiiBlj. WbcD ■ cmn hu baan ndneod or enluged in th« dnwing, the diametar of ths 
(rjgiiBl am ia gnai in tlie lait eolama, the DDmban in which nfer to tho lafajoinad ac^la > thoie 
■iut hm no mnnbai afflzsd to tham an of the lame nie in the dniring aa the originali. 






H 



'% 



tSSr"--:-- 


£ir"-r;;:: 


Ptnu^ ....".... 


tmalM, Fkna Ifazi- 

'autim, wife of Ela^ 
Fbceoa, Valtiiai . . . 




Fhdlk '. . . . 

FkriaOtBi 

Floriaua 

FIpn-.Aq.fllm..... 






PaUa^ ....".... 




MrJaOan . ." 




SSfflr!:::: 

(MBanu 

Oalbi, CiDinioa 






Caatalh 


OariiBo. I 



Udena 

Hennnia Oou . . . , 
Honinitu Elnuciu , 
Hand tba Gnak . . . 



Hieicaijniiu ■ . 

BoDoriiu . . . . 
Hondiiu Gets . 



Jnha I. .'.'.'. .'.'.'.'. 

Jnba II 

Judax, Vettini 

Jutia, danghtcT of Au- 

Julia, daofihter of Tittu 
Jalianu*, Didiu .... 
JnluiDua (emperor) . . . 
Jutiniuiiu 



Lepidaa, M. Aemilini 

q. Aemilini . 

Putlui, M. Aomilioa 

Lapidui, H., the Irinn 

Paoltut Aemilina Le- 

P^i' 

Libo, Hiirciua ■ . 
Libo, Sciiboniui . 
Libo, Staliliui . . 



D,4,i,.=.ot Google 



UST OF COINS. 



i s 



Lidniiu Junior. . . . 
Looiiuu, Poniiu . . . 

L<!iigiiin% Cuuni . . 
Lcngoi, HoHidiot ■ . 
LimniUiTenDtiiu. . 
Lncilla, Auuia . . i . 
LjBnuckiu . , - . . 
HiiiH,Clodiiu . • . ■ 
H«er, Licmini . . . 
Muer, SepuUiua . . . 
Haoiuiai Senior . ■ 
Maniuiai Jonior . . 

Hacriniu 

Usjoiiuiiu 

Hamilia 0«iu ■ • ■ ■ 

Munllni 

Mucima 

MwciAniu 

Mundianoi 

Huiniam 

MuiUJ^ AurUiu . . . 
MMtinumiu 

Muuidut 

Muuoliu ....... 

Muentin* 

Muimunui I 

Maiimianiu 11. . . . 

Huimiuni I 

Hanminnt II 

Uwmoi CiKwr . . . 



miui GsUm . . , 

: C. Hcmniiiu 

: MeuwT, Fuinleiui. , 

M. McUUui ..... 
I C HeUUui 

Mtlclliu, Sdpio . . . 

L. Metetlni . . . . : 

[ H. Mettiui 

Hisuda 0«u .... 
Mithiidalst, king of Ar- 



ui, Staliua . . 
I Mm, Pumpoiiiiu . 

Nuidii Oeiu . . . 
! Nun, Aiiiu .... 
! NtLO, PiMriui . . 

Nepoi, Juliiu . . . 

NeiUOcni 

: Nero 

N«.« 

I Nicocka 

NkDBMdei II. . . . 

NJcomedn III. . . 
I Nigu, Pacenniiu . 



by Google 



A DICT I ONARY 

GREEK AND ROMAN BIOGRAPHY 
MYTHOLOGY. 



EBION. 

Ki'RlNDS, FLA'VIUS, ■ bttmrita nimuchof 
it aipoor Domilko, in pniae of vhiiae baantf 
ilm ne Hienl qugnm* al Hattiil, ud ■ poem 
DfSotiiu. (Dim C^m. UnL 2 ; Hut. £pwr. a. 
■ 12. U It, 17, la i StMX. Sii<^ iii 4.) 

TBION OUiw). tha ml or »u[^ii«d hanitr 
•dlititital ChiiUiuu called EtuDnitH, bj whidi 
me, u Itaat (gcf tke tiiu of Ireoaeni, wen dc- 
■■Wh) in tliMB wbo, thoBgl) pnfeiuiig Chiuiy 
Rugiaa, thim^I it neeewu; 1° (ontinue the ob- 
tnacr of Ibe iSomie law. The Ebionjte docttim 
l^tRfait vu a mrav engrafting of Judaiim opor. 
Ctiniamtj. G(?ncra]1j tpenking, the failowen of 
tha Hd cODadercd mr Lord aa a man chovD bj 
G°d ti> Ihc office of Mniiali, and f^uniihed with 
ifai £ikr power anxturj for it* fulflliiieat at the 
liw e( hii i»^l^i«^n, whidi rile «u peifonned bj 
Jok ■ the npnaentatiTe of Dijali. The; in- 
«rt OB the neceuil; of drcomtiuon, regarded 
Ot onU; JenuKlem ai aljll Ood*! choKD city, 
mi damoKcd St. Paul tm a ladtudinaiiaa and a 
k<«ic (See, fer the latter atatement, Orig. Jirtm. 
llfA. >riiL 12.) It i«, howerer, itTj difficult 
M di^Bgniih iccanlel; the niiooi aiiadea of thcM 
"Puaii er la atata at what time anj particular 
ita of ihoB wa* pnTalent. Irenieni certainlj 
'■I'mded Tarictiei of opiniaa rtlmoat nfficient to 
owtiUile tbeic ludden two dUdnct leirta, whereat 
l>««i [c au. T. 61) diTidei the Ebioiutei into 
tn claaea, tfaoH wbo denied our Lord'i miiacu- 
Iw amofdoa. nA thoee who allowed it ; the lal- 
U: idadiiini of coone implfing, that thp peculiar 
•VJtDaa of the Hotj Spirit on the mu Jtnu de- 
«Vd it*lf ban the Tenr commeneement of hil 
O", DUtcad of fint beginning to act at the^ parti- 

B'lWD. The fint tracEi of Ebioniim are donbt- 
's to he bond in the New Teitunent, where we 
""nitt thii doctrine ai that of the Judaiztng 
l«liBiinOil>tia(Caj:iiL l,Ac), the denien of 
SL Pial-i ipaatloUp u Coruth (S Cor. iL £,&c), 
I* Wlia oppowd m the E^tle to tbe Colouiani, 
n<l peAip* of thoia mentioned h; St John. ( IJoL 
^la, oD wtuch lea L'licke, Commaiiar liAsr dit 
Bn^daEeamg.JclaaHa.) The''aementiiiH,''B 
"wtam of honiUia embodying thcK riein, ii 
f*^ a woifc of tb« 2Dd century i and w« God 



B of Jerome 



EBION. 
that the Kct waa llouriibing in (he d: 
(a. d. cir. 40D), though wilb ita opiiuong mucn 
modified and CbriatiiuiKd, irutemuch u it did not 
denre to fone the ceremonial law upon the Oen- 
lilea, and fullj admitted the authority of St. PhuL 
It 11 needleu to trace iti pngreM fitrther, for in 
bet Ebianiim ii only ihs type of a lyalem which, 
in different forma, and adapted to Tarioui ciicum- 
itBDcn, hai nappeared from time to lime in almoit 
■11 agn of the Churcb. With regard to Ebion 
bioiKl^ hil exjilence i* reiy doubifuL The fint 
peraon wbo uurU it ii Tertullioo, who a followed 
by AugDitine, Jerome, Epiphaniui, nnd Theodoret. 
The Uiier, bowerer («««■. Fab. iL 318), after 
laying, ra&nts T^r ^"stAiryyoj ^p^'^ 'EffEsffv, adda, 
rdr rruxi' ii oShiat el 'ESpaioi upoaaryipiioiiirir, 
which may be compared with the derivation given 
for tbe name of the aecl by Origen (omfr. Ctli. ii. 
1), wbo conaJdETt it formed from tbe Hebrew 
word Kbionrpsor, and knowa of no luch peraou aa 
the auppoaed foonder Ebion. Modem wrilen, ei- 
peciall; Matter (Hiiioiri dn GMntidime, tdL iL 
p. 320) and Neander (in an sppendii to bia Otnf- 
(ucig Entteidiriiaig der vonukiaita Gnottitckc Sift- 
tAiM,Berlia,]elS,BndaIaDin iiii KiriieiigacUdite, 
t. p. 612, &c) deny Ebion'a eiittence ; thougb 
Lightfool inya, that be ia mendoned id tbe Je- 
nulem Talmud a* one of tbe fonndera of 
•ecu. The anthoriliea on both aidei of the qac»- 
iJon are ginn by Burton. [Bamplon I^Oara, note 
SO.) If we reject tbe eiittcnce of Ebion, we muat 
mioft Origen'i derivsiion, thougb not witb the ei- 
planation which be aitggeata, that it refen to the 
poierty of the Ebionile creed ; for auch a name 
could not haie been choaen by ihentelvea, unee it 
would hare been in that leaie a repniach i nor 
giren by the Chriatiana of Gontile origin, who 
would not hare eboaen a tide of Hebrew derivB- 
tion. It i> betlerto auppoie that the name Ebion- 
itea WOB originally applied to an aicelic locI, and 
gradually extended to all the Judaiiing Chtiatiani. 
For Bome of the aicetic Ebiooitei thought it wrong 
to poaiea* anything beyond that which wai abao- 
Intely neceaaary for their daily lubdatenee, holding 
that the preient world, not in ill abuae, but in ila 
leiy nabite, ii tbe eutuure domain of Satan. 
Tbia ia Nnndet'i eiphtnation. [Q. E. L. C. J 



4,i,.=.otGoOQ[c 



2 BCHBDEHU8. 

BBURNUS, Ml agnonmi of Q. FaUui Mui- 
miu, wb« wiu emmd in k. c^ 1 16, [Maxtkub.] 
•BCOrMUS. [DuioPHiMBi.] 

FCDICUSCEcSuuuX > l^cedMBimaaa, wu 
•mt out niib eight ihipt, in b. c. 391, to put down 
tb* donocntic ftttt in Rhndet. On hi* uriial 
howcTM at Cniditi, Iw fannd tbat th« farce* of hit 
oiniiinaili doabled hi* own, and he wm therefDrs 
oUiged to remain inaetiTt^ The Idcedaemonisoi, 
when they hsud that he wm not in a conditian to 
eSeet ■nnhiog, leut T^ntiu with a larger innar 
HKmt to luperwde him. <Xen. Hull. ir. S. H SO— 
23 i comp. Dioi liT. 79, S7.) [E.E.1 

ECEBO'LIUS C&niMAjoi), s lophiit of Con- 
Wantinople, who in the reign at Corutaatiae the 
Onat pretended to be a Chriitian, bat afterward*, 
in the tima of the emperer Jnlias, eondocled him- 
■elf u a aealon* pagin. (Said. •; «. ; Soerat. If. E. 
a IS.) [L. S.] 

ECECHEITIIA CEjfixevfa)! tli»t "S the ni- 
miittcs or truce, which waa pernnified and repic- 
■entcd a* a dirine being at the entrance of tiie tem- 
I^s of Zeaa at OlfRipta ; there wi* a ttatne of Iphi- 
tns which Ececheiiu wai in the act of crowning. 
(Pani. T. 10. g 3, Z6. g 2.) [L. S.] 

ECHECLUS ("Ex***"'). ■ »0n of Agenor, who 
WIU ilain hj AchiUeL (Mom. IL ix.*73; Fim*, i, 
27.) A TiDJan of the nms name occnn in the 
Iliad. (iTi. 6»2.) (L. S.^ 

ECHE-CRATES rEx«P*^). 1. A The.»- 
lian, waa one of thoH whom the miniiten of Pto- 
lemy Philopator, when they were preparing for 
war with Aotiochui the Great in B. c 219, ent- 
ployed ia the leiying of troop* and theii arrange- 
ment into aeparate corapanie*. He wai entniited 
with the commiuid of theOreek force* in Ptalemy'i 
pay, and of all the mercenary caTBliy. and did 
good •erriM in the war, especially at Uie battle of 
R^hiainntan. (Poiyb. t. 63. 65, 8-2, 85.) 

S. Son of Dometrio* of Cyrene by Olympiai of 
lariiiB, and brother of Antigonn* Thxan. He 
had a ion named Antigonn* after hi* uncle. (Lit. 
iL 61 ; aee ToL L pp. 1R7, 169,b.) [E. E.] 

ECHE'CRATES ("Ex'-V^rin), the namo of 
three Pythajpr«io pbUoiopher*, menliooed by 
lamblichni. {FO. /y*. ad fin.) 

I. A Locnan. one of thoie to whom Plato i> 



iction. (Cic. dt Fm. y. 
Valeria* Ma]iiniui{diL 



2. A Taienline, probably the nine who ia men- 
^ned in Plat. Ep. 9. 

3. Of Phlina, wu contemporary with Ariatoi- 
enn* the Peripatetic. (Ding. Laert. liii. iS; comp. 
GclLiT. 11; Fabric. fltU.C-n»icL p. S61.) [E.E] 

ECHECHATIDES ("Exftpmafli), a Peripa- 
tetic philoiopher, who ii mentioned among the 
diacinje* of AriMolle. He ia ipoken of only by 
Stei^aniu of Bnantjom (>. b. K^ISu/aa), ftom 
whom we Icam that he wai a nalire of Methymna 

BaTanl other peraooa of Ihi* name, concerning 
wbcD notiiing ia known beyond what i* contained 
in the paiaage* where they occur, are mentioned 
liy ThDcydidee (i. Ill), PanBiniai (i. 16. § 4), 
Adiao ( V. H. i. 3S), Locian (TVnwa, 7), and by 
Anyte in the Oteek Anthology. (vL 133.] [L. S.] 

ECHEDE'MUS [Echrhur.] 

ECHEDB'MUS {'Ex'8<vu<), the chief of the 
Athenian embaety which wai aent, in a. c. 190, to 



ECHEPOLUS. 
meet Pnblioa and Laeiaa Sdpjo at Amphim, and 
to obtain peace for (he Aetoliana. When the con- 
■ol Lncin* refuaed to recede from the hard tenn* 
which had been already propoeed by the aenatc, 
the Aetoliani, by the adrice of Echedemn*, applied 
ibr and obtained a truce of aii month*, that they 
might ania acnd ambaiadon on the aab}cct to 
Rome. (Polyb. mL a, 3; Lit-xurii. 6,7.) [E.E,J 

ECHB'MBROTOS ("Ex^fiefwrot), an Anadian 
Aule-player (odAfiUi], who gained a priie in the 
Pythian game* about 01. 4B. 3 (a. c 6S6), and 
dedicated a tripod to the Thehan Henu^ with 
an inaniption which ii ptnerred in Pananiaa (i. 
7. § 3), and from which we learn that he wen the 
priia by hi* melie poem* and elegiei, which were 
inng to the accompaniment of the flate. [L. $.] 

ECME'HENES ('Ex<fUn|i), it mentioned by 
Athenaeiia (liiL p. 601) aa tha anlhor of K^nrrund, 
from which a atatement relating to tho mythical 
hiitoryofCreteia thereqnoled. Voarioi { A tfirf. 
ffmeo. p. 436, ed. Weaterm.) pnpoiea to n«d in 
Fnlgentini {MytkoL i. U), Echemenea tor Euie- 
mene*, who i* there api^en of aa the author of 
MaSaXur/oiiaiia, of which tho lir*t book i> quoted. 
BdI thia conjcctaro ia witbout eDopott. [L. S.1 

E'CHEMON (Ix'*^). a >on of Priam, who 
wB* killed, with hubroUieTChronuns,byI>iaincdra. 
(Horn. 11. J. 160 : Apollod. iii. 12. g 5.) [L. 8.) 

E'CHEMUS f^x«*"0. a aon of Aeropui and 
grandson of Cephena, aucceeded Lycurgn* aa king 
oFAnadia. (Paiu.TiiL4.$7.) He wa* married 
to Timandra, a daughter of Tyndanmt and Leda. 
(Apollod. iii. 10. g 6.) In hi* naga the Doriani 
invaded Peloponneiui, and Bcbemo* auccaeded in 
alaying, in aingle combat, Hyllni, tho ton of Hera- 
clea (PauB.TiiL5. $ 1, 45. $2; Scbcd. ad Pimi. 
OL T. 79.) The light waa beliered to hate oc- 
culted on the frontier, between Corinth and Me- 
gaia, and in the latter place Hyllni waa buried. 
(Pani.i4l.$3,44.{14.) After the Ul of Hyl- 
]q* the Heracleidae were obliged to promiae not to 



inonred with the prinlegB of a 
one whig of the Peloponnodan army, whenet er the 
inhabitanta of the penioanla nndertoolc an expedi- 
tion Bgainit a foreign enemy. (Herod, ix. 26 ; 
Diod. ir. fiS.) The Sght of Echemni and Hyllai 
wa* tepleaented on the tomb of Echemna at Teg«a. 
rn. . -■- g^ ^ ^^y According to Stephanna of 



Plutarch (7%K 32) olU* the Arcadian companion* 
of the IKoicnri Echcdemoi and Maralhna. [L.S.) 

ECHENE'US CExi-^i), the eldeat among the 
noble* of Aldnoua in the iilond of the Phaeaciana. 
(Hom. Od. Tii. 155, li. S41.) [L. S.] 

ECHEPHRON CExt*p-r)- 1. A aon of He- 
nclei and Paophi*, the daughter of Xantbiu or 
Eryi. He wai twin-brother of Promachu, and 
both had a henvm at Paophii. (Paoi. tiiL 24. 

§§>.'■) 

2. A aon of Neater by Emrdioa or Auuibia. 
(Hom.CM. iiL413; Apatlod.Li>. S9-) A third 
Echephron i* mentionod in ApoUodonti. (iiL 1 2. 
§5.) [L.S.] 

ECHEPRY'LLIDES CEx<4«AJinhii^, a gram- 
mariao or bialorian, who ii mentioned by Slephanu* 
of Bycantium (i. d. 3fiwTi|pla), and by the Scho- 
liaat on Plato'i Phaedon (p. 383). [L. S.) 

ECHEPffLUS CEximXot). Vu Homeric 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



ECHIDNA. 

• of tbU Duiw, the 
in"l^AntUiiehu.(/i.iT. I 
U7, &£,)«' mi Ae olber ■ Stepmrn, vfao nude , 

ilgiwww ■ rmrnl iif thi mn-- fl -'*-' ' '" 

Mt u bt oUigtd to ■conniiMiT him to Tnj. {IL 
i,3i.a93.*t) IL,S.] 

ECHBSTRATOS ('ExfcTpoTM), loa of Agi. L, 
■nd tUid of tb> Agid Hh of Bpamn kings. In 
lu icipi tiw diitnet of Cjnnia on tbc AigivB 
bi^ MM radoeed. He «u tlu &tbu of Ubotu 
gr laabotM. king t£ Sfnta. (Piiu, iii. 2. S 3 ; 
Hand. <u. 204.) [A.H.C] 

ECUETI'MUS CEx^ifwtX of Sii?tiii, wu 
dwlnBhaBdof'Nkigiin,wboirwbeliaTed tobate 
Inaght tba iiDMi at Aidepiu, in the bnn of a 
^■ggoifan Efidsarn to Si^on, on ■ car dnwn 
hj Bolta. (Puia. iL 10. $ 3.) [L. S] 

ECHETLUS fCxvliH). > mTNcrion* bemg, 
■Imt ^MDi the fidkiwing tndition mi cuinat at 
AAaB. Dnnnf the btnis of HuathoD then ap- 
fiBiiil MBSDK the Gneka a man, who rwimbled ■ 
mtk, and Sew vi^iy of tba bubariaiu with hi> 
flo^ Afi(t the faatlla, iriian ba wat Hwched 
fw, b* WW not lo ba fimod anfwbcR, and when 
th« AtheniaBi coiunlled the oncle, thej were com- 
II ■■lull to wonhip the hem Eehetlaeui, that ii the 
bn with ^ ix^tt^ or plangfaihaie. Edietliu 
an to be aam in the paintiua in the Potdle, 
■bib icscneDlad the haule of Maiathoi. (Pans. 
LIS. J 4, 32. 8*) [L.S.1 

SrCUETUS t^x*<*')T ■ ^°<I hing of Eprinu, 
wiM waa tba letfm tf all mortali. He was a hd 
•f Ead«n« and Phlogea. Hit daughter. Metope 
K AnphiaB, who bad jielded to the embneei of 
hs Incr Acehnodieaa. waa Uinded by her father, 
■d Aalaaodkoa waa cnMO* motilated. Echetat 
fanhn fnt hi* dao^Uer mm barieTOinii, pto- 
nng ta lealOR bcr Bgbti if ihe would grind than 
kae lonr. (Hodl Od. iriiL BS, Ac, ixi. 307 i 
tia-Oam. Rbod. ir. 1093 ; Euilath. ad Ham. p. 

ina:) [L. s.) 

ECHIDNA CEx-tM), a danf^ter of Tactaini 
a^ Oe (Apollod. ii. 1. g SX or of ChtTBor and 
Cd«rW (Uaood. Tlai^; 2SS), and acearding to 
MbMi again, of Pein* and Stji. (Pau. TiiL 18. 
4 1.) &^MrM waa a tponateri ha^ maiden and 
Uf «paBt,wilk Uadi ejai, fearfU and blood- 
thntf . She waa the dMOnctiui of man, and be- 
i^M bf Trfboa Ike mother of the Chimaera, of 
b ^Df-beaded dog Oitbn, of the hondred- 
bded diMOB wbo gnaided the ff^n of the He*- 
jBiiilia. of dw CddiiaB dngon, of the Sphinx, 
CaibiRia, SctUb, Onegoii, the Lamaan Hfdn, of 
At ca^ wh^l cDDBuiKd the linr of Prometheui, 
■ri (f the UtaimB lion. (Ha*, neag. 307, &c. ; 
Apollod. >L 3. 1 ], 5. §g 10, II, ill 6. §8; Hy- 
gio. FiA. Piaef. p. 3, and Fab. 151.) She wa* 
kSled in ber de^ 1^ Aign* Panoptea. (Apollod. 
n. 1, f 2.) Aeoinding to Hetiod ahe liiad with 
TjjAnn in a cmc ia the ooonliy of tba Aiinu, 
whenaa tba Ondn on the Eozine conoeiTed bar 
U bafa End fai Serthk. When Handea, the; 
■id, (Bniad amj the oxen of Oetjoae*, he ahn 
Tiated the eonntrf of the Sejthian*, which wa* 
then Mill a deaart. Once while he wa* aileep 
Abe, Ida b«ne* loddenl; dimppeand, and wlieu 
be woke and wandcnd abanl in Meich of Ihem, he 
ease into til* eoontiy of Hjlan. He then feand 
tW —BMir KAidM in a earn When be aaked 
whtlbtr abe knew anjtbing abant hia honn, *he 
V that Ibarwoain hai 



ECHO. 8 

bat that ahe would not give them up, imleM he 
wonld GiBuent to atay wiui bet for a time. Hera- 
dea complied with the reqneat, and became by kei 
the tathet of Agithym*, Oelonui, and Scythea. 
The la*t of them bemma king of the Scythian*, ae- 
cordinf[ lo hi* Kuher'i utanaement, became ho wa* 
(he only one among the three bmthei* that ws* 
able to mana^ the bow which Hende* had left 
Iwhind, and to nn hit bther** giidle. (Hemd. ir. 
8—10.) [L. S.] 

ECHI'IiADES. [AcHiLODS.] 

ECHI'ON CExl"). 1. One of the five anr- 
rinng ^larlae that had grown up from the dn- 
nn'i teeth, which Cadinn* bad aown. (Apollod. 
liu *. g 1 ; Hrein. FaL 17B ; Or. MA iii. 128.) 
He irai mairied to AisTe, by whom he beooie the 
GUher of Penthen*. (Apollod. iii. & § 2.) He i* 
nid to hare dedicated a temple of Cybele in Boe- 
otia, and to haTc ainited Cadmna in the building 
of Thebei. (Of. MtL 1.6S6.) 

2. A (on of Henaei end Ajilianeiia at Alope. 
(Hygin. FiJi. U ; Apollon. Rhod. L £6.) He wai 
a twin-brothei of £rytni or Eoiytn*, together with 
whom he took put in the Calydonian hunt, and in 
the expedition of the Argonaut*, in which, a* the 
wn of Hennes, he ncted the part of a conning «py. 
(Find. PfO. iT. 179 ; Or. Aftt. Tiii. 311 ; cdiii;l 
Oipb. Ari^iM. 134, where hi* mother i* called 
Laothoe.) A third penonage of thii name, one of 
the giinta, ia mentioned by CUndian. (OiaaaL 
104.) [L. S.] 

ECHI'ON, a ountet and riataaiy, who flon- 
tiehed in the 107Cli Olympiad (b. c 353). Hi* 
moit noted pictnn* were the following: Father 
Liber ; Trugedy and Comedy ; Semirami* pa**ing 
from tlie ilale of a handmaid to that of a qneen, 
with Ba old woman carrying torche* before hei ; in 
thi* picture the modeaty of the now bride wa* nd- 
miiably depicted. He ii ranked by Pliny and 
Cieeio with the Eraleit painter* of Greece, Apelie*, 
Helanthiui, und Nicomschn*. (Plin. iiiiT. 8. e. 
19[ iTiT. 7. ».32i 10.1.36. B.").) The picture 
in the Vatican, known u ** the Aldobrandiiu Mai- 
liage," ii nippHed by Kme to bo a copy from the 
<* Bride " of Echion. ( Engler, llaitdlmck d. Kioat^ 
jenL p. 336 1 HilBer, ^rci, d. KiaH, S 1 40, S.) 
Hirt inppoael that Uie name of the painter of 
Alexander'* marriage, whom Lucian pruiK* an 
highly, AiTioN, ii a conaption of Echion. (Ceial. 
i. IliU. Kinlt, pp. 265—266.) [F. S.] 

E'CHlUa C^X"".) Two mythical pereonage* 
of thi* nanw oocnr in the Iliad ; the one a Unwk 
and a ion of Hediten*, wa* *l*in by PoKte* (nii. 
333, XT. 339), and the other, a Trojen, wa* lUin 
by Polioclo*. (x<i 416.) (L. S.] 

ECHO ('Hx°l), an Oreade, who when Zeui waa 
playing with the nymphi, nied to keep Hen at a 
diitanoa by inceaMntly talking lo her. In thii 
manner Hen wa* not able to detect her feilhleu 

Hen, bowvier, f 

pnniihed Echo by changing bei i 

ii, n being with no contioiu over iti tongno, which 

ii neither able to ipeak befen anybody die baa 

ipokpn, nor to be ulent when lomebody die hsi 

*poken. Echo in thii itate fell deipoately in love 

with Nardmi*, but a> her lore wai not ntutned, 

■ha inned away in grief, *o that in the end there 

renunned of her nothing but her Toice. (Ot. Mel. 

iii SM— 401.) There were in Qreece certain 

pocticoci, called the Porliosea of Eeba, on account 



,.,.., Gof>Jlc 



4 ECPHANTIDES, 

oT tha echo wbich waa hvrd th«v ; thu, there 
wu one Its at Hennione with n threefold, uu! 
OK M Oljinpia wilii ■ Kienfsld echo. (Pimg. ii. 
S5.g6,*.21.g7.) Coni^aleWieAtt, Die Nyn^ 



gen, 1S44. [U S.J 

ECLECTUS « ELECTU3, origiroUj. it would 
appear, tbe freedmui of U Verua. after whoee 
death he enjoyed tha pntfcdon of M. Anreliua, 
became Bubseqaently the chamberlain of Ummidioi 
Qnadrstui, tmd after hit dntniclion waa choten to 
fill the tune office in tbe hoagebold of Commodui. 
The circumttaDcet under wbich EdKtita, in con- 
junction with Idetni and Morcia, contrived the 
death of Uie tyinni and then forced the vacant 
thnne upon Pertinu, along with whom he eTcntn- 
alty periihed an deacribed eltewbere. [Coh- 
HODin; Laiti'Si Mihcia; Piatinax.] 

(Capitolin. Vrr. 9, ezpteiil; decbirea ^t Qit 
Eclectui who wa* the fivedmon of Vcnu wna the 
individual who mnrdered CommBdu*, while in 
Dion CaHioa, luiL t, be it tirHL inlndDCeil )u the 
chamberlain of Quadiulni. See alu Didq Caaa. 
Uxii. 19, 22, liiiiL 1 ; Capitolin. PertiM. 4. 11 ; 
Herodian,!. .^1, &c^ii. 1; Zonar. liL 5.) [W. R.] 

Q. ECLO'OIUS or EULO'OIUS. According 
to tbe commonly leeeiied text of Sueti>niai(r>te/J: 
I ), Q. Batagiai or Enlagiiu ma the author of a 
little work on the biitory and getwalng; of the 
Vilellii, in which tbe aiigjn of the (unily WM 
tfaced from Faunui, king of the Aboriginei. Il 
muit be remarked, hoverer, that the eriitence of 
a writer bearing thii appellation dependa npon a 
conjectural emendation of Catanbon, who luppaaea 
that hi> Dune at foil length waa Q. ViielHia Bdogiia 
or BalagiMt, and that he waa a beednuui of the 
empenrwhoae pedigree he inFetiigaled. [W. R.J 

ECPHA'NTIDES C^t^an-lBiii), an Athenian 
comic poet of the old comedj, Souriihed after 
Magnea, and a little before Cratinaa and Tele- 
clndei. (Nake, CAomJat, p. 63.) He u called 
by Aipariut (ad Arlilot. ElL. \lcon. iv. S) tvv 
JfX'^' n^awTBTDr vonri^r, which woida aome 
wrilera onderatand ai implying that he waa 
older than Cbionidea and Magnet. But we havi 
the clear teitimonj of Ariatotle (PoeA V. 3), that 
all the poeta before Magnea fumitbcd their cho- 
ruw> at their own eipente, wheiwi the name 
of a (lerton who wat chongoi lor Ecphantidea it 
mentioned alao by Ariatotle. {PoUt. viii 6.) 
Again, a oertain Androdea, to whom Cialinua and 
Telecleidet oOen refer, wat alto attacked by £c- 
phantidea, who could uot, therefore, have flouriaked 
long before tboae poeta. {SchoL Ariatoph. Vap. 
1162.) The date of Eqihantidea may be placed 
■bout OLeO(lkC 460), and onwardi. The mean- 
ing of the tumame of Kairviai, which wni given to 
Ecphantidet by hia rivala, boa been much ditputed, 
but it leema to imply a mixture of aubtlety and 
otncurity. Ha ridiculed the rudeneaa of the old 
MBgaric comedy, and waa himielf ridicJiled on the 
tame ground by Ciatinni, Ariatophanct, and 
othera. (Uetych. a v. Kmrlai ; SchoL Aiiitoph. 
Vap. I£l i Niike, datril. p. 52 ; Lehra, Qwe^ 
£)<ic. p. 23 { Meioeke, p. S6.] 

There it only one certain title of a pby by Ec- 
it, namely, the Ximipiu, a Udo of 
red by AUienaeua {iii. p.96, b, c). 
Another ptaj, ni!piiv»i, ia aacribed to him by 
Nake on conjectural grounda; but Melneke aa- 
eiibet it to Aiitiphauea. Another title, Ai^wroi, 



EGILIUS. 
it obtained by Niike fn 

(i. r. Eitu) with Hephaeation (iv^ 1 3, p. 96, Ouai. ; 
aee Oaitford^ note). Ecphantidet waa aaid to have 
been aaiialed in componiig hit playt by hit alare 
Caoaaiiua. [P. S.] 

K'UKCOM CEJiKBv), an Iberian chief, called 
Edeaco by Livy. He came to Sdpo at Tamco, 
in B. c. 209, and oflned to anmnder himaelf " to 
the &ith of the Romana,** requeatinjf, at the aonre 
time, that bit wife and children, who were among 
ihe hottagea that bad Men iuto Scipio't bandi at 
the oiptiire of New Carthage, might be rettored to 
him. Scipio gnnted faiapTayeT,Bnd thereby grcaily 
increased the Roman influence in Spain. 

Edecon waa the tirat chief who, after the rvtieml 
of Haadrubal to the Pvnnees, tahited Scipio ai 
king, — a homage which the latter knew betlir 
than toaccepL (Polyb. I. S4, 35, 40; Lir. xiviL 
17,19.) [F, E.] 

EDO'NUS CHt»r<tV the mythical anecttor of 
Ihe Edonet in Thrace. (Stepb. Bya. i e. 'Hiamai.) 
The name ia therefore UKd alao in the tenae of 
"ThraDan," and aa Thrace waa one of the principal 
aeaUof the worehip of Dionyaui, it further aignifiea 
" Diony^ac" or " fiaccluuttic." (Ov. Acn. Am. 
693 ; Hor. Gim. iL 7. 27.) [U &} 

EDU'LICA or EDUSA, a Banan divinity, 
who mu worahipped aa the pnteclreaa of children, 
and waa believed to bleaa their food, jutt aa Polina 
and Cuba bleaaed their drinking and their aleep. 
{Augnitin, de at. Dei, iv. II ; Vans, op. Nim. 
p.lDB; Arnob. iii. 25; DonaUni rimt y'lorni. 
I 1. II.) lUS.] 

EERIBOEA. [EaiBOiA.] 

EETION CHtvIaw), aking of the Placiaa Theba 
in CiUcia, and father of Andromache and Podea. 
(Mom. IL vi. 39R, xviL 575.) He and aeven of 
hia tont were tiain by Achillea (/(. vi. 415, &c.), 
who propoaed the mighty imn ball, which Eetion 
had once thrawn, and which bad coma into the 
poaaeiuon of Achillea, aa one of the pnaea at the 
funeral gnmet of Patmlui. {IL XXiii, S2'i, Jtc) 
Among the booty which Achillea made in the 
town of Eetion, we find etpecial mention of the 
bona Pedatua and tbe phoimini with a ailver 
neclc, on which Achillea played in hit tenL (//. 
XV. 153, ii. 1B6.) There are two other mythical 
penonaoea of Ihia name. (IL Ili. 40, Ac ; Pana. 
iL4.|4.) [US.] 

EOE'RIA. [AboUia.] 

EGE'RIUS, tha MO of Anini, who wat tho 
brother of L. TarqniniDa Priacua [ABtms,No. I], 
waa born afW the death of hia fiitber ; and at De- 
maiatua,the &ther of Arunt,died ahoKly after tha 
death of hia aou without knowing tliat hit danghter- 
in-hiiv waa piegnant, none of hit property waa left 
to Egeriut, from which ciicumitanee, according to 
tbe legend, he derived hia name. When the town 
af Cdlatia waa taken by hia uncle Tarquiniul 
PriKUB, Bgeriua wai left in command of the phue. 
and henceforth received, accolding to Dionyuua, 
the anniame of CoUatinut (thou^ thit name ia 
utually confined to hiatonL.TarqDiniaaCollatinna). 
EgErioi wat aftcrwardt lent againtt Fidenae in com- 
Diand of the allied forest of Home. [CoLLAriNUa.] 
(Liv. L 34, 38 ; Uionyt. ill 50, 57, comp. iv. 64.) 

EOESI'NUS. [HaoaaiNUa] 

EOESTA. [Aoamaa.] 

L. EOI'LIUS, one of the three comnittioiien 
who anperintended the faui>dation of the colony 
plaoledM LiKa,Kcl77. (Ut.i1117.) [aP.M.J 

D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EQNATIUSl 
EONATTA OBNS, ■ bnilrnf Sunnile origin, 
■■eUlaalof ahoni Httled it Tenlnni. A I the 
mi of lh« nuj war the greater port of tbfr 
pMT IS bin imoTcd lo Roma, whan two of tbein 
nnidmitled iBUtbtiBmtt(CicprtiC!Mail.*B), 
tkn^ 1 boDch of the bmilj Menu itill to ' 
MBined u Touam. (Qc oii JK tL 1, mei 
« Epvlia KdioDU*.) We fiad tha folic 
■BBBH botiK bf mmben of thu gem : Cblik, 
UiiiMUU. RurOB, and Veiiatiu& [C. P. M.] 
EGNATIA UAXIHJLLA, a dewenduit 
dm hmch of the EgnMia gent which bote ti 
wnaw (f Manmui, ii inentiDned by TadCiu 
(i-. n. 71) u Uhi wif^ of GKcio* Oalhu, who 
■H buutbed bj the anpenr Nam. She aceran- 
(UHt ktr hubmd in Itia exile. [C. P. H.] 

EONATIUS. I. Guxiin EaMiTiui, wu 
lain of the SamnilM in the third gteat Swniiile 
nr, riidi bnke oat K c 29S. Bj the aid of 
in Homi anfaign, the Bannitea appealed en- 
UEt^Bbdaed; hot in the Ibllowing r«r Qellioi 
Epitia maiched into Etnria, DOtwithMmdiiig 
lie |R*cace of tiie RoDiana in Sunniun, and 
Kwcd the Etnioni to a cine OHipenitiaD agahiit 
R«K. TUi had the effixl of withdnwing the 
Uiau troopa for a time bran Samniiini ; but the 
faM of the cooCederatea weie defialed bj the 
calmed atmia of tbe cmuula L. Volnomiu sod 
Ap^ QaDdisfc In the fbnrtfa auDjiaign (b. c. 
293] Bputraa indnced the Oanla and Umbnuu 
>> jam the anledfTacj ; but in anueqnenee of the 
nhdnval of the EtrnKana and Unhriana, tlie 
Gull and Smnilei fell back bejocd the Apen- 
>ia«, ad win nut b; the Romaiu near the 
<°«9 of Soitinmn. A deauTe battle, lignalized 
tf A« hemic delation nf P. Deciiu, ennied, m 
^itk the cnfrdente angy wa* defaced, and 
Epatiu lUii. (Lir. s. lft-39.) 

± UtMim BanxTtuB, ow of the wineipal 
■aloi <f the Italian aDia in the kkM « MatMa 
n.«UchtnieoDtB.cM. He wu donbllea 
wrf tboae twehe aanaandaa, who won to be 
■ktwa Jtt ^ year by the aOiea, to »erTe Doder 
mMink(Diad./>m.Ti^z.p.1S6,ed.Bin.} 
liLiTheitcaDedtbelnderoftheSaninitei. tho 
fan tf U( eipMt* wUdi we ban mentioned ii the 
cqtve of Vena&iun, of which he made himielf 
»^ thnagh tnaeheiy, and where he deatniyed 
mtdnrtt. Not loDgalter.nearTtaDiin], in ade- 
Sleiit Mont Uaaieni, be lell uneiptiledly on the 
m it the eonnl L. Caeaar, irtich he pat to 
•PU The Ramani fled to Tunrani, but low a 
(«» loaber of men in troMing the Saio, oier 
nA tboe wa> bat a angle bridge. In the fal- 
hnf jcar Egnaliiu wai killed in battle with the 
'naa mia the pnwton a Coecmhu and Lue- 
"»■ (Ui.i^lzzT.; A|;namAaL40,4l, 

ll let heen iigenieody tmjeetnied (by Preeper 
«™*e. in fail Emai m la Omenw SadaU) Oun. 
w IL Ibrint of Sididnum mentiDned by A. Gel- 
«" « img mat euUatit mobilitnaua iomo, and 
™ "»• liMed with inch gna indignity by one 
•fthe modi, ptobably of the yor B. c 123, wu 
"wi the bthtr or a near nlaliie of Harini Eg- 

I Ck. EsiutlD*, a man of someiriiBt dinepo- 
"'" r*'*'^°^> ^'" ndmitted into the Ronan ae- 
■■■^<■t■l■nb■eqnenllyenelled by the eeiuota, 

*■ biuiii^ * MD of the fonwr, wh, like hit 



EILEITHYIA. S 

Guher, a member of ibe lenate, and retained that 
digni^ when hit falhei'i name wu itruck off the 
rotli. He wu diiinheiited by hii &thei. (<^ 
pro OiHtL 48.) 

fi. EoNATiua, probably ■ mn of No, 4, accnm- 
panied Ciauiii on hit expedition agiintt the Pir- 
thisns, and aAei the great defeat which Ciauu 
HiMauKd (b. c. 53 ), eicaped from the Keoe of the 
diiutei with 300 banemen. (Plut. Onuiut, 'i7.) 
Appian [B. C. i*. 31) mention! two Egnitii, 
bther and iod, who were included in the pcoicrip- 
tion of the year B. c. 43, and were tliin by a tin- 
gle blow, while locked in each other'i arnii, They 
were perh^» the lome with the two lut. 

6. EoNATiUB SiniciNUS, mentioned by Cicera 
ai having had tome money traniactiant with him. 
(AdAU. tL 1. g SS.) [Egnaiia Oinb.] 

7. EoNATiuH, a poet who wrote beioie VirxiL 
Hacmbiui {SaL Ti. 6) qnolei ionw linn froro nil 
poem Dt Rnm ffaOmi. [C P. M.] 

EONATULEIUS, the name of ■ plebeian geni 
at Rome. The name! of two only belonging to it 
hate come down to di. 

1. C. EoNATULUUB, c F., whole name ii fbnnd 
npon a OUQ figured below. The obTerH Teprelenti 
the head of Apollo with C. Eunatvlii. C. (F.), 
and the rererte Victory and a tnpby, with 
IIoii(a) benealh. The letter Q indicatet that the 

Daetr. Nam. toLt. f, SOS.) 




2. h. EoNAruLiiiiB, wai qnaettor in the yeaf 
.C 44, and commaDded the fourth legion, which 
deterted from Antony to Odsiianiu. At a re- 
ward Ibr hit condnct on Ihit occaiion, Cicero pn>- 
poaed in the lenate that he abuutd be allowed lo 
hold pnbUc oAlcea three yenri before the I<9il lima. 
(Cie. /*«. iii, S, 15, iT. 2, T. 19.) [C P. M.l 

EIIXyMENE (EShlUniX a dinghtar of Phent 
and wile of Aioythaan in Fyiot, by whom ahe be- 
ime the mother of Biu and Helampua (Apollod. 

9.gll.} In another paanage (ii. 3. g 3] Apoi- 
ludaniB talla her a dangbter of Abat. [L. S.J 

EIDOTHEA (ElSMa), a dunghter of the 
_ed Pmtent, who initmcted Henehui, in the it- 
land of Phanii at the month of the riier Aegyptui, 
in what manner he might teeura her hther umI 
compel him to ny in what way he ifaould return 
home. (Ham. Od. it. W6, &c) 

There are three other mythical pertonaget of 

ia name. (Hygin. Fab. 182; Schol ad Soph. 

Htig. 972; Anton. Lib. 30.) [L. S.) 

EILEITHYIA (EbifSua), alio called Elei- 
thyia, Eilelhyia, or Eleutho. The andenti deiiTe 
' er name from the Terb i^iiSto; according to 
rbich it would lignify the coming or helping god- 
eat. She waa the goddev of birth, who came to 
he aanatance of wcmen in hboor; and when the 
ini kindly diipoied, ihe furthered the birth, but 
when the wu angrfi i^ protracted the labour 
and delayed the bHh. Thetv two functioot were 
originallT aaiigned to difierent EtAiitfvlai. (Horn, 
IL xL 270, ivL 187, lii. 103 ; comp. Paub i. 44. 
g3; Heaych.i. n. EiAtiSulu.) Sub»]uently, faow- 
tnf, hotii fnnctioDt w«re aitiibnted 10 one diti- 

b,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



ELA0ABALD8. 






carding te tbo Iliad tha ^ddiyias 
of Hen, the gsddcM nf muriiua, vbina the/obsT- 
ed. (Kam./i:.iii.119; comp. Find. JVinn. Tii. init.; 
Ot. ma il. 285, Ac; Anton. Lib. 39,] An«d- 
ing lo Hdood [Titas. 923) Ztnu mi the blher oS 
EUeitbTu, Mid (he n* the litter of Hebe ind 
Am, (Apdlod. L S. S 1.) Artemu and GUeithTia 
wen oriouiallj tctj difinant dirini^, but Ukis 
were itiU tmne fntnre* id thair chaiacten whkh 
•llerwardi made them DeoHj IdeutkaL Artemii 
wna lielieied to avert etil, and to protect what woa 
jDiuig and tender, and eometiDiea ahe otsd uualed 
women in labonr. Artemii, morcorer, WM, like 
Eilcithyia, a maiden divinilyj and allhongh tlie 
latter wai the dinghter of (he godden of nuuriage 
uid the dinne midwiie, neither biubaDd,iiorloTer, 
nor diildrtD of her an mentioned. She pudabad 
wantofchailitjrbyiiKreaanglhe paliu at Iha birth 
of a diild, and waa tberafbre (tared ty maidena. 
(Theocrit. uviL SB.) Freqncnl Inrtba, too, wna 
di^eaiing to bet. la an anneiit hnmi attributed 
lo Glen, vhich waa aimg in Deloi, EUaithjia waa 
called the mother of Eioi. (Pbuj. i 18. g 5. iz. 37. 
§2.) Her wonhip appran to haTa been Gnt 
eilabltthed among the Doriaoa in Crete, whete 
■he wBi botiaTad to hare been bom in a care id 
the (emtoTj of Cnonna. From thence her wor- 
ahip ipread oTer Deloa and Allica. Aceordiog to 
a Delian tradition, Bileithyia waa not bem in 
Crete, bat had come lo Deloa from the Hypeibo- 
reotu, tar the porpaee of aauating Leto. (Uenid. 
iT. 35.) She bad a anctoarj at Athene, cooCaiD- 
ing three caired Imagea of the goddeaa, which were 
coTtied all otci down to the toee. Two wen be- 
.liered to baTO been piewnled bj Phaedn, and 
the (bird to hare been brought bj Errnchthoa 
bom Deloa. (Paoa. i. B. § Ifi.j Her MatnH, how- 
enr, were not thua covarad ererrwhere, aa Paiua- 
uiaa Biaeria, fbc at Aegion then waa one in 
which the head, handa, and (eat wem onoorand. 
(Paul. Tii. S3. B 5.) She hod aanctnariea in fn- 
rioua pbKoa, anch aa Sparta (Pane. iiL 17. 9 1. 11. 
g6), Oeitor (i>iii. 21. § 2), Heasene (it. 31. g 7), 
Teg« (viiL *a. % S), Megan (i. U.%S), Het- 
miona (iL ZS. 96), and other placea, 

The Elionia, who waa worahipped at Ai^oa aa 
the goddeaa of birth (Pint. <^aaL Rom. 49). waa 
probably the ama aa Eileithjia. (fiiiltiger, Rr 
Ufis «fer dia ffon, Weimar, 179S ; MiiUer, Dor. 
ii.2.§R) [L.S.1 

EICTNEUS fHiorefi}, a atm of Magsea, and 
one of the aoiton of Hippodameia, waa alain bj 
Oeoomaua. (Paoa. tL 31. § 7 i SchoL ad Bartp. 
Pioem. 1748.) Than are three other mythical 
penonagaa of thii name. (Horn. ILriLll, I.A35; 
flu.) [L. S-l 

EUtrNE (Eip<H). 1. Tbe goddeaa of peace. 
After the TJctory of Timotheua over the [^cedae- 
moniana, altan wen erected to her at Athena at 
the public erpenae. (Cwn. Nep. T^auli. 2 ; Plut. 
CSm. 13.) Her alatne at Alhem itood b; the aide 
of that of Amphianuu, tairjing in ita arm* Plutna, 
the |{od of wealth <pBna. i. R. g 3), and another 
itood near that of Healia in the PirtaoaiDa. (L IB, 
§ 3.) Al Rome too, when peace (Pai) wai wot- 
Aipped, she had a magnificeut temple, which vu 
buul by the emperor Veapaaiau. (SucL V'apiu.9; 
Pana. iL 9. § 1.) The tigjun of Bitm or Pai 



in the act of bnmiag a pile of ami, or farrrii^ 
corn-ean in her hai^ or Dpon hv hand. (Hilt. 
MfOoL BOderb. iL p. 104.) 

2. A dan^tar af Poaeidon and Hdanthea, from 
whom the ialand of Calamia waa, in aatljr timea, 
mlled Qnne. (Plat. QufA Gr. IS.) [L.8.] 

ELAEU'SIUS CEIUuofoiei), if tbe lonne be 
coirect, mnit ban lived in or befbn the flrat 
century after Chtiat, aa he ia quoted by Sonniia 
(^^rteO(«Mr.p.210X who call* bun one of tba 
followen of Aadepiadea, and By* he waa one of 
thoae phyatoani who conBdered tl 
certain diaeeae* peculiar to the fim 
poaition to aome othn medical wii 
the eonmry opmion. He wrote a « __ 

diKtue* {Xfina), of which the thirtaaith beok ia 
lefaiad to by Sofaniu, but of which nothing now 
temaia*. [W. A. O.] 

ELAOA'BALUa Ths Roman empsror ccan- 
monly known by thii name, waa the am of Jolia 
Soenuai and Seitua Varioi Maraellna, and Grat 
conaln onoe reoored lo Caracalk. [See genealogiiB) 
table prefixed to the artkia Cabacalla.] Ho 
wn horn al Email about A. ti. 203, and waa 
niginally called V Aaius A vrrca RiaaiAHDa, a aeties 



a h^ 



of appdJatiiHia deiirad from fa 



>i(Vari 



iBr(Aril .,. . _ 

gnndbther (Baauaona). While yet afanoat ■ 
diild he becaiBa, along with hi* Srat eonain Alex- 
ander Senni^ prieat of Hagabaln^ tba ^m- 
"' Su-god, to whoa* wonhip a gofgeooa 



kr T""*'*ff by hia giandmother, Jnlia Maiaa Sba 
had laag enjoyed the mlandoun and dignitiia of 
the iB^nal court m ue eodety of her aiater, 
Julia Domna, the wih of Septimina Sereroa and 
the mother of Geta and Cnncalla. But after the 
mnrdci of tha tatter by Maoinua, Maaaa waa eom- 
pallad lo ntom to Syria, than to dwell in SD- 
nenonred ntircmoiL Whil* atiU amarting nndei 
a nrene pecnliariy piling to her hanghly taapexi 
the neeirod intalbgeDca that tbo army waa aliady 
diagnated by the paismoiy and rigid diadpfiae il 
Uku new mki, and wa* dgUw tor tbe litxniT 
enjoyed nnder hi* pndeceaaat. ICaeta, ahjlled in 
intrigaaa and fianiKai with nmilntiiD*, qnickly 



CDrnmette between Soemiaa and Caiacalla. The 
Iroopa atationed in tba ncinily to goaid the Phoe- 
nician border had afaeady leattfiad their a dn i iiat i u n 
of Iha youth, whan they had aeen i^on thair 
Tiiita to Emaaa graeefnlly pertu min g the inqmaiBg 
dntiea of hi* prieathood, and, having been fbitber 
uopitiated hy a liberal diatrihation of the wealth 
hcaj^ed by Maeia, were euily peramded to recaJTa 
Elagnbalna with hii whole &mily into tha nmp^ 
and to aalute him aa their lovereign by the title of 
M. Atuelina AnIoninua, a* if he had nally been 
the undonbted progeny and lawful heir of their 
bite mouorch. IboK proceeding* took place dq 
the IGlh otMay, A. D. 218. Hamnn* baeing le- 

b,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



ELAOABALUS. 
uJTCJ iiiiiiiMliiBi of wlot l»d itaffeneii, d«- 
ifirtnil Jilknu irith > bodj of tnopi to qoell 
Ika kwiRdnL But tfaew, inattad of obejiDg 



ikfaud in > tMda fai^ <m the bocdsn of S 
mi Pfc-r™**. aod hamu cMiped in diiguue 
— iflrod* d ku t Bi B^ bnmgfat bade, and pnt 
MdMk. [l[icmiHU&] Tlw conqonoc butaoed 
l•iMiod^fian wheace he fonnudod ■ IstCer to 
Ik lEml*, IB which he at goea aMmneJ, withoul 
nilng far tha bfn of their onaeat, all the dedg- 
Ldim at Ooai, Inysator, ion of Aotoniniis, 
tnadaa i£ Seraod Pbu, Filix, Augiutiu, uid 
PnnaMl, together «ilh the triboiiltuii urthorilj. 
At tk ^ne tune he btxeUwd ageiut the 
Ina ih tf j r of Uacriittt tawacda hie muter, hii lav 

Ink of onpergr, omchidiiig with a ptomiie to coti- 
■h the bcM inteteni at all diuca of the com- 
Bnirtj, ud deckuing that be inlended to ut op 
Aigutoi, whose age when he lirti gruped tbs 
rrat if power he compared with hu OWD, s* a 
■ndct far noitatiaD. Noreuatan 
n ttitified on the part of the 
fa we find £hHn a taiioat iDacTi[ 
■■■ fear) ago at Boms, that the Fntm Anslea 
■iKBbkd in the Ck^UH oq the lith of Jnl;, thai 
B Korelj Bore than firs weeki after the dediiTe 
•ionrf SIS Kacriima, in onia to ofler np thdt 
■mail vow* for the health and aafatf of their jonug 
iniie, who ii diilingmifaed bj all the appdlalioni 

fiipbalai enlend npou hii aecond tonaoliliip 
IB A. D. 319, at Nicome^eia, aod from thence pm- 
wrdid to Rome, where be celebiated hi* acceanoD 
^ awpri fic g it gamea, by ptnligal largeaiea, and 
bj kjing the foundation of a mmptDDiu riuine for 
Ua OUdai; dei^. Two jmit afterwaidi, when 
k lad mdered hiauelf alike odiou and con- 
MpAla b; all maamv of Uliea and ahanunatiDna, 
be «ia ptwaaa Ld t^ the politic HaeM to adopt 
kii Cm csonn, Alraander Setcni, to pnclaiia 
^ <Wai^ aad Boninata bin eonml-elecL Soon 
iftwi banag npaMcd of tbaae ilapa, he eudeaniDied 
tor*"*" the death cfhiakiamaii, bat wai bna- 
Wed, parif by the Watdifalaeai irf hii giand- 
■Mhs ad partly by the Mai of the loldien, with 
*hiai Alwmder wai a gnat brovrita. A repeli- 
■a gf a Hauiar attempt the fear Jawing (^ n. 
^^ {nred hia OWD deatmctioo; br a mntiny 

bene dam along with Soeniaain the <:^ii« 



Tbeariptf ti 
ip ef eighteen, al 
'' tbee yon, nil 



*^ tte llhe^ aad hoooe tiM epithet or Tiifim«ni« 
' Tawaa^ oaaof the manyi^pbediB acorn to 
■httjBBt after hi* death. 
~ < thia prinea, who perilled at the 

soared the thnme 
sd fnu dayi, dating 
"^ the Vrtde of Antioch, waa diaracteriHid 
(^■^bnt by as actiiBDhtion of the moat bnlaHic 
Ut. end the mnt frwntjc npanlilion, logathet 
wilh impBrity nbeatial that tbt particahn almoat 
nwuoiid Ae limita o( cndibili^. Had ha con- 
bfd Innattf to the aburd pnctical joka of which 
■° nay ban beoi recorded ; had be been latiified 
a the toDgDe* of peacock* and 



tiwho 
ort,or 

oU bald, or bU gouty, and i^ahng them with mock 
npaata ; bad be been content to occupy bii leiaure 
hnm in ealenmiaing the nnptiali of hii brourite 
deil; with the Tiojau Palla* or theA&iiaji Urania, 
and in making miUcfaei between the ndi and god- 
deaaei all oiei Italy, men might hare landed 
goodnatundly, anlicipating an increaie of wiidom 
with increaiing yean. Ibit unhappily aren tbeae 
tririal amuiement* were not un&eqoently accent- 
puii«l with cruelty and bloodihed. Hia eaineat 
devotHm to (hat god whoee miniater be had been, 
and to wboK brooT he probably oacribod hia eloTB- 
tion, niight baTe been regoided a* eicaaable or 
eren jnitifiaUe had it not been attended with 
pHieenlion and tyranny. The Roman populace 
would with eaiy loleialioo hare admitted and wor- 
ihipped a new divinity, but they beheld with dia- 
guit tbeir emperor ^jpeaiing in public, arrayed in 
the attire of a Syrian priett, dancing wild nieaanrea 
and cbanting barbaric hponi ; they Uatened with 
honor to die tale* of nugic rite*, and of human 
Tietimi •ecretly alaughtered ; they could icarcely 
•ubmit without indignatioD to the ordinance that 
an outlandiab idol should take precedence of their 
fatten' god* and of Jupiter binud^ and btill Itaa 
could they content to obey the decree n 
pnmnlgaliid, that it ihould not be lawfid to 
homage at Rome to any other celeilial power. But 
by &r the bbcken of hia offence* were hi* aim 
againit the decende* of both public and piirate 
hfe, the detail* of which are too iiotcible uid too 
di*gu*tiiig to admit of deacriptioiL (Dion CasL 
IxiiiL 30—41, luii.; Herodian, r. 4—23; 
lAmprid. Bloffab. ; Capitolin. Maerm, ; Entrop, 
Tiii 13 ; Anrel. Viet, de Caa. zxiii., £^ ixiiL) 
A cun of Ek^balna i* girui under Pauli, the 
wift of Elagobalua. [W. R.] 

rLAPHUS CSAafvt), the fifteenth in deacent 
bom Aeacuhipiu*, the am of Cbiyioa and the 
father of Hippolochu* 11, who lired piobably in 
the iiland of Co* in the nith and fifth centniiea 
B. c. (Suid. t. o. 'Iwnnpinit ; The*»]i Ontio, 
ap. Hippocr. C^xni, yoL ili.p. 840.) [W.A.G.] 

FIArA {'l»Jfa), a daughter of Orchonenai 
OT Hinyai, who bectime by Zcut the mother of the 
giant Tilyu* ; and Zeus, &Dm fear of Heia, cou' 
cealed faei under the aatth. (ApoUod. i- 4. 1 1 i 
ApoDon. Rhod. L 762 ; Ku*«atL ad Hon. p. \bi3; 
Uillla, Ortiam. p. IBS, 2d. edit.) {h. S.J 

E'LASUS (XJidcrDr). There an two Trojan* 
of Ihi* name, one of whom waa thtin by Pauoclui 
and the other by Neoptoiemoi. (Uom. IL itL 
696 ; Pant. X. 26. § 1.) [U S.] 

FLATUS r^orgi). 1. A aon of Area* by 
Leaueira, Metanoia, or by the nymph Chiyiopa- 
leia. He wa> a brother of Aian and Apheidaa, 
and king of Aioidia. By hi* wife luidice be had 
four aona, Stymphaloi, Aepytna, Cyllen, and Pe- 
rtua. (ApoUod. iii, D. g 1. 10- § 3 ; Fani. viii. 4. 
12.) He it al*o called the father of lachya (Find. 
iyLiiL SOandofDotia. {Slai^ Bya. a e. Aaf- 
TBF.) He ia *aid to haita reaided on n»ant Cyl- 
lene, and to haie gone from thence to Phocda, 
whete he protected the Phedan* and tlie Delphie 
Buetuary againit the Phlegynni, and loiuided the 
' wnofElateia. (Paua.io^x.34. §3.) A ita- 
e of hi* atood in the market-place of Elateia, and 
IDlher at Tegea. (Pan*, x. 34. g 3, viii. 18. g G.) 
2. A ptinca of the Ijyithaa at Laiiaa* in The*- 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



B ELECTRA. 

Oil;, WM murUd Id Hipp^ b; Tfaam fag bnamc 
liie bthec of Cacneiu Dud Pol;ph«niu, both dT 
whom took psit in the expedition of th« Argonuili. 
(Hygin.Pab.\i;0T.Afel.iiHa7.) He ia Hme 
^mei conronnded wi^ the AicBdiiu Elltut. (Mul 
ler, OrcHom. pp. 186, 191, 2d. edJL) There an 
four man mythkal penanaget of thi« name. (Ham 
IL T). 33. Of. xxiL 268 ; Apallod. ii. 5. § 4 ; Apoi- 
hnuRhod-L 101.) [L.8.] 

ELECTRA C^Htirrpa), i. e. the bright or br 
liant one. 1. A (Uoghter oT Oauiiu end Tethyi, 
Bad the wife of Thiamai, b; wfaam (he baoune 
the mother of Irii and the Horpisa, Aello and 
Ocjpete. (Horn. Hfan. in Oar, 419 ; Hn. Theog. 
266 ; Apalli>d. L S. gg 2, 6 ; Paua. It. 33. § G i 
SeiT. ad Aa.. m. 212.) 

% A daoghter of Atlai and Pleiana, vu one of 
theieren Plciadea, and became bjZeni themolber 
of Jaiion and Dardanua. (Apidlod. iu. 10. §, 1, 
13. §g 1, 3.) According to a tiaditioD jraenei 
in Servioi (od Atm. I 32, iL 33$, iii. 104, rii. 207) 
tbe wai the wife of the Italian king Corjtiina, b^ 
whom the bad a aon Jation; whereaa bj- Zeua ifae 
wai the mother of Dardanna. (Comp. Sen. ad Aat. 
i. 384, ia 167; Tiela. ad Lyeopk. 29.) Diodnnii 
(t. 48) calli Hannonia bet daughter b; Zeua. 
She ii connected alio with the teeend about the 
Palladium. When Electro, it i> mk, had come at 
a Buppliant to the Palladiuni, which Athena had 
crtablishcd, Zeut ar Athena heraelf threw it into 
the territnrj of lliom. becauae it had been iullied 
by the handa of a wranan who waa no longer a 
pure maiden, and king lliu then bndt a temple to 
Zeui. (Apallod. iii. 12. g 3.) Accoiding to otheia 
it waa Electia hendf that biongbt tbe PaUadiiun 
to Ilium, and gare it to bar aon Dardanua. (SchoL 
ad Eur^. Pioea. 1136.) When the nw the dt; 
of her aon periihing in flame*, ahe Core out her 
hair for grid^ and wa* thua placed among the alara 
aa a comet. (Serv. ad Aim. i. 272.) . According to 
othen, Electia and her mi lialeri veie placed 
among the etars a> the aeven Pleiadei, and loat 
their brilliancy on aeeing tbe deitruction of Ilium. 
<SerT. ad Vin. Georg. L 138 i Eualalfa. ad Hata. 
p. llfiS.) lie fahohiiu ialand of Electria wai be- 
iieted to haTe i«eiTBd iti name fmn her. (Apal- 
lon. Rhod.L 916.) 

3. A liater of Cadmng, from whom the Eleetrian 
■ate at Thebee wai laid to bsTe leeeired ita name. 
<Paua.ii.a$3; Sritil ad JpaOm. Hluid. i. 9\B.) 

4. A daaghler of Agamemoon and Ojtaemnea- 
tis, ii alao called Lsodics. (Emtath. ad Horn. p. 
742.) Shswaathe*iiteiafIphigineia,Chry»lhe- 
mia. and Onalea. The conduct of her mother and 
Aegiilfaua threw her into grief and great lufiering, 
and in conieqnence of it ibe became tbe aeoomplice 
of Oreilea in the murder of hia mother. Hti itarf. 
Ba»nlingloIIrginiu(Fa&122), niQB thna: On 
rnxiiiBg tbe bHwt report that Onatea and P;ladea 
hod been nocrificed to Artemia in Tauiia, Aletea, 
the »n of Aegiithua, aaaumed the goremment of 
Mycenae ; but Eleclra, for tbe pnrpoae of learning 
the pajticulon of her brotber^ death, went to Del- 
phi On tbe day abe leached the place, Oreitea 
and Iphigeneia likewise arrived there, bat the 
aane meuenger who had before iofermed her of 
the death of Oreitea, now added, that he had been 
ascrilicod b; Ipbigeneia. ElMtra, enraged at thia, 
•uaichMl a firebrand from the 



But Oreatei raddeoly ca 



wilb it 
IU qnt, aud mode 



ejca 



bimadf known to Electra. All being thul dcamd 
up,. they bsTelled together to Mycenae, wheis 
Oreatea killed the nurper Aletea, aud Electis 
mairied Pyladek The Attic tragediana, Aeechylua, 
Sopboclea, and Eaiipidea, have uaed the atory of 
Hleetra very fi'eely : the moat perfect, heweTET, ia 
that in the -Electra" of Sc^hadea. Whan Ae- 
giathna and Clytaenmeatia, after the morder of 
Agamemnon, intended to kill young Oreatea alaoi, 
Electia BTed him by lending him under the pio- 
tection of a alaie to king Stnf biui at Pbanote in 
Pbocii, who had the b^ educated together with 
hi* own aon Pyladei. Electra, in the meao- 
tima, waa erei tninking on taking rerenge npon 
the mnrderera of her huer, and when Oreale* had 
grown up to manhood, abe aeiit leoet meaaagt* to 
him to remind him i^ hia daty to avenge hi* la- 
ther. At length, Oieile* tamo with Pyiade* to 
Aigoa. A lodt of hair which he had placed on 
the grave of hi* &ther, waa a ugn to Electn that 
her brother waa near. Oreatea aoon after made 
her, and informed hor thai he 



hia bihel. Both la 



sbeold go ij 

stranger* from Pbocii, a 

wa* dead. Thii wai done accordingly, and Ae- 

gitthut and Clytaemneitn (ell by the hand of 

Oreata, who gave Electra in marriage to hi* friend 

Pylade*. (Comp. AeicbyL EamoMa, and Enii- 

pidea, Oralm.) She became by him the mother of 

Medon and Slrophiua. Her tomb wa* abewn in 

Utei limei at Mycenae. (Paua. iL 16. g 5.) 

£. A aervant of Helen, wai [aiuted by Polyg- 
notu* b the Leache at Delphi, in the act of kned- 
ing before her miitma and batening her — ■"^^l^ 
(Paufc I. 25. § 2.) 

A aiitb Electia occura among the daoriiten at 
Danana. (Apollod. ii. 1. g S.) [L.S.] 

ELE'CTRYON {'HAt(Tfi>lM>), a md ot Ptneo* 
aud Azidromeda, wai king of Mycenae or Uideia 
in Argolia. (Paua. iL 25. g 3.) He wa* married 
to AnaiD, the daughter of Aloen*, by whom he 
hod aeveral childnn. (Apallod. iL 4. g 6, Ac) 
The tisdition aboat him ia given onder Aiipni- 
I'avQN. Another Electiyon ia mentjonad by Dii^ 
doiua (ir. 67). [US.] 

ELECTRYO'NE (^KXwifaini). a duighter of 

elioa and Rhodoa. (Diod.T.fi6i SchoL »I/Wj. 

L viL 24.) The name ia alao nied a* a patraoy- 

ic bum ElectryoQ, and given to hia dangler, 
Alcmena. (Has. &«. Hen. 16.) [L.S.] 

ELEtTUS. [Ecuraoa.] 

ELEIUS ('Hhtuii). I. A aon of Poaudon and 
Enrydiea, the daughter of Endyioiau, waa king of 
the Epeiani and btber tf Augiaa. (Pan*. T. 1. 
§6. 4c.) 

2. A ion of Amphimachn* aud king of Elia. 
I hia leign the aona of Aiittonachu invaded 

Peloponueaua. (Paua. v. 3. g 4.) 

3. A ton of Taotalut, from whom the eonntry 
EIli vraa believed to bavs leceivad it* namo. 

j-'HAu.) iL.a] 

'LEOS ('EAtai), tbe penonifiation of pity or 
!rcy, had an altar in the agora at Atbena. " The 
Jieniana,- aaya PauBnia* (l. 17. g 1), "an the 
ly ouea among tlie Hrllvnee that worship thia 
fine being, and among all the goda thia ia the 



% 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



ELEITTBEB. 
not ^i» a|ilDnd the lautwice of tbe Atlie- 
Bn. nek u Admtai and the Hamcleidat, >p- 
fRMbtd M Hifiriianti iba ■Itar of El«i. (Apollod. 
E. S. § 1, uL 7. g 1 1 SehoL ad Sopk. ObL CoL 
isaj [L. &] 

ELVBANTla, IhB wTitatT of nmun ■maUiy 
mriu (m&i B^i^mUik UUIK), thg ' 



ita Ike psn in qiHtion wu a fboole, and diat 
^ ni dlber ■ Orcek bj birth or of Onek «- 
taaim- Bj the hutonam of literatura iba ia 
pamD} miked atiiaDK Iha poetaneh (Hutial, 
^m.43.5; SoM. 7B, 43; Pn^n iii. ; Std- 
lii, 1. 1. 'Arruifaava.) Otkli qanteg H tntttue 
nd avfiiinsiiv bj tlui or lome otb«r Elepbantu. 
(fUdt. BU CiwB. Tot. viii. p. 1£B ; cinnp. SpaD- 
iaa, A Aw^oifia K Tia A'aauM. llju. ii. p. 

r:i.) [W. R.] 

ELEPHfTNOR C^Atfxiimp), a ■» of Cbalco- 
dn, Mai peine* «f tbe Abootei in Euboea, whom 
k kd (niBl Tnr in thirty or for^ iliipi. He 
An Id bf tfaa bud of Agenor. (Horn. IL a. 
Slll,ir.«Si Hjgia. «ji 97; Diet. Cret. i. 17.) 
Hjpau caUa hu notlier Imeuivte, and Tietia 
[^ Ifafk. i039) itt]iaiifjK. He !■ ■!» men- 
tkBd BKH tbe Hritor* of Hekn (Apollod. m. 
ID. ( 8)< HU n* nid to faaie taken with bim to 
Tdj the nni of Tbeaeia, who had been entnuted 
to hit EBe. (Phit. Tl9.3£; Faoa. i. 17.3 6'] 
AaadTng ta Tietaea, Elephoxir, ~ wilfaout being 
mit (f it, htOed hia gnudblber, Abat, id coo- 
■qiaa •£ wliieh he wu oUigcd la quit Euboea. 
Viim ibcnbce tbe eipedition againat Troy wa> 
D^tflaken. Elepheoor did not retuni U Enboca, 
htiaaibkd Ifae Abanlei on ■ mk an tbe Euri- 
fa, iffnitr Uw iiUnd. After the M of Tro;, 
■Utk, ammliiig to aoma accoimla, he urriTed, he 
V3it to tbe ialand of OthronOB near Sicily, and, 

Awaria in 111 jri*. (Lycophr. lOas'.Ac.) [US.] 
KLEUSl'NA cr ELEUSI'NIA ('EAnxru^), 
I anaiM of Dcowter and Penephooe. derired 
(« Beiai* in Attia^ the principal leol of tbeii 
•mhip. (Virg, Gtors- i. 163 j PhorauL N. D. 
Si Sinh. Byi. i. v. lAeurd.) [L. S.J 

»J:USIS r^nwfi), a 1011 rf Henoe* and 
DtBo, the daagfater of Oceuna. The town of 
Anu in Attka waa bdiered to bare derirgd iti 
■Bt b» bim. (Pmu. l 38. 1 7 ; Apollod. i. G. 
i i; Hygio. Fat. 147.) He waa married to 
l^n^DDH or Cjntiiiia. (Hygin. L c ; Sen. ad 
r^ei<-».il9.) [L.S.] 

2LEUSIS CEAWi), ia qasMd by DiogoieB 
l'a1iBa(L 29) aa the BBthor of a woik on A^ilka 
{••li-kxMimt). [L.S.] 

^ ELEUTHSR CUniifp), ■ ton of Apollo and 
' la dan^lci of Poaddoa, waa iHacded 
iar of Elanlltena in Bo«>tia. ^taph. 
«. tKntfoL,) He «u the giud&lber 



(hai. ix. SO. f 2.) He ia Hid to have been the 
^ ikat eficted a atatne of Diooyna, and tpnad 
"■ iranh^ of tbe god. (Hygin. FiA. 226.) There 
■fr tvo other mytbica] peraonaget of the moe 
nne- {Pint. QkkA <1t. 39; Sleph. Byi. i. r. 
^*"«W.> [1^ S.] 



BLIAS. 9 

ELEUTHEREU9 (lAwflt^), » mnam of 
JKonyina, which be derived either from ElBQtbar, 
or the Boeotian town of Elentherae ; but it may 
alao be regarded a> equiialent to the Latin Liber, 
and thn* deictibea Dionyiui ai the deliTerer of mas 
JTom care and •arrow. (Fun. L 20. | Q, 3fi. | 6 ; 
Pint. ^HUA Aim. 101.) The 6irm Blentherioa it 
certainly oied in the Koie of the deltTerer, and 
occnn alio ai the huhbok of Zana. ( Plat. .^ivKib 
riL in Gn. i Pind. (% lii. 1 ; Strab. ix. p. 412 ; 
Tacit. ^«. IT. 64.) [L. 8.] 

BLIAS fHAki). Tbii name, which ii d 
Hebrew origin, belong! to leTend Onek wrilere, 
chieflf ecclesiaatica, of the Byiantina empire. 
There were aeveral prelatei of the nana in the 
OrienUi patriaichate* and biahoprics, and HTeial 
writer*, chiefly eraleiiattici, in tbe Oriental tongnea, 
fbi whom aee ANemanni, Bibliotluta OriaUaiit, and 
Fabric0iU.Cni«.TDLii.p.257,ilp.614. We 
giie Dtdy thoae brionging to Oreek biogmphy. In 
l«tin the name ia frequently written Heliaa. 

I. 2. 3. Glus. Them were three palriaKba of 
Jenualam of tliii name. Eliaal. wupaltiaRh&Dm 
A. o. 494 or 496 till hit depodlion by a eonndl held 
at Sidan, whoee decree wa* enCaiced, A.D. 61 3,by the 
empeiot Anaitauni i. He died in exile A. n. 618. 
Ella* 11. held the patrianJiate fiinn *.». 760, or 
earlier, to 797, with tbe exception of an inlerral, 
when he waa expelled by an intruuTe patrianh 
TbeodHSL He wal lepreaented at the aecond 
geneml council of Nicaea, A. n. 787, by Joonnea, a 

rbyter, and Thomaa, ptinciiatl of the convent of 
hneniiu near Babylon in Egypt: theae eecle- 
naitiu wan alao r^reaentaiiTea of the patriarcbi 
of Almodria and AnCioeb. Eli** IIL waa p*- 
" ' ' " ' " "a* 881, when he aent a 



Eliaa to Chiriemagne (for it i* acarcely probable 
that the original wa* in that longni^) waa pnb- 
iiBhediutheSpicil(giiuBofD'Aeh4ty. Elwdied 
aboutA.p.907. (P^ielgoehe,TVut<iifMfrefiiaiaani 
dtE^iiKoputtJ^alnardiitSaiulaiHieroiolsrmilaiiat 
EceietiaemAs Ada SanBliimm : Afaa,Tol. iiLwith 
the Appmda in rd. Tii p. 696, ic ; Ubba, Com- 
ailia, Tol, «ii. ; D'Achiry, SpicOig. toL iiL p. 863, 
ed. Pari*, 1723.) 

4. Elub of Chabax. a Haunicript in the 
Hbraiy of St. Mark si Venioe contain* a dution, 
printed by Villoiaan, &am a Greek treatite on Ter>. 
aificalion by ** HeUai, a monk of ChaiBi." Vil- 
kiaon *taie* that ^le paiiage dtad by bhn ia, in 
•CTeial &ISS. of the lUng'i Libiary at Pari*, im- 
properiy aacribed to Plntuih. llarlcai inconectly 
taiaeaeata Villoiaon aa apeaking of two work* of 
Heliaa on Tenificatimi, and wilhont, or mther 
agaiuit authority, connect! the name of Eliaa of Cnle 
with them. Part of thia work ia printed by Hei- 
mann in an Appendix to hi* edition of Dtacon of 
3tratanioei*. [Dbaooh.] (ViUoiiDO, AmoLOraea. 
T(d. ii. pp. BS,e6 ; Fabric. fliW. Ciwe. ToL ii p. 331) 

6. EuAa of CsBTB. There are leTeral woriu 
extant aacribed to Eliaa Creteniia, whom Radar, 
Cave, Fabtidna, and othaia, an^^oae to have been 
Eliaa, biahi^ (oi nihar matropolitaD) of Crete, 
who took put in the aaeond gmmi oonndl of 
Nicaea, a. d. 787. (Labb^ Cb-e^, vol ril) 
LeDodaTiua conaiden that the antbor waa a iilkr- 
ent peraon bom the prehle, and [dacea the former 
in the «ixih anlory or thereabout (ProoemBBn 
u SU GngoTU Naiiaiaeiii Oprra.) Oudin, who 



D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



ELIAS. 
• nbJMt moM canfhDj, tgna 
wilh Lamcbnu* in diftiiiguiihiii^ tb« wnter fom 
Iha prelate, and dednow fiun th* mleniil erideDca 
of fan mdu that the writer lired (bont A. ». 1 120 
or 1130, 

HemoK (1) CammmlaHm oa tmenJ t^Ot 
Oration <i Ongam Naxiaiam. Then an 
•anal HSL eitut oT 
original Onek, batw 
been prinled. A \*t, 
Dew, nnlj Klectad from 

Eiblulud by Billiui irlln ni* iMXta nmon Di 
raguy^ WDtka, and haibaen npoUedly nprintad. 
(2.) A CbMMAConr « Ut iUifiBf, CUanc, 
*>i(n/a ParaJid,' or Laddtr i/Paradim <fjiiatam 
or Jaim nntaimd jbUo^tou or CIuiuhu. Thii 



■dibed bT 
hsSchidiaoi 



RadoF a 



u eitut m HS, i> di 
edition of Ifae Climai, i 
tncu an tmbodiad in ' 
mmtator giTco bj Radu. 

(B.) An ^BNMr tiwpei ^ iiii; vir 
bffim tit age <tf puiertr. Thii ia 
in the Eing^ LibtHj at Puu, in the otelogue of 
wkicb the aathol i> deeciibed ■■ the metnipiililan 

(i.) AttaBt la DiiMfiim Ot Moidt on In 
MUM J^irait gmtttiomi, giieu by Binafidina (Jmrv 
OrimL Libri, uL p. 185) and Lnmclariiu {Jm Or. 
Ibm.1 p. 335). 

'" ' " ' '"it any other mriu of fail 



Haitt MfdagogieaB cite* other wotha, bnt they an 
tnbnbly bat. One nni On da Mor<di of Ik 
Hiatiau, and the Dtlun irera Aiaatrj la On 
Momlm ^ Cornlk, Ta Ot jtfmb o/ AKa, and 
To Oa SoOary Momio. Hailai ioeomctly aa- 
cribM to Eliai of Cnte the work of Eliae or Hdiaa 
of Cham [tee No. 41 on vanificMion. (Caie, 
/At. Zil. nL L p. 641 ; Radei, Aw" «i aat«B 
■St. ^ooMJt CSimad, pieGnd to hia editien of that 
wujc; Ondin, Otmma^arii dt Sar^pkr. il &r^i(u 
Jmtaaw*™, toL li toL 10«G, &e. ; Kdirie. BM. 
Grate. jaLiiiL f. 430, iz. p, S26, xi p. 6Ifi ; 
CUob^H ZAroriiM ManMHriflenm BiiUiiliKat 
AgHB, Pam, 174a) 

6. Eliis, called, tmm the eccledailicai oiSaa 
which be held, EcomtttCSiOum), or *'the Da- 
lender," waa the anthor of a Oreek voik on the 
Aicetic life, extant in MS. in the Imperial LilHnr; 
at Vienna, and in the King*! Ubnry at Patia. 
The work ii laid to be entitled Ilvy^ raiaim. 
A Idtin Tenitai of a part ii giTcn in the BaUo- 
aaiDfa6wH,ToLxxiLp.756,Aced. Lyoni,1677. 
In the cntologne of tho King^ Litanry at Pari* ii 
u Oieek MS. cantainiiift amiH^ other thii^i, a 
^oribgiam, or aelertigo, nid to be by "Helia*, 
Preebyter et De&niDr." (Hontfimcon, BOHcOtea 
SWudiDirM, p. 548 ; Oabd. Goid. MShrum 
BiUialk. Rtgiae, nL a. Noa-occLXii 6, ooocLTja, 
21, Pari^ 1740 ; Cava, HkL OLvoLu. DiMerL 
i.p.Ti Fahiic. £>5JL Oraw. ToL n. p. 615.) 

7. Ei,ua,caUad''thBHoitK.'' Iai Allatiua in 
fail Dt a^innnm &fwHit UiabAi (p. 101) ma»- 
tim* a diacoaiie vpoHpnor, on the NaCiTi^, by 
Qiai the Honk. (CaTe, AiU. ZiL toL ii. Di«. l 
p. 7. ed. Orfjrf, 1740—43.) 

8. Elus, called " the pHiLoaoPHsa," There 
aio in the Medienn Library at FloraDce Pralego- 
men* to the Ejinr>*rr4 ot Porphyry takcD from the 
writing* of " £liaa Iha PliikMi^dttr," and tben art 



Lihiary of &L Haric at Veiuce. Bnt Dodung ap- 
»n to be known of the wnter bajond hia naniB. 
(Fahik. BUL 0RHC. ToL il p. 6IG.) 

9. Elui Sthcillui. Leo All^n* baa mnf 
■ad to the Vii^ 

IhtB, hot d 




lAtMM,Nctmlaim 

■<i*,^2e4.) 

Uadc-Utiet MS. tpfor 
rmtly in 1«^ belooBiig at that time to Iha mon- 
aatery of Caanea in Langnedoc, eotitlad JIlijwm 
' " - hj Elia* or Hdiu. But whs 
waa, 1* not itatad, nor whether the work 
ion &am the Gredc, which the name of 
wooLl lad n* to Bippoae. A MS. en- 
b*-Hdia*&' 
itbncon, bat w 
(oBtbucon, Bi 

. 41.) [J.C _., 

ELICAON or HELICAON CEJUinW), . 
Khegitno, a Pythaaofean phil«ophD. He i* 
laandoiMd along with other Pythaconan*, wIh 
gan good and wtKleanue law* to Rhoginia, and 
andaavoored to mdu pnetkal nie of iho phi- 



(lamblich. RL Pglt-g- 

37, 30,3fi.> [Ua] 

ELI'CIUS, a RUname of Jupiter at Rome:, 
where king Noma dedLcated to Jnpittf Elian* an 
altar on Uhe Arentina (Lit. i. 20.) Tha aaue 
king waa Bid to have uutituted certain lecnt 
rilea to be peifiuBkad in ImKmr of the god, which 
were reeordad in hit CoranwntariL (Lit. L 31.) 
Tha ori^ of tha name at wall aa tha notiaa i^ 
Jnpitar sUcina ia rderred to tbt Btrwouu. who 
by certain [oayen and norificea calked [orth 
(tbMfaal or eeocaiaaf) U^tning or inrited Jnpiter 
to tend b^itning. (Plin. A JV.iL 64; Ot. Ax 
iiL337,&ci Vano,<faZ%.£<il. ii. 94.) The 

Liiy'i aiplanatioa to alidt prodigiaa nr mm li tm t 
diuHHii and when tba god a|qnaied or tent hit 

Iho paraon who had inTJted it. SeDea(Qiiasft 
f/oL il 49) attaiU that the anoenta dirtiiyiiibwl 

a kind of lif htning or fahnina, called Jidmma ioa- 
pHaHa, -which it wai poatible for man to draw 
down, and Pliny mentioiu Niuna,TulliuIlo«tiliaa, 



ly perithed in tl 
1 think that tha 



rith wbkh the a 



knew the nta of condocton of ti^Uning^ which, 
tlion^ liuj canont draw liglitniBg from hatTea, 
yet conduct it towaida a certain point. Soniit 
(otf Pirg. Bdag. n. 43) goea ano ao &r a* to bq 
that the art of drawing down lightning wai known 
to PiDmelheoL [L. S.) 

ELIONIA. [EiutTBTU.] 

GLISSA. [Dido.] 

ELLO'PION ('EMovlw), of Pepuelhoi, a 
Sociatic pbileaopher, who it mentiimeil only by 
PlnttidL iDtl.-tm.SatniL]t.57»,t) [U&] 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



BLTA. 

miOK (tUif ), « (OD of loa or Tidtamu, 
6h *ka Hlo|iii m Kabm immi in name. 
[Sub I. P.4U; SlqA. Bji. i. s. "EAAavlB; 
EMilk.irfMM.;.380.) [L.S.] 

ELFffNORCltoitnif), can oTtbe ranpauiioni 
<f OJjMi, wilt *aa a«tBnoi)ihond 1^ Cues 

u^Mi witk wiat, HoDor ow day fell ailecp 
« Aa mf «{ Ori^ nadance, and in hii (ttcmpt 

■ riNki fall down «nd teoke bii neck. (Uonu 
M I. iM^ tn) Whm OdjiMu wu is thi 
Imr widd, ke met tka iliada if Elpuwi, who 
iqimd im la bora hti body and M <nct ■ 
■nvotwUB. (MLn.fiZ.) Afbr hk ntom 
tt tka bind rf Dice. Odjwim coinplud with 
itanfoatcJUifHaid. {Od.iiL 10, ftc ; CDinp. 
JiRD. IT. 32; Or. Ibm, 487.) Elpenor wu 
)inlid bj PoljgDotiu in tlie LodlB M IMplu. 
(Fn.1.29.) SminM (ad Am. n. MTI) rilaiia 
■k> HpH SB killed b; Odjneu himwlf far 

•(BOBOlk pUncHB. [^ S.] 

ELPIDIUS ('EhaOM), b called a nma^al 
tm md liad of Ixmiiiii Idmtiiii, in hit cm 
■olsy (• A* " PhamHmrna" of Antiu, Mfi, 
itoWbJ euaaacUi bt Elpidini a nhaenac- 
oxtiigMlba docriptiai of Anbu, lod Fabridni 
(ailL Or. rr. >, 94, note) npp«a that tU* Elpi- 
&iiiA»Hiu la tba patwao iriio wu lait a* 
BbiKdorlD Ch^ganiu, kis; of th« Aiaii, In &> 
iiB )1B <J ths niga of the empem Hauriliai, 
■^ ■ho ii BBDtiotMd t^ Cednniu and otho 
nitnrflhatpniol. [L. 3-) 

KLPlraUS, or HELPIDIUS (t\wau.i),M 
d 'it phjiUan* of Tbeodoiic the Ottat, king of 
■W OmgHhi, a. D. 4S3— £26, whoa h> attended 

■ b h« iUDM. (Pneop^ ifa BtOo (Mk. lib. L 
r IfT, ed. B(i«M.) He «u a ChriKiaD, and 

■ dHBD^ ordtn, and ptsbaUj a native of Hili 
T^B> k eitajtt a letter to ^*^ from king Th( 
Mi(^ CMOod. Variar. ir. 24), and Iniic b 
baadh^ (Oi^ *iL7, nils, ii. N,SI;ap. 
Small Of,^ TOL L) [W. A. Q.\ 

ELPIHI'CE C&knTfni), dai^fatei of Miltiidca, 

■ad aAr rf t^moD. AccDrding la anna 

<*• ■■ <alj hk kalWrio, and be ihcnd) 
kt b witt, the Athemaa Uar pemitliDg 
•ttaMta,ifihe«aiD0(4ria^fHi. HegaT* 
B,k>wnn,ahai«Bidi i> ■aniago to CaHiu, *rbD 
U Utn ia tore with hex, aad wbo made tbia tba 

''' aC pniiw fic Ciaoa the fine wbidi had 
MdqM^lUltadai.tToLi.B.SST.b.] The 

if Elfunoe doea not aland high, nd wa 

Wif a tm ^ a cu A intrigoa of bar*! with Po<fg- 
■*■> the painleb WlMa Cimoo wai accund of 
Mag tdun bribaa bom Aknmdir I,, king of 
Kudaaia, Ehriiuca went to Pccicka to I ' 
Wimne. He pat hv off at the ti 
I**! hn ha nfbmad on the trial from pmang 
^<^lj the thaiga a^nat her bnHher. Cinwn i* 
■id aha to hare nagMiatcd with Peiiclea, Ihioogii 
BfaiiK- dM hSBB «a wUdi ha w» to ntom 
faBtdk. (PIal.CliB.4,I4,P<rM.10; Nepoi, 
tS^I.) (E. E.] 

EWA, tha nana 



KMHENIDAE. II 

finght at the I^e Regtihu, irtun be eomoaaded 
the left wing. The 1j^ of that tmttfe ninff bT hii 
combat with Octanna Mamilina, by whom hit aim 
wia ^ned through. (Lii, ii 19 j Dkoyt. *. 5St 

■■2,4,8,11.) 
2. L. Aaaimua T. f. T. n. Elti, eon of the 
pnceding, cannl with P. Serrilini Piiacu Strnctu 
in B. c. 163, waa cained off in hii oonrabhip by 
the grtat plague which raged at Ronwin that jear. 
(Ut. iii 6 ; Dicoyt. iz. 67 i Died. xi. 79 : Oioa. 
iL13.) 
a. Poaruvm AaBOTitra Eiva ConincaK, con- 

I with M. Fabina Vibulaaoa in B.C 443, in 
which year a colony waa fonndod at Ardea, and 

■giiter oquitnm to the dictator Q. SetriHni Frie- 

uStmetu ins. 0.438. (Ut. It. II, 21 i Died. 

d.34.) 

4. H. AxBtmoa Elta, ou of the ttiomTni 
tat fbmidiDg the Bolony at Aid* in & a 443. 

(liT.iT.ll.) 

£. H. AsBunoa Elva, paetor in b.c IflB, 
._<.-.,.. r . giolf ■■ hia piovinoe. (Lir. 




of Anchiaa* and a bmUiei of Eryz, (Taett. ad 
I^aipk, 959.) Prarioaa to the eraigiation of 
AeneJaa, Elymoa and A^eataa had fled from Troj 
to Sidly, aod bad •etilad on the banki of the riTcr 
Crimim, in the conntiy of (he Siani. When 
atlerwaidi Aeneiaa alio aimed that, be bnQt (in 
them the town* of Aegeata and Blyme, and the 
Trojana who aettleii fn that part cf Sicily called 



Hynunii, and myi that 1m went to Sidly with 
Aaneiai, and that they logelber toiJc poauiaioa of 
Eryi and LilyUennu Elymu wu forlhcr be- 
liaTod to baie fbmded Aaca and Ent^la in Sicily. 
(Viig. Am. T. 73, »ilh Seiriiu'. note) [L. S.] 

KUANUEL. [MANuaL.] 

EUATHION CR/ioMw), a ami of Titboma 
and Eoa, and a brother of Memnon. (Het 
Ttfog. 986.) He waa king of Anina, and waa 
iltin by Hendeb (ApoUod. iL 5. f lIiQ.Smyrn. 
uL 300.) Then an two other mytbica] penaniiget 
of thie name. (Ot. MA. i. lOJ ; Viig. ^n. ' 
S71.) 

btolb* <l liami, from irhoni 
Haeedooia, waa beliered to hare deiind iti name. 
(Bnatath. aid Him. p. 980.) Tfae dHugfalen of 
PieTBi (the Pleridea) are aoDUtiinei oQcd after 
their nnda Ematbidea. (Ot. MA. t. 669.) [L. S.] 

STILUS CEruAoi) of Aegina, made the gold 
and ivory atatuea of the Hoon aitting on thronaa 
In the too^e of Hen at Olyinpia. ^Pana. v. 1 1. 
% I.) Thoa ii no olber mention of thii irtttt, 
and there can be no doubt that Valekcnaer ia right 
in ratding Sfibit. Some M3S. ^ig "EfuXii and 
'A^u^. [Swan.] ■ [P. 8.1 

EMME-NIDAE ^Enfierlfa.), a pineely bmity 
which traced ita origin to the 



mythical befo Poliuekea. Amoi^ ita membei 
we know Bmmenidea (bnn whom the &imty di 






ne)tl 



wofAani 






Thcnm and Xenooatea are celeheatcd by 
Pindar ai vieton at the greal garaea of Oieeee, 
Thenm won a priie at Olympia, inOL 76 (a. c. 
47S), in the cWot-iace with fimr full-nown 
hmea, and Xenocmle* gained ptiiei in the horse- 
nee at the Pythian, Iithmiaa, and Paaatbenaio 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 






n 

gusM. (Puid.0Ca4e, iu.SB,iyLn.6, with 
tU Scboliait, and BSckh^ Eiflicat. ad Pmd. pp. 
114, Ac, 119, 122, 127, 13S; Muller, Orekm. 
fL 332, 2Dd adit.) [L. S.] 

EMPANDA, or PANDA, wu, ■ocording to 
FeMos {>. V. Empanda), a dta pagmiormM. Vbito 
(op. iVoo. p. ti ; comp. Oell. xiii. 32 ; Amob. 
iT. 3) coDiucU the word with paMden, but sburdly 
AxpbuiiB It bj jKtaem dan^ h that Empouda would 
ba tbe goddouof brad or Ibod. She hid a noc- 
tatPf DettT tha gala, ailed after her the porta 
Paoduia, which led to the eafritoL (Featu, t. v. 
Pandaca; Vairo, dt Lk^. Lot. t. IS:) Her 
iMDpIe waa an aarlum, which wm idieam ii)»ii and 

fcsd fnin the fundi of tbo temple, 
at Doca ihowi the moaning of the name Panda or 
Empanda ; it if connected with pamderv^ to open \ 
■be n Bccordinglj the goddeia who ia open to or 
admiti anf one who wanta protection. Hartong 
{die lUigiat dtr Km, ii. p. 76, Ac) thinki that 
Eni)MndA and Panda an milj anniamiia of 
ilono. [L. S.] 

EHPEmOCLES (-E/nriaaitXqi), of Amigai 
(Agiigenlum), in Sicily, Boniiihod abinit Oljiop, 
84,orB.c.44t (Diog. I*iirt. viii. 7*1 comp. 51, 
52; Simon Kaimten, KniptdociU Agngeat. Cvrmiat. 
Sdifiiae, p. 9, &c) Hii youth probably fell in 
the time of the glorioui rule of Theron, fronx OL 
73 to OL 77; and although he ma deecended from 
an andeat and wealthy bmily (Diog. L«bt. Tiii. 
61), EmpedoclEi with enlhnnaam joined tha nvo- 
httion — ■« hi* fBthcr, Meton, bad probably done 
hefbre — in which ThrMydaeni, the nn and enc- 
cewir of Theron, wai eiFalkd, and which became 
the watchword for the otlMT Onek towiu to (bake 
off the yoke of Iheii monanbi. (IBjg. I^'rl liii. 
72.) Hii leal in the eataUiahment of political 
equality it laid lo ban been maoileatfd by hii 
DUgDanimaDi rapport of the poor {Hd. 73), by hii 
ineiorable eeverily in penecnting the OTarbearing 
conduct of the ahiCocrati (Tinuienv op. Diog. t, 
Tiii. 64, comp. 6fi, 66}, and in hie declining the »■ 
Tenignty wbich wai offered to him, (Atiitot. op. 
Diag. liiL 63; compare, howerei, Timaena, ibid. 
66, 76 } Hia biillianl oratory (Satyr, op. Diog. 
Tiii. AS ; Timaeoa, iMf. 67), hii penetrating koow- 
kdga tf naCoie and of dtcnmitancea, and the repn- 
tatirai of hii marrellaiu powera, which he bad 
acquired by curing diieaKa, by hii incceiifa] 
AxertiiHia in remoTing manhy diitricti, aTerting 
eindemiia and obnoiioai wind* (Diog. Laart. TiiL 
60, 70, 69; Plat, de Curia. Priie. f.B\6, adr. 
OaL p. 1 126 ; Pliu. H. JV. xxxvi. 27, and othen), 
nircad a lutre around hi* name, which induced 
Timaena and other hiitorian* to mention him more 
frequently. Although he hinueif may hare been 
innocent of the name of "averter'' or ''controller 
of itonDi" (wAtwoW^Aju, dAf{aW^uu) azid of a 
■DagioBii (fitTTt), which weregiTan to him (Kanten, 
Z, c. p. 49, Ac), ilill he mnil haie attributed to 
hinueif miraculou* powen, if in the btgiiming of 
bii Kod^fiof he laid of bbn*elf~-be may, howeyer, 
hare been ipeaking in the name of lome awirtant 
daemon — ** An immortal god, and no longer a 
mortal man, I wander among yoo, hunonred by all, 
adorned with prieatly diademi and bioaning 
wreatb*; to whileTer illu*tiiani town* I go, I 
am paiied by men and women, and accompanied 
by thouiandi, who thinl for dcliirerance, lome 
being denimi lo know the flitnte, othen remediei 



ibt diMMe*," &a (Kanten, p. 142, t. SOZ, ftc.; 
compan the accannti of the oilantatioD and haugh- 
tineaaofEmpedaek*, p.29, Ac) In Uke manner 
he promiaa* remedie* a^inrt the power of aril and 
of old age ; he pnlendi to teach men how to btvak 
the Tehemence of the UDweuied winda, and how 
to all them forth again ; bow to obtain fron dark 
rainy cloud* (oeEuI drought, and tre» fe eding iitci* 
from the droogfal of anminer {Old. t. 435, &&), — 
promitei and preteoaona, perhaps exMcwiTe of 
hii confidence in tha inbnt ■oance, whidt had mlv 
eoomienced iti dareiopment, tather than in hia 
own panonal capability. With equal pride ha 
celebiBlea the wudom of the man — the aneSeiit 
biitoriani thenuelTet did not know whether ha 
meant Pytbagorai or Paimenidea — 
of tha ncheat monlai and inleUictual t 
eaaily perceiTod enrything in 
with die fiill enecgy of Itii mind he 
do u. (Ibid. T. 440. &c) The li 
a Turied and lirely m. " ' 
pedoclea wa* acquainted 
with the pbyiician* AaoB and PauuiiM (Dio^ 
Laeit. Tiii. 60, 61, 65, 69 ; Plut. dali.^Oi. f. 
383 ; Plin. H. A^. iiii. 3 ; Suid. >. e. : comp. 
Kragm. t. 54, 43S, Ac), with PjIhagoieaDi, and 
it it nid with Pamwnidc* and Anaiagoiai alia 
(Diog. l^aiirt. Tiii. &£, 56, Ac : comp. Kanun, p. 
47. Ac) ; and panon* b«ng carried away by that 
ntoTement, believed themiel?a to be the nvrer the 
goal the lei* dearly they per»i*ed the way that 
led to it, and thay regarded a perfect power otct 
nalnre ai the necwaiy cotueqnenoo of a perfect 
knowledge of it. 

Timaeiu and Dicaoudraa bad apoken of tha 
jonroey of Empedodei lo Pdoponnema, aitd of the 
admiration which waa paid to him there (Diog. 
UHri. Tiii 71, 67; AtheD.iiT. p.620); othen 
mentioned hi* lUxy at Atheni, and m the newly- 
Ibundsd colony of Thuiii, B. c 446 (Suid. *. v. 
'Axprnr ; Diog. LdeiL TiiL 52); bat it wa* only 
ontruitworthy hiitoiiani that made him tnnl in 
the eoit a* &r u the Magi. (Plin. H. A', ux. 1, 
Ac; cimip. Kanlao, p. 39, Ac) Uii death ia 
nid to have been marrelloot, like hi* life : a tndi- 
tioD, which ii traced to Heracleidai Poulicit*, a 
writer fond of wonder^ thing*, lepteaented bin 
ai haTing been removed from the earth, like & 



67, 69, 70, 7 1 ; Hor. ad Pinm. 464, Ac ; comp. 
Sanlen, p. 36, Ac) But it ii atlerted by the 
authority of Aiiitoue, that he died at the age of 
liity, and the Matement* of lalar writer*, whs 
extend hi* life further, cannot be Ht up igainit 
(Apollon. m, Diog. Jbaett vi" 
--, ;>.74. 73.) ' ■■ '"' '" 

Kpbiat ana roi 

FhilMOpher aei 
Kog.Laett.ti , .,-. 

the work* attributed to Empodoclei, and wbich 
were all metrical compontion* (lee the list in 
Kanten, p. 62, Ac), we can fbm an opinion only 
on hii KaBapiul and hii didactic poem on Nature, 
and on the latter work only Item the ooniidenble 
fragmenla Mill extant. It eoniiited of 2000 hen*, 
meter Toraei, and wa* addrtued to the abore- 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



BIIPEDOCLES. 
■ pocn aid to ban 



■ ud atha niU. (Sm ihe bigmdnti in 
BB< p. 144, TCI*. 4031, Ac ; camp. AriMoL 

"; £qdein.n.S.} EmpcdaclM wia 

limmtad with tlH didactic pocDU of 
Hennipp. uid Thco- 
tiami.ap.Diiig.£atrl.Tiu.SS,S6)—illaM>iatolhe 
htaa da be padDlsd oat in tha bagmenti, — but fa« 
■«■• ta hBf« MTC—d than in the animatioD and 
rirbwn of bia atjle, and in the ckanicai of Ui 
de i iT i [Hii« M and dictioi ; n that Aiiftotle, thmi^ 
■n tba ma hand, ba af^noiriedgBd only the metra 
■ a potiit of EODpariaon betvem tha poama cf 
E»pedo d ga aad tlw epic* of Homu, jet, «i tha 
other hand, had chanctcriied Empedoclel Ba 
Hgnnic and ponrfid in hig dictioii. (Pael. 1, up. 
Diog. I^Sri-TnLST.) Lacntiu. thcgnateat ofall 
4idaclic pneta, (ptaki of bin wiUi mthoiiaim, and 
mdntlT mariia bim ai hit modtt. (See eipeciaUf 
Lamt. 1 727. «e.) We an indebted ibc the fint 
D of tha fr^msnta of Em- 

■ eftha 

.(a 




M pniKiple 
■WMiagfa hi 



•f the Eleatica and tha Pjlhagonam, he did oat 
' * ' iciplei eitbar of tba one 

' a a^Rcd with the 
m of aonli (/Va^ak 
loa. 1. Ab, 380, Ac, 35<H13, 410, Ac ; taop. 
riiiaiM. p. S09, Ac), in the attempt to ndnca 
the iilMtinin of iniitafB to nnmben, and in a faw 
■(her poiKU. (Kanrten, p. 426, 33, 43S, A&, 
t» ; cnvFUP, hovaTar, Bd. Zdhir, <ti> />MIo«pUa 
«r OM>a. p. 169, dtc Tilblu^ 1844.) With 
tha Baariri he agnad in thinking that it wai im- 
paaabie to tuattin aofthing ariang oat of nothing 
tFrwam. Tna.SI,Ac 119, &c 345, Ac; comp. 
S*L, ed. Kanten, TEia. 47, £0, 60, 
66, 68, 75), and it ia not hapoauble that ha 



it phihiaspben and to Anan^oiH. 
L 3, 4, 7, PV. i 4, d* Otmma. tt 
~L 8, A CadB, iii. 7.) AO thne, ilka tha 
■hula Ionic phjaoltgj, ettdBTonicd to point out 
tint wUcb mniad lh> laaia of ail dtangat. and lo 
1 1 [hill lb* bUa br naui it tha fbrawr ; but 
they esold sot, Uha Hoadeitna, conaida the 



EUPED0CLE9. 13 

to radiMe that which appcan to nit ai a coning into 
eiiilencv to a {voceu cj mirtnre aiid Hpaiation of 
unaJterable Bobalancea ; but for the sune reaion 
ihoy were DbUged to gire Dp both, the Heiacleilean 
imppoaitioD of ono original fandamenlal power, and 
the tariier Ionic hypotbeti* of one original lal^ 
Ranee which pnduced all chai^ai oat of iudf and 
again abaoibed them. The mppoaitjon of an aiigi- 
□al plnralitj of unalteiaUe dementaiy mbatancaa 
wsa abaduldj neeai i j . And thai we God in 
the oitant fngmeuta of the didactic poon of Em- 
pedodaa, the geniuneneu of wliich ii atteated be- 
jood all doubt by tha authority of Ariitotle and 
other uuaent writen, the moat uneqniTocal atate- 
iTidant ngard to the aigo- 
hat a cmning into 
, a* well u a nmpleta 
thing! impovible ; what 
lence and death ia only 
and leparatian of what wa* mixed, and 
tha axpreariona of coioing into eiiitenca and de- 
atruction or jumihilatim an juittfied only by our 
being obliged (o nibmit to the oioi loqoandL 
{Fragm. 77, &e., 345, Ac.) The origmal and im- 
altenUe iDbatancea were tennad by Erapedodea 
tha zoota of thinga (Wironpa tivj' nirmr ^^i^^iara, 
Fragm. ytn.6&, ta^ 74, Ac] g and it waa ha who 
fint aitablilhed the nmobn-of four elementa, which 
wen afterwuda lecogtiiied for many centoriea, 
and which before Enpedoclca had been pointed 
mt one by dim, partly aa ftindunantal lobatancea, 
and partly aa Inuuilioa itage* of thtngt coming 
into eiiatence. (Ariitot. AM^itjii. L 4, 7, dt 
anwrat H Oarr. ii. 1 ; camp. Ch. A. Bcindii, 
Hiudimik d. Oaci. da- GrMot. /Om. FkHo,. L 
p. l9S,Ac) The mythical name* Zetu, Hara, 
Neitii, and ATdonena, atteniata with tha common 
termi of fire, air, water, and aaith ; and it ia of 
little importance for the aacniate nndaritanding of 
hia diaon, whether lb* lile^ginng Hem ww meant 
to ugnl^ the air and Aldoneoa the earth, or 
Aldmeiu the air and Han the aaith, ahhon^ the 
Ibfmer i* mora piobahla than the laMer. (Frajpn. 
S5, Ac, 7i,ftc.; comp. Bnndit, i.e. p. ISS.) Aa, 
however, the elementary Bibatancea wen aimple, 
eternal, and soalterable (Kanten, p. 336, Ac.), 
and ai change or alteialion waa merely the con- 
■eqoence of their miitura and aeparation, it waa 
alio ncceaaary to oonceire them aa motionleaa, and 
comequentiy to auppoae the eiiilence of nwving 
poweti — the neoeiaary condition of miitore and 
aepaiation — a* diWinct from the nbataneei, and 
eqaally original and etsmaL BdI in Ibii miuuier 
the dynamic nplanalioni whidi tha earlier phyaio- 
logiita, and eipecially HeradaitDa, had giTcn of 



1 to BToid the 



In 



order here a) 

actual coming , , 

two oppoaite directioni of the moring power, tbe 
attnctiTe and r^nluve, tbe nnitiiig and aepant- 
inf;, that h, love and hata (Miuan, A4pu, Kmvi — 
•iMil, ♦iA*nn, 'Affurfih Ttnrri), aa eqnally 
original and elementaiy {Fragm. 88, ftc, 1 38, Ac, 
167, Ac.; AriftoL Ata^n i. 4; KarMen, p. 
346, kc); whareaa with Heracleitua they wera 
only diSerent manifeatationt of one and the lame 
fundamental power. But t> it to be luppoaed that 
Iwo powen wore from tha beginning equally 






? and ia the atate of mixtorc, i, *. the world 



a Mate in which the pun alenentai; 



14 

MMneea md the two nmin^ F«im« c»«ifaud 
in a condilion of npoM and inortiKii? Ed^w- 
dodea dscidsd in bmnr of the latter ■nppoutian 
{Pit^m. Ttn. 88, Ac, 69, ftc. ; unp. Plat. &pL 
p. 242 1 AiHtot. A CW. L 10, />%iL ^ana. L i, 
vHl 1), which agreed vili aocient l^endi and 
liadilioiii. Tliia ha fnbablj did etpaaaUy in 
dcr to keep i^ man diatinclljr annaer eiuUn 
■ndtluDB earning intoeiiitanea; tod be eonoiiTed 
tha origmil a»-eiiilBiica cf the pan dtnwntaiy 
aabManeea and of the two poven in (he tona of ■ 
■pheie (in^ajfai ; eomp. Kvaten, p. 1S3. Ac), 
which waa to indicate ita perfect indeiiendeDee and 
aelt«nfflcia»ej. Ai, howcrer, theae elemenlaiy 
aaUtancea were to eiiat together in their parity, 
withonl miitore and (cpaiatiiin, <t waa ueceMaij 
to mppoae that the uniting power of lore fffedami- 
nated in the qihere (Ariitat Meb^ilna- B. i. 1, 
A. 21, de Oemena. * Con. i. 1), and thM tha 
Kparating power of hate waa in a itate of limited 
actirity, ar, ai Empedoele* erpre wei it, gowded 
the eitieme enda of the iphen. (Fragm. Ten. SB, 
comfi I67,&c) When the dealmcliTe hate [iKa 
into actiriCy, the bend which keepa the puie ele- 
nenUij wbatancaa together in the aphere ia dia- 
atdved (yen. 66, Ac ) ; they aepante in older 
pattlf to unite again \t} the power of Ime : and 
thia it the origin af anr worid of phaenwnena. Bat 
that the elemanlai; MibMaiiBn might not be com- 
pleter abHrbed by thii world and loae their 
ptni^i Empedocle* omnied a periodical change of 
the ipbere and fbnnatian of the world (/Va^iK. ren. 
88, Acn 167, Ac.); but perha)]i alio, like the 
eariiar loniaiia, ■ popetaiu continoanoe of pnra 
fbndamental aabMancee, to which the parte of the 
woild, which an tired of change, retain and pn- 
pan die fennation of the aphere for the next period 
of the worid. (H. Bitter in Wolfa Arnaled. a 
p. 445, Ac, OfA. i*r PhOnt. L p. SSS, Ac i but 
cmnp. Zellcr. ^ a. p. 191, Ac) Tbe ^here being 
the embodiment of pare eiiatence wa> with him 
alao tbe embodiment or repreaentatiTe id the dnty, 
nther concdTiag the ddtj ai a ccUeetliit;', or 
laainly aa the nniting power <rf lore. (i^>itj;«. Ten. 
70; oam(t Aiiatot de OememL tt Ootr. u. G, JVfe- 
t^jigi. a 4, lia ^KiM. i. S.) Bat a* enatenca ii 
not to be confined to the apbeie, hot mtut rather 
1m at the foundation of the whole riiii^ world, aa 
IhedeityalaonnHlbeaetiTBinit. Bat Erapedoclea 
WW little able to detennine tha toic of tfaii divine 
•etiri^ in ita diitjoclion fram and conneiion with 
the aninty of the moling powen : he, too, like 
^ Qutica (XoMphan. ^^i^fat. 1, 2, 3, fi, G, ed. 
Kantan), alion to pnii^ aod libenle the notion 
of the deity : " not pnrtded with Umba, He, a 
holy, infinite ipiiil, panea thno^ the world with 
p^d thoa^te," ii the ioblime eipeaaion ef Bm- 
pedeidn. {Frogm. tmi. S59, Ac, cotqi. 317.) 
AIongwiththii,how«Ter, he ^cak* of the eternal 
power rf Neceao^ aa an andcnt decree of the godi. 



myateiioai darkneaa is wl 
woriia of moat philoiepheia of antiquity. 
~^e percciTa the world ef phaenKoena or changea 
1^ the tnadiam of our amies, bnl not » ita 
1 althoagh Empedodea tiaced 



the mne eanie, his u original beings (Aiiatet. de 
Atom. iij. S. MetofJif. L 67 ; Fmm. S21, Ac, 
312. Ac, 313. 318, Ac), stiU he dtaily diatin- 
gniifaed the htttciaaa higher stale of deielopmnit 
finn the fnrner ; he complains of tbe itnsU extent 
of onr knowledge obtunabia throogh onr bodj 
{Fragm. 33, Ac^ and adrises ns not to tnwt ta 
onr ejea or can, or any Other part of ost body, 
bat to H in thoo^t of what kind cadi thing it 
by ilaeif {Fragni. 49, Ac, oomp. 108, 3£6, Ac.) ; 
but he Btlribntei tha chinkii^ cognition to the 
deity alone. {Fragm. 33, Ac^ 41. Ac. 354, 362. 
Ac.) We are, howeter. by no meam joatified in 

■---'--■^-- ' ■- like the El««tH», eon- 

■plible throogh the 



re phantom, and the oj 



y of the diTine s;Jimv, 



IT of 
rid of lore, whid 
by thoagfat, to bo the aide eiiatence. (H. Rilt« 
in Wolfa ^•obrf. L p. 423, Ac, O^A-dtrPkOoi. 
i. p. 541, Ac; Btandii. in the mttMuek. Mmemm, 
iiL p. 124 : camp. Zeller, Lc. p. 184, Ac) 

Farther inTcalirations concerning Empriodea^ 
deiiiuion of the di&icnt kinds of smtueoa per- 
ception, and of the mutual inflnenoe of things ppon 
one another in genenl. from the coincidonoe of 
''" porei, aa well at tbe 



iknic darttinei, matt ba left to a hiitnry of 
i3ieek philosaphy. [Ch. A. B.] 

E'MPODUS ('EfooSof V aa otherwise anknown 
writer, whose AniirmuuriiiaTw are meatioiied by 
Alhenaena. (ii. p. 370.) Caaanbon pn^nted to 
md HoniMvioi instoid of "Z/tnSoi ; hot oor 
ignorance abonl Empodus ia not aoffiEdent to joati^ 
tuck a cDniectara. [L. 8.] 

EHPCrRtlTS, a hH3B ihetoricaan, aathoc of 
three abort tiacta entitled 1. Di EUKpomi oc Loro 
ChamwBti LAer ; 2. Dtmotatmtivst Mitieriae prar- 
eeptma ; 3. Dt DttOtntiia ^neia. He Is beliend 
■o hsTo flonriihod not eariier than the sixth cen- 
tury, chiefly &om the dnrnmatonce that he lefera 
in his illoatiationi to the r^al power rather than to 
the nnperial dignity, which be wonld aonely hare 
dona Imd he lired bafue the lerinl of the kingly 



t fitat edited by Beatat Rbenanns, 



title, 

along with some nner anuiora upon rneinnc, nan. 

152] ; the piece* named abore wlQ all be found 

IB " Antiqoi Bhetoret Latini " of F. Pithoeus, 

4tOH Paris. 1599, p. 278. [W. B.] 

EHPU-SA (IVcnima), a maiutnna spectre, 

lidl was belieTed to deyanr hnman beings. It 

coold asBUDe difierent fbniu, and waa sent onl by 

Hecata to frighten trnTellert. Il waa bdieTcd 

anally to appear with one kg of brass and tho 

other of an aaa. (Ariatoph. Rat. 294, Etda. 

1094.) Whenem b tnTeller addressed tbe 

moniter with intilltng words, it need to flee and 



(Phil» 



. va. A 



ing yonng men, apd then sacked their Uood like 
Tampyrs and ate tiieir flesb. wan leekoned among 
the Empaiat. (FhihMtr. PtL ApdIL in. 25; Said, 
a. o.) \h. S.J 

KHPYLU^ a rhetorician; the companion, aa 
wa an told by Plotaich, of Brntna, to whom he 
dedicaled a ^nrt essay, net deatitnta of merit, on 
tbe death of Caoar. It is not ttaled to what 
coontry he bdonged. " finpylos 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EKAHTI0PHANE8. 

■i ■ iIjmI ia a MMga at QdstilBn, vb«n tlw 
•Ml it Mfj daobtnl, M >s orUoc Tebmd to bj 

ir^ofllM]KUr^Pliil.£nit3; QamdL i. 6. 



A B nrda tnAisphitrt* and tka Nn- 
■cUn, M aioti >■ Uitj (hould, on tlurir joamsj lo 
Leii>a4,oia>etotlitnNkH«iigeion. Tbeladmof 
tte atariMi accndin^ caiued their duigtiun In 
tev loM, tbe THslt <if wlikb n>, thu ilka dmgb- 
ttt of tJP'M i ltrr F <r Phiiwa mi to be noificed. 
W^n Ua WW OB Ike point of baw thmm inlo 
A* m, her kmc, Bmms imbimd ho', ■nd leaped 
iriih her taU the daqk Bat both vara «Ted bf 
Mpbu. Om the MB ill amamd Leaboa tna in 
Mctt h^ billowy that iw nw •ailnml In qv 
peach it ; Enahia akme bad the osonna to da to, 
aad whoi he tatnnied bam the lea, be wu fot- 
loved hj polyn. the greateM of which wu canr- 
wf a Moae. wfaieh Bnbm took frem it, and de£- 
ritrd in m lem^ (Phit. SqiL S af iml . Cania. pl 
163. e. ^ Attn <■»»{. p. 984. d.) [L. S.] 

ENANTItyPHANES. CD>diu, in fait Pm- 
Cke hi the «Oth book of tbe BaniicB, pnfixsd to 
^ 7th nfaima of Fatmt^ edition it that waik. 



ef a Qneco-BaniBii jnriit, who wiote Mpl fcanw- 
fB*v, EC coneaabig the eipIanalioD M[ qiparait 
b^ BN^rtaxieai and Bmm (MKiL BaiO. 
f XS) i^i that Phothii, in hi) Nomocamn, men- 
■»•* baling writtoi Rich ■ woit Fabridni, in a 
BB(a span the vnk of Snaici (which k inKrted 



bia rufaja to the Naraovnon oF Pbntnu, nfen ta 

.Tv. OviaK. 5. 18, p. 389) that thm i> na nMOD 
fw Mtnbiit% a wttk *^ JtwTHfaniv to Pho- 
. .•_. .!.._. ji 11^ pBMage in Ini Nenocanoo 
a wink, and Ibu the ■entaDce 
> ii nppoaed In Fabiidne to nite 
■ baa DO nith luannf . The 
CT BiDJar ia eited in Antt. T. p. 726. 
CB (AinL Ti. p. 250) dlea hu own 
book dt Ltgalm H Mortis Omm Aiwtfinvtae, 



d»eiiaSmB.n. p.496. He period wh«> tbe ju- 
mt Bred wlu bean thii nana, ha« been a mbject 
wtmmdt^tptta. Rail (od natjiaMi, pp. 1294, 
1236) thinka tiM Baaii&phaiic* wnta before the 
LiUHiiwtiim rf tbe Badlgt, and nuifca kii name 
with «• Brtefiek aa an «*—"""* cootenpotaij of 
Tnaiiiiaii lo Sod. liL p. S18 EnaBBophuea 
ab SuplMnna lui maalai; bat thii ii bj no 
Boaa laailnMiii ftwumannii mialed bj Puado- 
pad, tbinka that tbe Slephanu ben meant livad 
aadcr Alenai Coddbibi, and wai not (ha Ste^a- 
Baa who wn one of the axaplen of jBttiniaa'a 
Digiat. Tbe canMnpom; of Joniiuan, howenr, 
la andoabwdlj tbe penon intended; but Stepha- 
• waa ana (( thoea eailf Onaco-Ronan jiuieti 
~ ' — ■ ■ J Cjiilliii, an 



ISaaMia|ih^Ha ■mail tlia jaiiMt who lired bafbn 
tbe toa e( BnildBa Macedo. (Ant. Jbr. Or. Am 
iMfa% 1 80. 1, 2.) Thai he Hrad balMa tba for 



ENCELADU8. 15 

matin af tbe pnanit text of tbe Batilica, appnn 
baa hii being eemal tima naaed in tbe ten it- 
lel^ aa in iiL p. 268, wben be dtea Tbeaphiloi; 
iL p. £60, where lia die* the Code af JuitiniBn ; 
L 99, where be dtea the NoTeDa of Joitinian. 
Acconliag (o tba Schalium on the Beiilia (ii. p. 
£4a, ed. Hdinbech), he eeemi to bate written 
notea npon the Dignt. That he via alife after 
the death af Jiutinian eppeara bom Batil. lii. p. 
230 (ed. Heimbacb), when he dtea a Norell of 
Joetin. On the other hand, Aaaenianni thinki that 
be wrote after the ecmpoaitian of the Baai1i<«, 
which, in the Schaliom, Batd. L p. 262, he appean 
to ate ; but it it Ter7 likelf that hen, aa in man; 
other idaeaa, that which waa origiaall; a citatiafl 
boa the Digaol ha* baea •nhaeqnnitlj changed for 
emifenienca into a n&reDoo to the H—ni... , Iq 
Snail. iiL p. 440, he dlea Ongorin* Doxatialer, 
wbom PaU (fbUowed by Zadiaiiae), <m the aap- 
poeed anthaiit; of Hontbncan, plana in the lint 
half df the 1'2th eratmy ; bat we Iutb abewn 
[Ddxafitu] that than I* no noand far ideaU- 
fjing Onoanna Donpatar with the Doiapatai 

■ "ed by Montfanain, 

-' joiiat of tbe time of Jnatinian t* 

in die BaiilieB, and in the Scholia 
cm that walk bf the iq^llation of lit Jaonjmtoaa. 
Tbia wrilsr conpoeed an Index or abridgment of 
the Navelli af Jnttinian, and waa the aotbor of 
Pantitk (■ comporiKm of panltcl paioagea) in the 
Digett. To thi* wotk the tnatiu on appanntif 
diacordmt paMMoa would form anatonf aeqnel; 
and Morticnil (Hatoin du Droit Bfpanlvt, L p. 
296) mahea it probable that Eaantio^ianea ai^ 
the Anonymoui were the aane penona ; for in 
OutJ. Ti. p. 2&1 SchoL, a panage la aicribed to 
Enantiophanee, which, in BatlL n, p. 260, Schol., 
the Anon jmona. 



£G) thnw oM the coirieeton, (hat the A 
«a* DO other than JnllanB*, the anther of the'La^ 
^tmna of the NomlU) and Zaehariae (^aaeiiiKii, 
p. 20t~7) aUenpla ta aatabHah thi* oonjectnre. 
Hoitrenil aeem* diapoaed to ideuti^ tlie threa. 
In Older to bdlitale inrettiaatiDn, we aabjoiD a 
lilt (fenued &om Reii and Pabridu) of pamegea 
in the Paailira when the name of Enantiophane* 

BaO. L pp. 70, 99, 100, 109, 260, 40B, 262, 
265, 266, ii. pp. 540, 560, 609, 610, 636, iH. 
pp. 41, 170, 25B, 318, 393, 394, 412, t. p. 726, 
■n. 250, 251, 260. tiL 406, 499, £65, 640, 641. 
(H«imfaach,d>aiutfOrH.pp.76-79.] [J.T.O.] 

ENAHETPHORUS (Inv^fMpof), a ton of 
Hippocoin, wa* a moat paaaionate auitor of Helen, 
wbim the wM fet qoile Toang. Tyndarena, then- 
ibce, entnatad the m^den to tbe can of Thnen*. 
(ApoUod. iii. 10. I 5 ; Pint. TVk SI.) Enan- 
phonu had a heinun at Spaila. (Pane, iii, )S. 
§2.) [L.S.] 

ENATIETE. [Aaoina, No. 1.] 

ENCPLADUS CETWAaSoil, a am of l^rta- 
nu and Oa, and one of the hnndrad-mnad gianta 
who mada war upon the goda. (Hygin. Fab. FiaeL 
p. 1 1 Viig, ^ea. IT, 179 ; Ol. Bp. ex PomL it 3. 
IS, AvtBT. iiL 12. 27.) Ma wa* klDed, according 
to aomo, hj Zena, hj a flath of lightning, and bn- 
tied under mount Aetna (Virg. Jn.iii S76); and, 
aocacdiiV t° oAoa, he waa killed bjr the chariot of 
Athena (Paoa. TiiL 47. g U or by the ipeir of 
SeOeMB. (Earip.Q<Jiii*,7.) In hi* flight Athena 

D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



16 



ENDOEUS. 
D fatal llw utuid of Siol}-. (ApoUod. : 



threw , ... 

6. g 2.) There m two olhn hlmloiii bcingi of 
tbU nww. (ApoQod. ii 1. S £ ; EnUalh. adHom. 
P.91H.) [L.S.] 

ENCCLPIUS. tPirwNiua.] 

ENCO'LPICIS » nuned bj Lampridini M the 
^dthor of a Life of tbe ompenv AlexHndor Several, 
with whom he lind apon tenni of inlimscy. 
(I^mpiid. AUx. Sen. 17, IS.) 

A book pabliihed bf Tfaomai ElynC, ■ man 
eelebnled br hii louniufi in thu reign oE Henrj 
Vni., under the title " The Im^^ of Ooruniinn 
(Tmagn Impeiii) compiled of the Acta and Sen- 
lencH notable oF the mMt noble emperor Alex- 
ander Sevenu, tranilated from the Greek of Ed- 
colpiu (Encolpiiu) into Engliih," Lend. 1540, 
1G41, 1544. 1S49, 4ta, 15GG, I59i, in„ ii ■ ^ 
biioUion. fW. H.] 

ENDE'13 f ErSqft), n daDghter of Chinm, who 

ti manied to Aeacoi, bj ^om ibe ' "' 



% 6,] Pannniaa (iL 29. % 7) 

ofSdran. [L.S.] 

E-NDIUS r^Mhoi), Df Sputa, vn of AlciUadei. 
nanber of a brnQj whole coraieiioa with tlM of 
the Athenian Alcibiadea had ba pterion* geneiBtian 
Intndaeed into tbe latter thiiljceJaeiDoniaB ague. 
It ii he appanntlr who wa* one of the three am- 
baiMdon aeut bf Sparta in 430 & c. to dinnada 
Athena from the Argire alliance. Thev were 
cboHn, nji Thncydidea, Anm the belief of their 
being empUble to the Alheniani. and poHiblr in 
paiticalar with a liew to coneiUate h[> fnint, Alci' 
tnadet, who pmboblj mads n« of thi) very admt- 
tagfl ID effecting the deceptiim hf which he de- 
feated th«r purpow. He wai elected ephor in the 
antnmn of 413, the time of the Athenian diiiilar 
at Sjncnie, and thnragh him Aldbiides, now in 
eiile, inflicted on hi* conntr; the eerere Mow of 

which otherwiie mmld at an; nte have been pMt- 
Boned. Hii influence decided the goremment to 
lend it* Ent loeconr to Chioi ; uid when the 
bbcksJa of their ihipi in Peineeni aeemad likel; 



Eadini and hi* coUeagQei to make the attempt. 
Thncididei lajt, that Aldlriade* waa hi* •BipucJt 
h-ri iiA^irra lim; ao that pnbaUjr It wu with 



hcti wa maj TflUtuie to add ftom Diodorne (xiii. 
52, 53) the innher ilatenient, that after the defeat 
at Cfiinu, B. a 410, ha waa lent frem Sputa at 
the head of an embanj to Atheni with praponl* 
lor peace of the bireat choneter, which wen. how- 
erer, thnmgb the influanee of the preHimptuoDi 
dcnufioga* Cleophon, njected. Endina, a* the 
friend of Alcibiadat. the ficlor of Cjiicna, would 
Batorallir tie aeleeled; and the oeeount of Diodo- 
m*. with the exception of conrK of tlie oration he 
writaa for Endini, may, notwithatanding tbe 
aitence of XenophoD, be received ai trne in the 
main. [A.H.C.] 

ENDOEUS CZrisisf), on Athenian atatoary, 
i* called a diicipie of Doedolni, whom he ii laid to 
IwTe accompanied when he fled to Crete. Tfait 
ttalement moat be taken to eipreia, not the time 
at which he Hied, bat the itjle of art which he 
piactiKd. It ii probable that he lived at the lanie 
period a* Dipoenna and ScifDia, who are in the 
Mme tn; called diieiplef of Daedalai, namely, in 



ENDYMION. 
the time of Peiaiatrotn* and hi* ami, abom r. c; 
sen. (Thierach, Epwiem, pp. 124, 125.) Mi* 
work* were : 1. In the acnpolia at Atben* a nl- 
ting Btntne of Athena, in olirf^-wood, with an in- 
Kiiplion to the efiect that CUliot dedicated it, and 
Endoena made it Hence hii ace i> inferred, for 
the firat Calliaa who is mentioned in hi*tojy it the 
opponent of Peiaiitratni. (Herod. Ti. IZl.) 2. In 
the temple of Athena PoUai al Erythiae in lonin, 
a coloHol wooden atntue of the godde**, litting an 
a throne, holding a dialsff in each hand, and having 
a nuMlia] (inJAm} on the heaj. B. In connexion 
with this atatne, there ilood in the bypoethnEm, 
before the riiil of PanMnioi to the temple, *Utue* 
of the Oraoei and Hour*, in while maible, atao by 
Endoen*. 4. A atatue of Athena Alea, in her 
temple at Tegea, nuule entirely of iTory, which 
waa traniported to Rome by Anguitaa, and <et np 
in the entrance of hi* fonnn. (Paaa. L 26. § 5 ; 
Tii. a. § 4; liiL 46. i'i; Athenag. LfyaL pro 
OraL p. 293, a.) [P. &1 

ENDY'MION CE»»iF>Jiw1. a yonlh diatin- 
gniahed far hi* beauty, and renowned in ancient 
atory by the perpetual ilrep in which ha apent hi* 
life. Some tmditiana about Endymion icier na to 
EUa, and other* to Caria, and othen again are a 
combination of tbe two. According to the first act 
of legend*, be waa a *an of Aelhliua and Coljccor 
of Zena and Calyce, and aucceeded Aethliua in the 
kingdom offli*. (Faua. <r. I. $ 2.) Othen again 
■ay that he expelled Gymenni &om tbe kingdom of 
Eli*, and introduced into the conntty Aeolian aet- 
tlera from Theianly. (ApoUod. i. 7. § .% &c. ; 
Pana. v. S. $ 1.) Conon (Narrat. 14) tall* him & 
aon of Zena and Protogeneis, and Hyginui (Fa6, 
271)aianof Aetolni. He ia a^d to hare been 
married to Aiterodia, Chromia, Hyperippe, Nei*, 
or Ipbianaaia ; and Aetolui, Paeon, Epeiuk Eury- 
diee, and Naxna aie colled hia children. He waa, 
howerer, eipedally belored by Selene, by whom 
he had fifty dai^hlen. (Pani. r. I. $ 2.) Ha 
earned hi* Kma lo engage in the lace-conne at 
Olympiii, and promiaed to the liclor the ancceaaiou 
in hi* kingdem,andEpeiu* conquered hia brothera, 
and tncceeded Endymion a* king of Elia. He wa* 
believed to be buried at Olympia, which alao con- 
tained a itatoo of hi* in the treainiy of the Met*- 
pontiana. (Pana. vi 19. $ S, 20. f G.J According 
to a tradition, believed at Hetadeia in Caria, En- 
dymioQ had come (rmn EU> to mount Latimia in 
Caria, whence he ia called the Lalmian (£afiuiu; 
Pan*. T. I. M: Ov. An Am. iii. S3, nM. ii. 
299). He ia deKribed by the poeU either a* a 
king, a ahepherd, or a hunter (Theociit. ui. 49, 
II. 37 with the Scholiait), and while he waa ilum- 
boring in a cave of mount Latmna, Selene caaaa 
down to him, kiaaed, and lay by hia aide. (Comn. 
Apollon. Rhod. iv. B7.) Then alK> he had, ui 
Inter time*, a •anctunry. and hi* tomb wa* ahewn 
in a care of monnt Latmoi. (Paua. v. 1. § 4 s 
Sttab. xiv. p. 636.) Hia eternal ileep on Idlmns 

e Bid that Zcu had ginnled tiim a reqneat, 
that Endymion begged for immortality, eter- 
nal alcep, and everhuting yauUi (ApoUod. i. 7. 
' ~,) ; Dihcn relate that he waa received among 
tbe goda of Olympaa, but aa be then fell in Iot« 
with HeiTk, Zeua, in hii anger, puniihed bim by 
throwing him into eternal *le«p on mount Latmna. 
(Schol. ad TitocnL iii. 49.) Othen, La*dy, atata 
thai Selene, ehonued with hi* laipaating btMitj's 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



ENNIUa 
aM^tadMn,tkt iba n^^ be aUs IoUm 

hn wkhiat bo^ ofeaond bj bim. (Gc Duad, 
L H) IkitoMKiribe&BrieepcT, End; 
tbc dsliif of Sdcoc, m nnqnntumU j pc 
&tia»i in vUcb de^ h pafMnifiad. Hi* 



a kipg. bccHiM bs hu paver 
linig (xatiuia ; ■ ibcplieid, bccaius he •] " 

miuit of oblirion.'' Notbmg can be mo 
tifU, iMtly, tban tba ixitiim, tint be u kiwed b; 
tb> «ft naji of the mooD. (Cuup. PUt. Fiatd. p. 
72. b; Or. JB.L 13.43.) Then ii ■ beaotifb] 
itmam t£ a iln iiiiiii EDdjiaion in the Biitiih 

^ id in Th««Jy, 
gbterof SalnuH 



KxrPEOS r&iFwi), a riter-god in ' 
vbo «H bdovod bf T>nv the daiubter c 
BHB. Poaaidaii, win wai io kiTe i 



liitad bee, md £b(cme br bim the i 
wiH, PdiM and Nekn. {ApoOod. l 
>rid(JM.TLllG)rdMa that Ponidoi 



, i _8.) 



■^■d tba faOD of BsipeBi, begot t? Ipbioedeia 

B «, Otoiaod gr*™!"- AnolW liott-gnd 

«f tto MOM name occnn in EEi, who ii Hkewita 

OBMCMd with the faaend (boat TjKL (atnb.Ti 

p.»5t) IL-S.] 

mfNTA, ^M Enku TaRAtTLUt by Dion 
CMBia, ^ Enku Naitu bj SnetoniiB, nathe 
ariie <f Maoo aod Ibe BoKiev of Caligula. Her 
bda^ mrt ewd Tibarioa in ordar to acoeli - ~ 
Ae aoonsoi of CUignla ; bat thia empnor, Ii 
tne ^mt, *t«Kfc.iig u Me thooa to wliani he 
^^rr ii Ui g at i ri i, pot to death Eonia and htt 



n.*S. -_,_.., 

K?rNIU8, wbooi the Remani ercr regarded 
wiA s aat itf Clial RTBOm ai the parent of 
ihsi BtualLUU — into- gmiat. mtr own Eiuuiu> ai 
he ia Btflad with liiiid fiuoiliarity— waabixniathe 
a— JAip gf C. HandUu TuniDU and C. Vale- 
ria Fidu,B,c339,lhe jni imnwdialelT fbllow- 
mm ttatin whidi Ibefint ngnlar dnioa had been 
-rfc^pijaj (■ the lUnaD Age \>j Livini Andnmi- 
em. T^ jhet of U» natiritr waa Rndiiie, a 
r»hl» iait nO^ aaMtog the hiilt near Bnmdo- 
BBB. He darned docent Ermn the aneioil lintU 
ef Mtaeiai ; and after he had become a conTert 



g othera in a 
IHLnJ-. aad in the mgt al Cnrtona, had eren- 
mlly paaad iolo hit em fiaiia. Of hii lailj 
bjaaj we know nothing, except, if we can tnut 
the Isaae poetieal teetinioDf <rf Siliu and Clan- 
diB, that Im NTTed with aedit la • idditt, and 
am ID ■!■ aak of a eentuion. Wbao IL Por- 
(W CXewwht I«d lUad iba oOce ef qnaaMor 
^ilv Se^ia in the Afiican war, wn letanung 
ban, ha bmai OtmoM in Sardinia, became ao- 
^■ialiiil with hia bi^ powan, and bnmght him 
ia bia tnm to Booe, onr poet being at ttuU time 
^aot tha age of thutj-eiBht. Bnt bia mililarr 
aedaflr waa not jet qoeoaed ; for twelve jean 
Mnpaaied M. FnlTiai Nobilior 



■ tntaUr «f b» btanijr 



ENNIUS. 17 

taaaj to the Hiuei, and mbeeqnnitly, when 
CenicR, dedioOod a joint umpla to Heiciilei and 
the Nine. Threngh tbe Km of Nobilior, Enuiiu, 
when br adianced in life, obtained Ibe righta of a 
catiien. a piirilege which at that epoch waa 
gnarded with wUchfnl jealouaj, and jaj tarelj 
gtaulad to an alien, ^m the period, howerer, 
when he quitted Sardinia, he h 
Rome hii chief abc ' ' ' 
talenti, and an a 
have been omsdend marreltooi in thoie daji, 
•inoe he waa mailei of thiee bnguagea, — Oican, 
Tjtin. and Greek, — gained lot Um the leqiect 
and bioitr of all who Tilued Mich attainment! ; 
and, in paiticalar, he liTed npon term* of the 
clonit intimacj with l3i» cmquBor of Hannibal 
and other maoheta of that dietii^nithBd family . 
Dwelling in a ' ■ ' ' ' 

attended bra 



W?i 



1 br a nnde fnnale alare, ha maintained 
in hmMNUula pnei^ by actiig at a pce- 

ftricfain yontha ; and baring lind on 

iagood«eB,wa ' * "' 

inta, prabahly g 



taking, which be cloaee by comparing himaalf to a 

raee-hoiae, in theie pnphetic linea : — 

Like some braie need, who in hi* late*t itaa 

Hath won the Olympic wnath ; the cooteat e'er. 

Sink* to repoae, worn out by age and toiL 

At the deoie of Afhcanu, hi* remain* wera 

depotited in the tepakhre of the Scipioa, and hia 

boat allowed a phue sa»ng the efiigiei of that 

noble boDie. Hia epiM^b, penned by hinudf in 

may be litenlly rendered 



Roman*, behold old Eonin* 1 whoie lay* 
Boilt np on high your mighty btbei*' praiae 1 
Poor not the wail of mouning o^r my bier. 
Not p^ to m the iribale ef • tear : 
BtiU,*tiliIliT«I fittn month to month ISyl 
Nerer fbigotten, nerer ahaD 1 die 1 
The wo^ of Eonini are heBered to bare enat- 
i entire n late a> the thirteenth oecliiry (A. 0. 
nmer, Hataokroiuii, p. 323), bat they hare 
Dg DHa dimppettnd at an independent whole, 
id nothing now remain* but frafpnenta collected 
3m other ancient writer*. Tbeae amonnt in all 
many handled Une*^ bnt a lazge proportion 
being qnotation* cited by gnmmanan* nr the 
psrpoae of illiutiaUng aome rare form, or deter- 
~'~'~g the vgiufication of aome obaolete word, are 
■oapa, jiiaaming lillle inlereit fbr any one 
philologiat. Sccae eztract* of a longer and 
mora atit&etoiy diaiaeter are to bo nond is 
Cioero, who giTet w tnm the annab, — Ibe dream 
of Ilia ( IS line*) ; Ibe oondioting aoi^eee obaened 
In- Ronmha and Bema* (30 line*) ; and the tpeech 
M Pynlm* with regard to ranaeming the prieooen 
(8 linea) i bande* tbiii, a paaaoe from the An- 

' ehe (18 liaea) ; a ennan* miectiTe again*! 

int loTtane-tellna, pfolahly from the Satire* i 
lew Dthen of ieu importanG& Anlni Oel' 
lioa baa laTod eighteen conaecatiTo Tene*, in 
which the dntiH and bearing of a hmnbla friend 
toward* hi* *aperior are bodied forth in very >pi- 



Blly euiiting tb* attack of « crowd of foea. 



Alltiongh under then 
tnmelj £tGcult to fomi any BcnraM jndgmei 
irith Rgaid to hii RbMluU merit! m > poet, i 
■n U laat certain that bii *ucceu vm triampi 
uit For a long Mrie* of jenn hii (tnint we: 
read aloai to applBoduig moJlitodes, both ia tt 
tnetropolii and in the provincn i and a dan of 
men arose who, in imiutjon of the HotneriMae, 
deioted thenuelie* exduiirely to the itudj and 
Ttcitation of hit woAa, rM«Ting the Eppellalion 
of Ennianiftae. In the lima of Cireio he wae 
■till conaidend the prince of Roman anng (Em- 
mium nmnm Epieam porlam—da OpL a. O. I. 
Smmn poela moda^-fn AtH. 32] -. Vitgil wa* 
not aitiaiied to borrov manj of hii thought*, and 
not a few at hit u^euiDn) ; and oTan the aplen- 
donr o( the Augiutan ass bited to throw him 
into tha ihade. And wul did he merit the grati- 
tude of hii adopted conntlTmm ; lor not only did 
be )>j tike haul of their liteiatnn, but acniall; 
conatnicled their langniga. He fonnd the latin 
tongue a nnigh, meagre, mmiltiTated dialect, 
made np of ill^enieiited Ingraent*, galhcnd at 
landim bma a nmnbei of di^ent »nma, mbject 
ta no nlea whjsh migiit uenn iti ttabilitir, and 
dettitnta of anj rqular anlem of nnifiatiDD. 
He aoftened ita aepniliea, Im anlaiged ill Tocalm- 
krf . be regulated ita giammatical cootanatioiu, 
he amalgamated into one hannooioDa whde iti 
TaiJoua conflicting elemeuta, and he introduced the 
heroic hexameter, and nrionj other metiea, long 
orehDj elaborated by Oredaa ikiU. Eien in 
the diijointed and mnlilaled remain! which bave 
been tranimitted to ua, we obaerre a vigonr of 
imagination, a national boldneaa of lone, and an 
energy of eipmaion which amplj juitif; the 
praiiee ao libraally laimehBd on hu nniui by the 
andenti ; and altbimgh wa are pcnape at £»t 
repelled by the coaneneii, clumiineta, and antique 
fiuhion of the garb in which hii high thooghti are 
inreKed, we cannot but feel that what wai afte> 
ward! gained in nnoothnew and rafinement ii a 
poor compeniation for the low ef (hat freahncH 
and Btrength which bnathe the hearty ipirit of 
the braie old daji of Roman limplicity and free- 
dom. The critic))m of Oiid, - Enniui ingenio 
maiimni arte radii." ii fair, and h^ipily warded ; 
but the fine umile of Quintilian, " Ennium eicot 
ncfoa Tetuittta luccn adoremoa, in qoibni grandia 
el antiqna lobon, jam non tantam habent ipeciem, 
qnanlam teligionem," mors faQj anbodwa our 
acatimenta. 

We mbjoin a catalcgae of the woiti of Ennini, 
in eo far ai their tillea can be ascertained. 

1. Ataalunn IMtri XVIIL Tbe moit important 
of all hii pTodnctioiu wa* a hiitnrr of Rome in 
dactylic heunwien, commencing with the loiei 
of Man and Ehea, and reaching down to hii own 
timea. The mbject wai wleeted with great jodg^ 
ment. Tlw pictoreaque bUea, romantic l^endi, 
and chinlnxu exploit! with i^h it abounded, 
■£foidad fbll Mope fin the exetciaei of hii poetical 
power* ; be wai eoiblBd to tatify gratitude to- 
ward! hi* panoDil biendi, and to propitiate the 
noble* ai a body, by extolling their own lofty 
deed* and the gtraie* of their lirei ; and periiapi 
no theme (Ould baTe been choeen an well calcu- 
lated to awaken the enthnnaim of all lanki 
among a proud, wariike, and a* yet nnlcttered 
Mople, Hit bncy wa* cramped by none of thoae 
btter* imposed 1^ ■ serie* of w^ aKcrtained 



EITOIU3. 

fact* ; he wa* left to work hi* will upon the nida 
ballad* of the mlgar, the wild trnditioni of tho 
old patrician clans, and the meagre chrtmide* nf 
the piietti. Niebuhr conjectum tb*t the baantifol 
hiitory of the kings in Liry may bare been taken 
from Eimint. No great ipace, baverer, was al- 
lotted to the earlier record*, for the contest with 
Hannibal, which was eridently devribed with 

book, the first Funic war being pOHed dtm alto- 
gether, ai we are told by Cicera (iSnf. 1 9.) 

II. fabaiat. The We of Ennini u a dramatiit, 
was little inferior to hii imputation as an epic bard* 
Hi* pieces, which w*t« very nmneroos, appear to 
have been all tnnslatiotu or adaptations fram the 
Greek, the metre* of the origiiuUi being in most 
caiet closely imitated. FngmeDt* hare been pre- 
serred of the fallowing tragedies : Aiima,Adiilka 
{Ariilaiebi), Aja^ ^ to noaon, AleMtnfter^ Aiidro~ 
■voolo, Andro m e d a, Amti^tOf Aliamatt Crapinmieat 
Dulonila, Bneliiau, Emmmidn, Htdorit Lgtrxi, 
Hecuba, Ilmn (doubtful), IjAigtma, Medea, 
Mtdut, Mtlaiigtpa at Meiattppia, Nimta, Niopt- 
olfvuu, PkoHiir, TiLtmom, Tdipkut, T^^nte; and 
of the following comedies, belonging to the claaa 
of paSiaUu ! Awiirada, Cupaaiciia (petfaa^a Cu- 
prmioU—), Cebttit (nanw reiy doubtful), i^mcra- 



whence these were deiired, consult the editioos oC 
Heuelins and Botha, together with the disserta- 
tions of Onnn referred to at the end ttf thia ar- 
ticle. 

III. Salirat. In four (Porphyr. ad Hot. SoL i. 
10), or according to Dthen (DonaL ad TerrmI, 
Piom. iL S. Sfi) in tix books, of which lea* thaa 
tweuly-fJTe smtlered lints are extant, bat {ram 
these it i* endent that the Satine were nmpoaed 
in a great Tariety of metiea, and from this drcnm- 
■tance, in all probability, ncaiTed their Bppella~ 

IV. Sr^iio. A paoegyiic upon the public career 
of bis friend and patron, Afiicanni. The meunre 
adopted aetmi to have been the trochaic tetram- 
eter catalectic, although a line quoted, posBbly bj- 
mlitake, in Macmbius (Sal. tL 4) >• a dactylic 
hexameter. The five venei and a half which' vs 
possess of this piece do not enable u to decide 
whether Valeriua Maximn* was entitled to tens it 
(Till 1 4) Twda sf iapolUum pmeoDsuin. (Suidas, 
f.«.-£nu»; gchoL TCL od ^or. &(. iL t. IG.) 
Some ichdui haTC tuppoeed that the Sapio wna 

reality a drama beuiiiging to the claaa of the 



V. Atoitt. Varra and Festui when examining 
into the meaning of certun uncommon word*, quota 
frnm " Eimini in Asoto," or ai Scaligtr, Tcry eno- 
neoualy, iniiits "in Sotadico." The subject and 
natnie of thii piece are totally mOinown. Many 
beliere it to ha*e been a comedy. 

VI. EpiiJiaraua. From a few nmnanta, amonnl- 
ing altogether to little mon than twenty tinea, we 
gather that this mult hare b«n a philosophicB] 
didactic poon in which the Dstnn of the goAt, the 
human mind and it* pbaenomena, the phytical 
itrneture of the uniTerae and tarioo* kindrsd 
topic*, were disenised. From the title we con- 
clude, that it was translated or imitated fraoi 
Epichaimni the comic port, who wai a diadple of 
Pytbagorai and ii known to hate written CH 
Reram JVaJsra. 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



ENNins. 

yn. ntfkiai.F%agma,Hm^giiagiliea, Then 

I ■aar oMer tidaa hna baen udgned to > work 
■ edibie fiaWa, «Udi Enmiu ma j peili«p4 IwTa 

II Jit III! (roD AnluMntai. [A*cbistkati».] 
rKB fiiu* in dact]^ bcnmelen bate bem 
isved bj AAileni* exhibiting a men catalogue 
■■ma and loalitiea. Tbej an gi^ea, with 
■e pnlniiiBBTj nmaika, in wmiidoir* PoA 
I Mai. TCL L pp. 1£7 and 187. See alu 
oltna, Apahg. p. Sjt9 ed. Ehnenh. ; P. Fith- 
a, rO^[|iiiai ■■<. ir. fin. ; Panhu. ^na^. 65 ; 
Ibaa, OtKnatt. cnt L U ; Scaliger OHotel 
r(ii«.p.3l5; Tlinwb.Jrfe0i.iiL 21; bbnai. 
&1h. n. 794, ad. Tnj. ; Bnimun, AiUiaL Lot. 
136 i Fabric KU. i^K. lib. ir. c 1. g 7. 

I. Undet thii bead ws hare 
n Sdpta Abimiu*, and one 
the whd* in d( 




XL abtoai. Ai^lo Hu in a not* on Oc D« 
B^ i. 8, pna a fsir woidi in proM &om 
" Faaiaa in SaUnia " without infenaing ni wben 
be ftukd tbam. Cfdnmna hai pointed oat that in 
llacntMs. SaL. n. S, we mght to read " Enniu* 
n lihm S^Jranti quarto " inftcad of JininanHB 
la it Mandi in the lecaTed text. 

XIL JklMiiai, a tnndation into latin 
^B«a rf the Iipa divyp^ of Enhememi [Ed- 
■MHHtmL] Sennl ifaort eitncta are eontainad 
m I Mia II III II and a on^ wad in the Da Re 
Badeaof Vam. 

riaaiiiiiiiii (e. 19) tdla i*, that aocoiding to 
Timma tfc* joic eauiiled of 366 daji, and hence 
it baa beoi ca wj e ctuml that be wu the anthot of 



ENN0DIU8. 19 

the diffsrait poctioni, but to haTi made conudem- 
bie additionfl to the relict preTJonBlj discovered. 
The new Tanea wen gatfaeied ehieflj frcnn a woric 
bf L. Calpnmini PiM, ■ CDntempamiy of the 
younger Pliny, bearing the title Dc CoRtiuentia 
VatmH Pottarm 1^ Tnyaaim pTiiiiigieat,\ii^. 
of which Mania telli ni that he eiomuied buCilf 
in tfae iibnry of St. Victor at Parii, acaim]ian jing 
'''' 'Uement with an ineipUcable and moit ana- 
I remark, that be wu n&sid the Tolnnie 
be itolen. It ii certain that thia codei, if 
igi 

regarded n 
, lietnTn tm Ronva Hutory, 
adited by Dr. Scbmili, Introd. p. S5 ; Hoch, Dt 
" ' Aiaaliiim Fhigmtntil a P. Menla 

1B39.} 

'a ftant the text of Hernia were ra- 
printed, bnt not rery aocontely, with lome triAing 
additiooi, and with the bngmenu of the Pnnic 
-rar ot Naerini, by E. S. (Bntt ^lageaberg), 
I TO. LipL 1621. 

The fngmenta of the tnndiea were caRfolty 
cdlected and examined by M. A. Delrio in hit 
S/Hlagaa lyagoediae Zjitinaa, toL, i AntT. 4to, 
'.B9i; Mprinted at Parii in 1607 and 1619: they 
win b« fonnd a1» in the Cbfleeta— i ntmim Tragi- 
II, to which are appended the 
olei of O. J. Vowu^ Lug. Bat. 
8to, \&20. The bagmenta of both the Imgcdiea 
and comediea are contained in Bothe, Poetanm 
Lain (ceaKsnm fragmmia, Hilberat. 8to. 1B23. 
The bagmenti of the Hadea, with a disaertatjoa 
an the origin and natnn of Roman tragedy, were 
publiahed by H. Planck, OiittiiiB. Ito. 1806, and 
the bagmoita of tha Medea and of tbs Hecuba, 
~ ipand with the playa of Enri[dda beanng the 
le nanea, are contamed in the Aiudtita Critica 



lo joati^ 
■■t fnlfcv eridanca. 

It geneial eoDactioo cf the fiagmenta of 



D lAJJDonan" by Robert and H< 

, m. Pan, 8n. IK*. It ii enxedingly 

pafcet and date not include any potion in the 
riibiaa ma. whidi bong io [coae waa eic' ' 




. TUa Boat ha eooHdoed ai tlu bert edition 
rf ih* ealltrtrd ft^Denti which baa yet ajipeBied. 
Fin yam aAu Cohmna'a edition a new 
MitiM of the Awmia waa publiahed at Leydni 
(4lab 1595) by FMlha Hernia, a Dntch hmyer, 
wha p^aatd sot only to hare gnatly purified 
tiH loct, a>d to haTe istrodooed many important 
' ' ' ' liitribodon of 



Oaami, Bendin. Svo. 1816. 

(Sea the pre&cee and prolwiniiena to the editisna 
of the collected fiwmenta by Heneliui, and ot the 
innali by E. S. when the whole of the ancient 
anthoritiea for the biography of Euniiu an quoted 
at full length ; Cuper Sagittariot, Cbflmeneatio i» 
nta(< vrifiitLm, Awirmia, fJami,Bmm,OaieSii 
5ia'&,&cAlt<iiburg.aTo.l672t O. F. de Franck- 
enan, DiBertatio dt Morio Q. Emii, Witt. 4lo. 
1694 i Domen. d*Angelii, lUla patria iTEmuo 
Horn. 8>o. 1701, Nap.8>o. 171S; 



. W. F. Knidi 
Orado, Jen. 4lo. 17S4; Cr. Ciamenia, Dimrtalio 
liiltiH Horatii da Emtio ^fabm, Jen. 41a. 175S; 
C. O. Kneatner drcrioffioUu jarii Emniami, Ac, 
Lipa.8To. 1762.) [W. B.] 

ENN0T)IU3, HAGNUS FELIX, waa bom 
at Arlea about A. D, 476, of a rery illiutriauj 
bmily, which numbered among iti memben and 
eoiknexiona many of the moat iUDttriont peraonagea 
of that epoch. Haying been deapoiled while yet a 
boy of all hia patrimony by the Viugothi, be waa 
educated at Milan by an annt, upon whoae death 
he found hiniwlf at the age of aiiteen again re- 
duced to total deatitntion. Frtnu thia unh^py 
poaition he wna extricated by a wealthy marriage, 
but hating been nerailed upon by St. Epphoniua 
to renounce the pleaaurea of the vorid, he received 
ordination aa a deacon, and induced hia wife In 
enter a eonnnt Hia laboon in the lerrice of the 
Cbuieb wen ao eonapicnoui that ha waa dwacD 

L.,.,..,Got?glc 



30 EKN0DIU3. 

biihap at Pani in A. D. 511, and in SU WM 
MDt, ilaiig wilh FDTUmatiu, tuihop of Catania, md 
oUun, b; Pop« Honiuada ta Canitaalinopla in 
ordiT U> combat tbc prognM of itic EnljchiaD 
bemj' Tie embasij haTing pnred antoccviifiil 
in CDSHqasncs of tlie empcrot, wbo wu beliand 
to bt &vi>amblB to tba opiiurai) in queation, hanng 
lefiutd to aclcnowledgs th« antkoritj of tbe Roman 
nmtiS^ EnDodioB waa detpatehsd a HCODd time in 
617, along vitb Pengriaoi, Inihop of MiMUim, 
bcuiDg a cDDfearion oi futk, *hicb tfae (wtern 
Bhaidua vtre inriled or rather Teqnind to nb- 
tcriba. On thii ocouion tbe enroj wa> treated 
irith great banhnnu bj Anaitaiiiza, who not ool; 
dinuUKd him vith ignomiDj, but e*«n ionght bii 
life, bf mniiDg bim to anbaik in a eruj Jtuii, 
trhkb wat iliictlf fiuUddm to tondi at anj 
Oncian port. Haiing SK^ied this daogar, bno- 
dioa retamod to hii dionae, when he occipied 
himidf with religioai laboon ontil hia death in 
A. D. 521, on tbe 17th of Jolj, the day which 
after hit canDniiatiDn wat obMrriid M hit feMiTaL 

Tbe woriti of tbu prelate, aa contuned in tfae 
OditJOD of Sinnond, are the following : — 

I. .f^Mfe^nrKM ad Dktriot Lihri IX. A oA- 
ladioD of <97 letten, including ooe compowd b; 
hit nater, the neater nnmber of tfaem wiitten 
daring the pontifioUe of Symmadmi (493 — 51*). 
They for the moat part niata to prirata co^ami 
and domeitic occuirencea, and hence poweu little 
general iolcrnt. Thej are naurkable for gentle- 
neu and pielj of tone, but tome penona hare 
imagined that they could detect a leaning towarda 
temipeta^amuk Tie charge, howeier, hat not 
been bjr any means mbttantuUed. 

3^ Pami^ljiriau Tiaiorieo ngidielai. A com- 
plimentar; address deliTored in the preaence of tfae 
Oolhie monarch at Milan, or at RaTenna, or at 
Rome, ptnbablj in the jrmi A. D. 507. It it some- 
tinws included in the callicliona of the " Panrgy- 
nd Veterea," and it considered u one of the 
principal loarces for the hinory of that period, 
although obnoDily no reliaaca can be placed on 
the statements contained in an effuiion of such 
a chincter. [DupaKius.] It wiU be found, 
with notes, in Manso, CcsoUaUs dia 0>^DU.Aaob, 
p. US. 

Sl ZitMbf arf Ba ri i M eos f« aatfro qntodiBK 
n iiiiiriianiai n a t A powarlnl and aignmen- 
) harangue, read befon the Sflh RomaD 
I held in a. D. 603, and adopted as part of 






iupport of tbe juriadictmn of 
the Roman pontiff geoerally. 

4. Fila iufniu' mri Ep^)liaim TVhbiu epw- 
copii A biogmpby of St. Epiphanius, hig predeces- 
sor in the see of Paris, who died in j.. D. 496. 
This piece is rained on aecoont of tbe light which 
it throwa npon the hiitory of the dniei, uid is con- 
sidered one of the nrntt inlereating and agreeable 
anwng the watkt of Ennedius, which, to say the 
tnth, an for the most part lather lepuliii 
will be found in the coltc^ona of Sarin- - 
BoilandiiU onder the 23nd of January. 

6. Fita iaH AmSoi 

gytic npon a holy n 



6. StdarMcmm it otta, a thanksgiring Gir re- 
tonry 6oin a dangemu malady, daring miich Ihe 
sntlm wat first led 10 Iboaa thooghu wltich 



poetrriti 



ENTELLira. 
ereolnally (nonptad him to dsTO 
aerrica of Ood. It ii iMai* 
deacon and phytieian* 
7. FaratmaiM Jiik 
(m, in sahoctation, 
with ;»oao< urging I 



The 
'ere the i»ii/iiAmiaZ« « 
pretbytara, sod deaeont were leqoired to retain at 
GODilant companion* " sd amoUendai malediconim 
calamniaa." (See Dncangs, GUaar.) In this tract 
liiey are called coKxUimeL 

9. PaHtoriani <po GtnmHiu pmr Amid oIb- 
latiu ai<. On the manumisHon of a ^n bj bia 
master in tiie chnrch. 

10. Orn pualaJa isMfkAiiHt rfwM. 

11. Onrtlaini. A Bciiea of iborl eiaaya er d>id» 
malioni, twenty eight in number, which the antbor 



sabjecta. Of tlieu lii ue mctm^ se 



13. Oowno. A Isrge CI 
r them ^ort OBcatioDM eff 



faaltitade 
of different topics, aacnd and proEsiM. Faniteen 
are to be found intenperaed among hit epittloa and 
other prote worfca, and one handed and teTenly- 
two forni a separate cotlection. 

Tbe writiDgi of Ennodiua might wire at an ev- 
emplifica^oD of all the wont faults of a cormpt 
ttyle. Nothing can be more a^cted than the form 
of eipreiaion, nothing more hanh than the diction. 
They are concise without being Tigorons, obscure 
without being deep, white the nie of fignrative 
language, meliqibon, and allegoiiea, it poihcd to 
iucn aitraTsgant eiceu that wtiole page* wear tfae 
aspect of a long dull enigma. 

A coniideiaUe number of the voritt of thit 
filther qipeand in the " Honumsnta S. Patnun 
Orthodoiegiapha," BaiiL fuL, 1569 ; they were 
fint published seiauatelT by Andr.SchDttua,Tomac 
Bid. 1611, but will be found in their most complete 
and best form in the edition of Siimond, Pari*. 
Sto. 1611, and in his Oftra, toL L tbi., Paris. 
1696, andVenet. 1729; also in the SiL Pmr. 
Mai^ Lngdon. 1677, T<d. ii^ and in other large 
collectiont of the &tber*, 

Marteime and Dnrand (CUlid. Mammm. toL 
T. p. 61) have added a new oratioa and a ahoit 
letter to Venantiut. 

(See the Vila Bmtedii prefixed to the edition 
of Sinnond. A lery full biography i* ginoi by 
Fancdnt also, Dt vierti ae itcrtpila L. L. sotsD- 
tefc. e. iii. § n., c. TL i riii, c. Tiii. g I., c 11. 
§ "li ) [W. B.] 

E-NNOMUS {T>»»*«i), a My™i and ally rf 
the Trojans, who ws* killed byAchillei. (Horn. IL 
ii. S5S, irii. SIS.) Another perun of thit Dame 
occur* in the Odyisey (kL 422 ). [U S.] 

ENORCHES fEf^pxnt), a ton of Thyetle* by 
hi* titter Daeta, was bun out of an egg, and Imilt 
a temple to Dionyiut, who wat hence called INo- 
nym* Enorchea, though Enoichea may alto describe 
the god a* the dancer. (Tiets. oif LfOf^ 212 ; 
Hetych.ite.) [I- S.] 

ENTELLUS, ■ Trejan, or ■ Sidlian hen, fnon 
whom tfae town of Entalla, in Sicily, waa beUcTed 
to faave iBceiTed its name. (Viig.^sa. t. 389, with 
StfTiua) TaeHes [ad I^acpL 953) slatFi. tbM 
EnteUa wat an callad &od &itelk, the wift ef 
[L.S.1 



4,1,.=. ot Google 



EOS. 

E'NTOCHUS, ■ KD^itor. wtu» Ogmhiii and 
lifilB wtn IB As coUoctun if Auuhu PollidL 
(PEu. H. /f. inri. S. L 1. $ 10.) [P. S.] 

SNTCRU Ctmflm\ tba iia^tnr of ■ Ro- 

hufinlilf mind hj him, hRxms, bj- hit bii 
faqiila, Ike fcther o( Ibiif muu, Janut, Hymniu, 
Finta, *Dd Fdix. Crawa tui|;ht the bther ths 
nltiiuni of ll« Tine ind tbe impantion of wise, 
•gjniig hin to (each his D^fabmin the nraa. 
TltB m done laatSn^j, bat the onmti? pcoplo, 



^■gh il !• be potMiii,nd itaDed ikar nd^bonr 



bj'tiitDibliicoiBiJa.tlut the plagneiru ■puniili- 
Boil far dx enlnse coaanhtad on Enhnii't bther, 
mt Litalin Citiiriu caiued ■ templs to be andcd 
■ CiaiM IB the Tupeian tuck, ud in it u altu 
>ilk fan bn. (PlnL PoRiU. (?r. <i Ash. e.) [I-^] 

ENTA'LIUS ('En^UiH), the nilike, fre- 
IwdT ecEDi in the Iliad (nerer in the OdfiMT) 
rii)« ■ m epithet of Area, or ai a proper name 
JuKtt rf An. (iTiL211,iL6£l, viL 166, riiL 
X4,im.519,iTiL259, iTiiL S09, xi. 69 ; amp. 
Piai Ot liii. 102. W™. it 37.) At a later time, 
knmr. Enjiliiu md Area wen diitinguiifaed M 
tn Jiioal goda id wai, andEnj-alhu waa looked 
^la ■ a »a of Aira and Enyo, or of Cronoa and 
Um. (Aiin^ Pa*, iB7 ; Dionja. .d. A. iiL 
48 1 EartMh. ad H«m. p. 9U.) TIm iuuim u 
nidatlT denTed from Ei^e, thoogh one tcuUtion 
ittinA il bm a Tluacian Eitjaliua, who mxiTed 
■u Im hame those Dolf who eoDqaeied him in 
■■^mhat, iDd far the nme reuon Rluted to 
ivinAna, b« the Utter ilew him. (Bnititfa. 
<J Btm. f. SJ3.) The jODthaof Sfartancrifieed 
;«•( iap to Ana nndei the name of Enjalina 
(Pm. iB. U. f 9), and near the temple of Hippo- 
iAau,a Svcna, there atood the ancient fetleted 
«"ae if Kijalfau. (Paoi. iii. 15, g 5 j ewnp. 
Am) Dicojiaa, too, ia laid to bare been aor- 
iBBl byabia. <Haenb. SaL L 19.) [L. S.} 

SmYO CEn^), tbe goddeaa of war, who de- 
^taia Ueodahed and the deatninion af towna, 
•ai aneapauee Han in battlaa. (Horn. IL *. 
m, i»l ; Eoatalh. p. Ita) At Thebea and 
Mnesoa, r feativ^ odled "QmsX^ waa cele- 
^m in honour of Zeal, Demeler, Alhena and 
^1% and Zeoa waa iud to hiTe RceiTed (be tor- 
■'■e rf HcanaloiBB tnaa Hontololi, a pdealeaa of 
f*}t. (Said. (. D. ,- camp. Haller, Ordtom. p. 
i^.lii edit) A alatne of Enyo, made bj the 
ni eT PiujteleB, stood in the temple of Ait* at 
AtlBL (Paai.LB.f£.) Among the Otuu in 
Hc^ {TUof. 273) then ia one oUled Enyo. 
w^ectiag the Roman goddeaa of war see Bit- 
""1. [L. 3.] 

EOSfHJiX in Itin 'larem, the goddeaa of 
tt ■wiling nd, who hringa up the tight of day 
^ ike Mat. She waa ■ dw^hUr of Hyperion 
"i IMa or Enmha^ and a aiater of Hs- 
IvadSeleDe. (Hsa. 7Si^ 371, b. ; Ham. 
itl—m&La.) Oni (Md. ii. 420, FiaL it. 
JiltallaWBdaD^terirf Palliu. At the dote 
^ Bfbt ^ nee faian Iht (oach of her belaied 
pwai, and on a dioiiot drawn by the awift 



«>B(^af theaan la (he god* «i 



EPAENBTUS. 21 

moitala. (Horn. Od, t. I, Ac, ziUL 244 ; Viig. 
Atw.iy. 139, Omry. i. 44E ; Horn. Jfyimi m Mere. 
186; TbeooitiL 148,iiii.ll.) In the Homerie 
poema Boa not only aBoaaneu the coming Helist, 
imt accompaniea him tbrom^unit the day, and her 
career ia not complete till Itae srening ; henn tlia 
ia aometimt* mentiDiwd when one woold haie ex- 
pected Helios (Od, t. 390, 1.' 144) (and ths tragic 
writers completaly identify ber with Htmera, of 
whnn in lalei timet the aame mytht an related at 
of Boa. (PBU1.L 3.g I,lii.ie. g7.) The Uler 
Greek aad the Roman poeti IbUowed, on the whole, 
tbe notioD* of Eoa, which Homer had ettabliibed, 
ithem anrom, which 



e nlendonr v 

ich longer thai 



topic with the ancient poett. Mythology npn- 
-inta her u baring earned off aeraial yoalha dit- 
'ihed (at their beauty. That ihe caiiied 
Orion, but the goda wen angiy at her for it, 
umu Artemii with a gentle arrow kitted him. 
(Ham. Od. T. 121.) According to Apollodoina (i. 
4. g 4) Eoa carried Orion to Delos, and waa erer 
Btimolated by Aphrodite. OeitDi, tbe Km of 
Mandnt, wat carried by Eoe to the BP«tt of tbe 
immortal goda (Od. xt. 260), and Tithonna, by 
whom the became the mother of Emathion and 
Memnon, wat obtained in like manner. She 
begged of Zeoa to make him immortal, bot forgot 
to requett him to add elemal youth. So long at 
he waa joong and beautifid, the liied wilb him at 
the end of the earth, on ths banEi of Oceanot ; 
and when he grew old, the noraed him, miti] al 
length hit Toics diiappeared and hit body became 
quite dry. She then locked the body op in her 
chamber, or metanioriihoted il into a cricket 
{Ham. flyaw. m Vm. 218, &c. ; Hoiat CarKt. L 
22. 8, il 16. 30 ; ApoUod. iii. 12. § 4 ; Het. 
Tktog. 984 ; Serr. ad Virg. Otorg. i. 447, ill. 328, 
Atn. IT. 685.) When her ton Hemnon waa going 
to fight againit AchiQet, she atked Hephaettoi to 
giTe her aimt for him, and when Hemnon *u 
killod, her team fell down in the form of morn- 
ing dew. (Viig, Aai. Tiii. 384.) By Attiaeaa 
Eo« became the mother of Zephyrui, Bonai, No- 
toi, Heoapbomt, and the other atan. {Ketiod. 
TImig. 378.) Cephalna waa carried away by her 
bom the aommit of mount Hymettna to Syria, and 
by him tbe became tbe mother of Phaeton or 
TithoDot, the father of Phaeton ; but afterwarda 
aha reatond her beloTed to hie wife Procrit. (He^ 
T)Mig. 984 ) ApoUod. iii. 14. j S ; Paos. i. 
3. $ 1 ; Or. Mtt. til. 703, &c ; Hygin. Fab. 
ISO ; eomp. CspaaLUK.} Eoa wu rcpteienltd in 
th« pediment of the kingly itoa at Athens in tbe 
act of carrying off Cephalut, and in the aame 
manner the wat aeen on tbe thnme of the Amy- 
chwanApoUo. (P>u*.l 3.§l,iiL18.$ 7') At 
Olympia the wat rtpreaented in tbe act of pi^ng 
to Zetti for Memnon. (t. 22. $ 2.; In the iratk* 
of Mrt atilt extant, ahe appears aa a winged goddeaa 
or in a chariot drawn by fbor haraes. [L. S.J 

EPACTAEITS or EPA'CTIUS CEiraicTaSi. or 
^Erdimor), that i^ the god worshipped on the 
coast, waa need aa a mntame of Poseidon in Samoa 
(Heaych. i. v.), and of Apollo. (Oiph. Aigom, 
1296 i ApoUon. Rhod. L 404.) [L. S.1 

EPAETJETUS CEntHTOfl, a enlimiy andior 
freqaenEly rebrred to by Auenaeos, wrote laie 
woA -On Piahea" (Ufi l-xflitiw. Alien, ni. 
p. 32S, £), and another *> On tbe An of Caak- 
erj " (^O^frvnuit, Athen. ii, p. £8, b, iii. p> StI, 



4,i,.=.otGot>^Ic 



K KPAMINONDAS. 

c, nil. pp. 29*, i, 297, t, 30*, d^ 30i, .t. >12,b, 
913, tx, iz. pp. 371, c, 39S, £, liL p. S16, (l, ut. 
p. 662, d.) 

EPA'OATHUS, ■ proBigRUt frndmu, vbo 
■long Kith Theocritu, a pemmiuB of ths iBins 

Kmca of liu fDcceMor. After the dinjtrmii 

Uttle of Antiocli, ha wm Jwpatthri ij H*miiiw 
la fltet Diadsmnikaiu niider tSe {nt«ctioa of 

ths Puthim king, ARabuiu; ind at ■ nibia- 
cpient period wb find Uut ths death of the eela- 
bnted Domitini Ulpianiu vu ucribed to lui 

»t of that erent are iDTolicd in deep obicii- 
Aleiander Serenu, apptchtaun l»t tome 

" "^d ^ini 



Cnte, and there quietly put to dtatlL [Mioj- 
iiiiiiDu&ui(unANUB;ULruNu«}. (DioikCau. 
UiriL 21, UxriiL S9, litt 2.) [W, R.] 

EPAINE CEnwif), that ii, the feaifiil, ■ ni^ 

" - "^ -- (Hom, IL ii. *67.> Plo- 

p. 2S, a.) dariiai the name 
it Diighl tSmt be 



taich (r 



ich nmti, 
a anphaniitir _ 
nddoN. [L. 8.1 

£PAUIN0NDA3(-EwBfuinM«, ■Enfut*;*- 
Bu), ths Tbebu gronal and ttaleonan, sen of 
Poljninii, ni bntn and reared in porer^, though 
bu blood «raa noble. In Us earij raan he is and 
10 haTs (ojiTed the uuttnetiona of Lyni of Taroi. 
tnm, ths Prtliagonui, and wa leem to trvs the 
pnctical ioflDsnco of thii pkilnophj in sarenl 
paMgN of hii later li&. (Flat Ptiap. 3, dt Ok 
SocB, Ac; AeL F. H. iLiS, HL 17, t. 5, liL 
43; Puu.iT.91, TiiLSa, ix. ia;C.Nep.Ji>iaaL 
1, 2 ; comp. Fabric BOL Orate. ToL L p. aSl, 
and the wixfca of Dodnli ud Benlley there n- 
fened to.) Uii clow and enduring friendihip with 
Pelopidaa, vnbnlcen ai it wai throng a long 
Mriet of jean, and *aUM all the nuliiarjr ^ 
ttril oScea which Ibej bdd (ggetbet, itrilon^j 
■UaMratei the landeDCf which contlMt of chaneter 
" "' ' ■ ' n tbev hare for 

, ant of dnularicy 
AoEording to Hme, their biend- 
-■- ■•- - ■ ■ '-li thej 



id twether on the Spartan lide i 
%, where Pelo|udu baTnig fallen 



tineia, where Pelo|udu baTnig fallen in a battle, 
appanntly dead, EpmiiBDnda* prottctad hii body 

.. .!.» ; i-^i nik of hi* own life, B. c 38S. 

; Xan.tfiitf.T. 2. Il.&c; Diod. 
11. Tiii. S.) When the Tbebw> 
in their enterpriae for the rtcoTery 
in B. c. 379, Epanuaondaa bald 
it at fint, bna a fiar, traceable la bii 
Pythagorean religion, leet innocent blood ihonld 
be ibed in the tmnnlt. To tho oUect of the 
Mtempt, boweTS, — the delivery of Tllebca from 
E^anan doainatHHi,— be wti of coone bTomable. 
He had itodioQily exerted hinuelf already to laito 
the iinrit and canfidence of the Tfaeban yoathi, 
tuging them to match tlienuolTca in gymnnitie 
«nid*ea with the lacedaemoniani of the diadel, 
and rebuluDg than, when iiviiifiil in these, for 
the tameneta of their lubmiiaian to the innden ; 
and, when the lint itcp in the entetpiin had b«n 
taken, and Anhiaa and Leontiadea wen ikio, he 



EPAHINONDAS. 
came loTwatd and took part dedaiTely with Pdo- 
pidai and hia confederatia. (Plat. PtLf. 6, 12, 
dt Oim.Soe.3i Polyaen. ii. 2 1 Xen. HdL w. 
i. g 2, At) In iL c. 371, when tbo Athenkn 
aiiTDya went to Sparta to negotiate peaoa, Epami- 
nondaa ^to lama thilhet, W an anbaa^ar, to 
look after the intanata of Thebea, and hi^y dia- 
tingiuihed hioMalf by hia atoqiuoos and laady wit 
ia the debate which ennud oo the qoeatian wlirdier 
Thabea ihodd be aHoared t« tat^ the tna^ ia 
the nanM of all Boeotia, thoa obtaining a tacogni- 
tlon of her claim to (upronacy orer the Boaotiaa 
tawna. Tbii being raiiaed by the ^atrtaDB, tho 
Thebana wen eidodcd &om the tnaty altogetbcT, 
■ad Clecmbtotna wa« lent to invade Boeotia. Tha 
reanll waa tha battle of Leoctia, to btal to tha 
Laoedaemoniana, in which the aucceaa of Thebea in 
aaid to have been owing mainly to tha taOica at 
Epaminondaa. He it waa, indeed, who moat 
attongl; urged tie giving battle, while he on- 
ployM all the nuana in hit power lo niaa the 
covngo of hia countrymen, not eidnding eTen 
ODHHia and oiadea, for whicb, when nn&TOitrabla, 
be had bat recently ezpreaaed hia cmtempt (Xen. 
HilL vi 3. gi 18—20, 1. gg 1— IS ; Diod. ir. 
S8,*l— S6i Pint. Aga.27,28, Fafap. 20— 2S, 
OoL. 19, Sis. t* Imp. Apopk. p. £6, ed. Tanrbn., 
A ta^K oC HA laud. 16, De Sat. TWkL Pmo. 

23 ; Pane. niL 37, ix. 13 ; Polyaen. ii. 9 i CL 
Nep. Epam. B ; Cic. TWc Di^ i. *G, dtpf.L 

24 ; Suid. a. ti TwofunirSu.) The irD)ect of 
Lyoomadea fin the tbnnding of Megalopolia mid tha 
nnion of Amdia waa vigonnialj eneootaged and 
forwarded by Epaminotidat, a. c 370, at a banier 
against Spartan dominion, though we wed not 
aappoae with Paiuaiiiaa that the plan oi 
with him. (Xen. Hell. vi. J. $ 6, && ;' 
viiL 27, ix. U ; Diod. xv. G9 ; Ariitot. PaliL iL 
2, ed. Bekk.) In the next year, n. c. 369, tha 
fint invaaion of the PelopomKana by the Thebana 
took place, and when the reet of their generala wera 
anxiont to retom home, at the tenn of theii c«n- 
roaad vat drawing to a cloae, Epaminondaa and 
Pelc^iidaa pennaded than to nmain and to advance 
t^inat Spaita. The eonnlry waa ravaged at far 
at the coaat, and the dty itielf, thrown into ths 
ntmoft conileniatiMi by the nnfmcedBited aigltt 
of an enemy't firea, and endangetad alio bj 
treachery within, waa aaved only by tha calm finn- 
neat and the wiadom of Ageailau. Epaminondaa, 
however, did not leave the Poloponima b^on hs 
had inflictod a moat aerioo* blow on Sparta, and 
planted a permanent thorn in her aide by the 
realoiation of the Mraarniani to their country and 
tha ettabliahment of a new dty, named 
on the die of the andent Ithonw, — a w 
wu carried into effect with the ntmoat nlemnity, 
and, aa Epaminondaa wiifaed to have it be- 
lieved, not withoDt the q«)al inteipoution of goda 
and betoei. rAntsroiiaNia,] Meanwhile the 

amilied ncweiftjly for aid to 
ilhenian geoenl, Iphictatea, 
mi to have acted on thit ocawion with leat than 
nnal aneigy and ability, and tha Theban army 



Aihena ; bat the Alb 



pan of the It , . _,_ 

minondaa advanced to the walla of Athena, and 
that Ipfaicratea reetrained hia eoonttyinen baa 
maidiing oat ^ainat him ; bat tha leTUal aeeoonta 

HAn.i.%73,ax., 33— S3, Tii.l.g27'i Aiiit^ 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



id Ulk InbiBBi hj dufcKcaof Sputa ud 
■UjB, jnfimi;!^ Aucoa, be admieed agaitut 



EPAHIN0NDA3. 
>>ii& ii. S, (4. Bckk. ; Pint. FA 24, Ago. 31— 
M 1 IMcmL IT. 6S— 67 ; Puii. it. 36, S7, ii. 11 ; 
Mrt. IT. U ; C N*p, Ipk. 21.) On IheLr ittaai 
bat Spmaumim anil Pdopidai were impeached 
in tkor I infill od ■ c^lal charge at hanng n- 
laaed tbtir Monmd biTODd the legal tetm. The 
fat half wia Bne esog^ bat iBaj wefi both 
baMnblj' aeqsicted, ^andKUidaa haria; ei- 
pnatd hk ■JUiiigmi ta die if Iha Thebaoi vonld 
Rcod Aet ^ b^ bem pat to death becaiue be 
U hamUed Spaita and taught hie connti^men to 
(KB nd ta oniqner bee anniea. Agaiutt hia >c- 
mm he v*a ^iloac^ihial and mugruuiinKHU 
amigh, anlike Pelopidai, to take no Dcanne nf 
imlkliiai. (Plot. Pilep. 2fi, Dt k^. at in. 
ItaLK^Stg.tl Im^Apigxk. |i 60, .ed. Taucho. ; 
ru k. U i AeL r. tf. liii. 43 i C. Nep. Z^uai. 
i.t.) [PiLonoia ; HoacLUDU.] 
Utheqtnig«<3G8 be anin led a 'Hiahu annf 

; — 1. >._i a, and iaiing bean tainlj^ 

> hj thafcfccaof Spaita ■ 
. . „ Aucoa, be adianced agai 
Sicjoaiad Pdkne, and obl^ed thmi to re l inquiih 

mmn, he wn lepnlaed by ChaboH in an attack 
iU h> Bwle « Coiolh. It Haae doabtfnl 
^kAa bii eari; departure hcane ma owiiig to 
Ihtiimg jabuj of the Amdiuii towaida Thebei, 
H m tb aniTal ef a iona, chiefly of Celti and 
Ikraai, iciil bj Diauyntu I. to the aid dE the 
SfmuM. (Xen. Ibil ni. 1. H 15—33 4 Diod. 
n. M — lOi Pane. ii. IS.) In the nine year we 
fad hB KTriog, bat not ai geoenl, in the Thehoo 
umy vUA waa ■enl inlD TheaalT to reKne Pels- 
fiim baa *l"n~l-i- of Pheiae, ud which Diodo- 
(B ttUi u ma Mved from utter deatniction only 
tn tb ability of Epsnunimdu. According to the 
Bat aither, be held no command in the expedition 
a qMHiai becasae the Thebana thought he bad 
■t panaed ai ngoiDoUy aa he might hia adrao- ' 
■^1 e<«t the Sputaoi at the lathnui in the lait 
cBpaigB. TIm ^aaater in ThuMly, hDvcer, 
foKii lo Thebea hia nhw, and in the nut y«r 
<K7) ha wai ^ut at the head of another fane to 
"inae Nepdaa, ai^ accoupliahed hii objut, ao- 
<i<4ig to Pbmrcht witboal eran ilrilung » hlov, 
*d by tk mm lueatiga <t b>* name. (Diod. it. 
:i.:-2,T5; Plat./>(4ip.38,29.) It woold ^ 
FW— and if lo, it ia a noble teilimn]; to hie nt~ 
tae-lhal the Tlwbua todt adfwt^e of hi* ah- 
■aa ■■ thii expedition to daatroy tfieii did riTal 
"nhiBaini_ — k deaign which tl»y bad foimed 
iiiilialilj after tfaeir Tictory at Leoetnt, and 
rtich kad been than uerented only by hia lennon- 
aoacaa. (Died. ir. £7, 79; Pana iz. 15 ; Xhid- 
•ah-i 0nH, ToL r. ppL 130, 121.) Id the ^ring 
■' M he iDTaded the Pelopimneiiu for the third 
oae, aiih the thv ehjeflr of atro^thening the 
lathmet of Thebea in Acbaia. and ao induodly 

Iba bllf aliiiinliiil from their bmier ally. Hbt- 
og fbtaiud Maiiiama rf fidelin Emm the chirf 
am b (h* aaioial atalea, he did nut deem it ne- 
"■ij la BDt down the tdiprchical goTcnunenta 
■kal had baan eatabliabcd «sdal Spartan protac- 



pnad if eanplaint agunat him ta the Thebana, 
ud Ike btt^ then aent haimoatt to the different 
AjboB iitiea, and j^ up donocjacy in all of 
ibn, whids kDwerei, waa bdod oTaithnwn e 

■bn by a cBOBtei-teiiAHliaa. (Xea./UI.i 



EPAMINONDAa 23 

SI4I— 4S-, Diod.2T. 7S.) In B. c. 363, when 
the oHgarchical party in Atcadia had anocecded in 
bringing abont a treaty of psus with Elia, the 
Theban officer in command at Tegea at Ent joined 
in the ratification of it ; but aftenrarda, at the in- 
atigation of the chic& of the democntic party, he 
ocdcred the gatei of Tegea to be doied, and ar- 
n-ated many of the higher clau. The Mantineiana 
pioteeled itrongly Dgainil Ihia act of Tiolence, and 
prepared toreicDt it, and the Theban thenreleoaed 
the piiionen, and apahigiied for hia conduct. The 
Mantineiana, boweTer, aent lo Thebea to demand 
that he tboiild be (ajHtally poniihed ; bnt Epomi- 
Dondaa defended hia conduct, nying, that he had 
acted more propeiiy in amating the ptiaoneii than 
in leleaaing them, and eipreaaed a determination 
of entering the Peloponneaut to cany on the war 
in conJDnctioD with thoae Arcadiana who atill tided 
with Thebea. <Xen.ift^TiL4. §112—10.] The 
' by thit anawer a* tymplomatic of an 

iiiebea,w 



galopotu al 

It waa then againat afbtmidahle eoalition of alatea, 
indoding Athena and Sporto, that ^auninondaa 
intaded the Peloponneana, lis the lonrtb time, in 
B. c 362. The diScultie* of Ua litaation waiB 
gnat, but hia energy and genioa were fully equal 
to die criua, and perbapi at no period ef hn life 
were they to remarkably ditplayed aa at ita glo- 
tieui ckMB. Advuuing to T^ea, he look np hit 
qnarteTB there; hut the time for which he held hia 

BBty for the credit and interat of Thebei thL Ibe 
eipeditioa thould not be ineffeetoaL When then 
he ascertained that Ageailaut waa on hia manh 
againat him, he tet out from Tegea in the OTening, 
and marched itmight on Sparta, hoping lo find It 
undefended ; but Ageiilana receired intdligence of 
hit deaigo, and haalened back beibie hit aniTal, 
and the atiempt of the Thebana on the dty waa 
baffled. [ARCHiniHUa III.| They returned ao- 
cordingiy to Tegea, and thence manned on to 
Mantineta, whiuer their caialry bad preceded 
them- In the battle which ennied at tbia place, 
and in which the peculiar tactica of Epaminondat 
were bjilliantlj and aucceaafiillj diaplayed, he bim- 
telf^ in the liill caner of Tictory, receired a mortal 
wound, and wai borne away frran Uie throng. Ha 
waa told that hia death wooLd fcdlow directly on 
the jaTelin beinf extracted from the mnmd ; but 
he would not i^ow thia to be done till he had 
buen aanred that hia tbietd waa miCb, and that the 
Tictory waa with hii comstrymen. It waa a dia- 
paled pomt by whoee hand he fW : among otbera, 
the faoDOUT wat ataigned to OryDua, the aon of 
Xenophon. He waa buried where be died, and 
hia tomb waa aannonnted by a column, on which 
a ahield waa au^iended, onblaaoned with the de- 
rice of a dttaan — tymboiical (•aya Panaaniaa) of 
hia deacent from the blood of the Ira^ei, the 
diildren of the dragon^a teeth. ( Xen. HbR, Tii A ; 
Itocr. ^ lut ArcL g 5 ; Uod. it. 83—87; Pint. 
Agat. 34, 35, Api^ 34; Faua. viiL II, 11. 15; 
Juat. Ti. 7, 8; Cic ad Fam. v. l2,dtFin.n. 30; 
Snid. t. «. Intumiytai ; C Nep. Epiai. 9 ; Po- 
lyb. iT. S3.) The dicnmatancet of ancieul " 
luppiied littb ot no tcope for an; but the ni 
patriotiAn, and thia eiil it perhqit lu 
faretit than when we think of it in co 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



34 EPAPHRODnOIS. 

tfaa Dobla miDd of out lika EpamiuimdH. We di 
isdaed find him liung than it, u, for biKinoa, in 
fail prewmlion of Orehonwinu ; bnt thi* wm *■ 
tpHi of th< irilem imdn which he lind, sad 
vbicbt vhil« it chfckfld throngtunt the fall Axvn- 
tioa of hit diiimcter, ■anwtinw* (bi in liii Tindie*- 



, imidM aH our ad- 

iiun, v> cumot forgat tliat they mm dinctod, 
■fid (II, to Ihe an« petty object of the aggnudiM- 
nunt of Thebei. Id the ordinair cbuacten of 
ORcian hiitory we look for no moce than tliii ; — 
it comet befoio oi painfiilly in the caie of Epami- 
nondai. (A«L F. H. liL H; Cic de OraL iii. 34, 
d4FiH.'± 19, BnU. IS, l\acIHip.l2; Foljb. 
Ti U, ii. S, xxiiL 8, Fmgm. HiM. U; C. Nep. 
4>aiB. 10; Aeich.dtFaU.Lfa.f.4Z) [E.E.J 

EPAPHEODITUSCEiniftNBn-o.). 1-Afreed- 
man of Ca«ar OctanuiDi ; he wag lent bj Octa- 
Tianna, together with C. ProcDleini, to qaeen 
Clnpatia to prepata her for bei ftla. The two 
enuHaiies, bowerer, made the queen theii piitoner, 
•nd kept her in atrict coitodj, that ihe might not 
make away with henelt ; but ^ neTertbaleH nic- 
ceaded in daeaiTing her gaolen. (Dim Caa. li. 
11, 13.) 

S. A fiecdman and bionrite of the empem 
Nero, who employed him ai bii Mcrelary. Dnriog 
Iba oDiupincy which pat an end to Nero'i nils, 
Epaphnditua acconpaniad bii mailer in hi* flight, 
and whan Nen attempted to kill himieU^ Epa- 
phtoditiu aadtled him. For thii Htrica, howerer, 
be bad aftarwardi to pay with hi* own lila, foe 
Domitian fint baniahed and aflerwardi ordered 
him to be put to death, beeuue he had not exerted 
himMlf to BTe the life of Nen. The pbihaopher 
Epicteto* wai the fiwdmin of thii Epuhnditni ; 
bat whether ha ii the Hme ai the EpoptiRiditaa to 
whom Joeepbiudediaited Ui " Jawiih Antiqnitiei,'' 
and on whom be piDDonnoa in bii prebce a hi{^ 
anlogiom for hit Ioto of litorature uid hittoij, ii 
Ttry mieertain, and it ii generally belicTed that 
Joenihnt i> ipnkini of one Epaphniditiu who 
liTsd in the reign of Tiajan and wai a beedman 
and procurator of thii emperor. (Tac Ama. it. 
fi£; Boeton. Nrro, i9, DomiL U; Dion CaM. 
liiiL 27, 29, liril U ; Arrian, Dimrt Epict. L 
36 ; Smdaa, i. e. t/wUmrrn ; comp. the conmen- 
tatora on Joaephna.) From all theae parwma of 
tba nam* of Ep^diroditna, we mutt diitin|aiih the 
MM whom tha Apoalla Paul roanliona ai hia eom- 
panlon. tPUIkift. ii. 26, h. Ii.) [L. S.] 

EPAPHRODITUS, M. MFTTItJS, of Cbaa- 
nnaia, a OraA gMBBiMkn. He wai a diadple of 
AwbtM of Alaimtdria, and betame tha ilare and 
afterward* tha fiaadman of Hodeatu, tha praeCect 
of En^ whan ion PiUHnni had been edaated 
by EpBiduTiditai. After hiTing obtained hU 
lilMrty, he went to Rome, where be reoded in the 
(sign of Mero and down to the time of Nem, and 
enjoyed a Taiy high reputation fn hii liaiiiiiig; 
He waa •itcaDeW fmd of booki, and U Hid to 
IwTe coUeelad • hlaij of 30,000 nhabla boAh 
He died of drop^ at the age of aenoty-fiTa. 
Soidai (f. tr. "ErtafpAirgt), from whon tliii ao- 
comit ii deriTod, doea Dot ^ledfr ■»; *orit of ow 
gimmaiiao, but eondndea hii ittide by metdy 
■tying that he left behind him many good work*. 
We know, howerer, Snm other loanea, the title* 



EPEIU3. 
example, on Hcomt'i Iliad and OdyMly (Bt«|A. 
Bya. t. e. A«M>i| ; Etym. U. i: ve. d*^ Kifa- 
A)i»{a), an it^a iIi 'Ofiqpw ml nUafW 
(Endoe. p. 128),B coDmeDtaiy on HaaiDd^ « ShiaU 
of Heracte^~ and on the AItu of CUlinadu, 
which i* fitqaanlly tefrmd to by Stephana* of 
Bynntiom and tha Scholiiit on Aeachylnik B» 
ii bIh mentioned laiera] time* in the Venetian 
Scholia on the Iliad. (Comp. Viaconti, la mn ipmik, 
0r«o. L p. 2eS.) [L. S.J 

E'PAPHUS ("EmfM). a eon of Zma aid lo, 
who VB* bora oe the irmr Kik^ alUr the long wan- 
dering* of hia mother. Ha waa tb<n niBaealed by 
the Caietea, by the nqnaat of Han, but Id aoaght 
and iJterwaidi found him in Syiia. ^apbiu. At 
(ubanmently became king of ^ypt, mamed Hoa- 
phii, the dinghler of Nilm, or aeondliv to olbeti, 
Camopeia, and bnQt tha dty of Honphia. Be 
had one daughter libya, £mm wboin lifaya 
(Africa) recdfod it* name, and another bora ue 
of Lyiiaoaov. (ApoUod. iL 1. $$ B, 4, 5. 
" ■ - ■ 14fi, 14B, 27S ; comp. He " 



gll ; Hygin. Fab. h 



Hend. 
27,26.) Another mythical bein^ of tliii nam* 
ii mentioned by Hyginua. (/U. iut.) [L. 3.1 

E^AFHUS, ii oiled a <*- t«t4MMi*, and 
■eana to hare written a work on Delphi, of which 
the leTentaeDth book ii qnoted. Sernai (ad Am. 
iiL 8S) and HaoobiDa (Sat. iii. 6) both quote ti» 
Mme itatetoent &om hi* work. [L. &] 

EPA'RCHIDES (t-TapxItv'), i* mentioned a* 
a writer by Athenaeu* in two paa*age* (i. [^ 30, ii. 
p. 6 1 ), both of which rdate to Icanu, bnt it i* 
mpoaiible to conjectom the natnre of the ^rotk 
of Epaichide*. [L. S.} 

EPEIOEUS (%'iy^), a Myimidone and acai 
of Agaclea, who having killed hi* bther. wai 
oblind to flee from Bndeion. He took refige in 
the honae of Peleo* who aent him with Achillea 
to Troy, where he wn* killed by Hector. (Horn. 
II. xri. S7a) [L. 8.) 

EPEIUS CEniJi). 1. A MM of £-' ' 



[Endt 



"■] 



2. A aon of Panopeu, called the aitiit, i4io 
went with thirty abipi fioin the Cyclide* to Troy. 
(Diet. Cret. L )7.) About tha d«a of the Trojan 
war, he boill the wooden bone under the pmee- 
bon and with the a**i*«anee of Athena. (CW. tiii. 
493, XL 523 ; IL xnii. 664, ftc, 840 ; Pao*. ii. 
29. g 4.) Accoidbig to JuHin (a. 2) the inhab- 
itinta of Hetapontnm, which he «a* baliered to 
have fbandid. diewed in a Umpla of Atbcoa the 
tool* which ha had n*ed in coutntting the borae. 
In the Hemerie poem* ho appva aa a mighty and 
gallaiit wairiot^ when** laur tiaditioikt a aaigii to 
him an infioior idaM among tba bmai M Tnj. 
StaiJdient(af.SMaA.adaim. p. 1331 1 Atben. 
I. p. 437) tailed him tha wate>beani of tba At- 
rridaa, and a* mch be wai T e pr ei anted in the tem- 
ple of Apidk> at Caithea. Hii cowardio, fiirtber, 
ii laid to hare been ao gmt, that il beouno jm- 
TObiaL (HeneLLc.) According to Virgil (Jm. 
iL 264), Epeiu* himaalf wa* one of the Oreeka 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EPHIALTES. 
dtctrf i ki M K ig don tbsTnJu wall, iIiots 
■iiek Ml te bMl if lb* wuadcD luna. (Puu. 
I. ». 1 1. [I* S.] 

EPEHATOS CEi^pnn), of P1in» in Achiia, 
«• dsMl gnnl 1/ the AdwHU in B. c 319, 
tf th atri^ af ApeOn, tka adriMr rf Philip 
'■'-- to limMMmniAo 



tktatriHMaf J 
•(lln£«a,i>. 

■iioulf in In 



If dA fcr hi* lAn, on whkb be entend id 
■.cIlliKdat, lAn his jw h^ Bipircd, h< 
lift niwrim diflleiilliH to Antu, vha nuxeeded 
Ua. (FalTkiT.82, T. 1,5,30,91 ; PlnLXml. 
•1) [E. E.] 

ETHESUS ("E^mm), • mi irf the iiTei^od 
IV*M, «k» «B H^ amjointlr with Cmni, to 
kmhgS&elc^ikDf Ait^iii at Ephsoi, and 
B ton oUtht mm after hiiMdL (Pana.nL 
t|l} [L-a.] 

EPBIALTES CEfirfAnii), oiu nf tba gionto, 
■kr ■ the WOT pg»'T^ the ffodi was deprind of 
bUtfy* bj ApoDo, and of the ri^t b; Hen- 
da (ipoDad. 1. 6. g S.) Reipectiiig another 
fBmaft ol Ai* BtBU tet Alokdax. [L. S.] 

EPHIALTES CEfahnp). 1. A MoIiRn, who, 
■ K c WO, niok Lmmdu wa dsfaidjiig the 
;•■ rfThnnupjiai., guided tlie hod; of Pendona 
ajbd tfe iBBHTtak oTor the moimtain nth (the 
J i iy i n ), isd iboa enabled tbem to &ll on the 
nr of Ihe Giwki. Ftuiiig afker thi* the Ten- 
pua il the ^aitmi, be Bti into The—ly, md 
' pnt ■!( *M oo bii head by the AmphiErpmie 
BaDcd. He iltioiatelj icRirned to hii ematrj', 
xd la fat to death t^ one Athenode*, a Trachi- 
— '-- - ■ with hii ■ 



tu Ml hnhn mentieDad by Hemdotni. (Her. 
n.2l3,b.: Pau.i4t Stnb. up. SO; Pol;- 

■aiiLli) 

_ i. Ab Aibenkn itatemaa and general. Mm of 



via he did not cfaooee to qnwej [AHnineatl; 
k»tt (AA r. ff. a 43, iiL 17; Plat Per*. 7, 
A^a>iaBi./VBB.15;IMad.xi.77.) Tfaiu,wheD 
>b Sftrkift KM to otk the oniitance of the 
Aikeaaa opinit Ithone in B. c 461, he mdea- 
'^'■d to WTBit tbe people &aqi nontiiig the re- 
^•Mi Biag thsn not to toiia a Ulen rini, bat 
uiitn Oetpirit of Sparta ta be tndden down; 
^ n fad him meotioned in partienlar oi ehiefl j 
"•"iiaiilal in that abridgment vf tbe power of 
OtAitigpagva, wbidi inflicted mch a Uew on the 
"pnUtol pot;, and ^oiut which the >* Emue- 
■«" <t AeocbjlD* woi directed. (Atiet. PaliL 
'■ii.ti.SAk.i Dioi.Le.! PlnL Qta. ID, 15, 
l<.P''iiT,§:atifcA7>.i.27.) Bftbifmea- 
"~ '■ ' ■ " V that be inbodnced m on- 



™m 1 11— rmy, and node tbe citr dmnk with 
^"^T i hn be 6ace net tfote dotthr the pndn 
P*w> 4 wUdt tbe AidopogDi n* dmrind, nor 
ait eon to decide tbiinnt, or to eittle wbethir 
■ ■« Ike BrtbontT of (he eiair< er the eooeit that 
PcridfasdEpbalti 



~a [e. .fnU.'p.641] and of Lritia [dt 
(W.&ai.f,M] ateobljand Mlkfactniljre- 



EFHIPPU3. 3S 

concilad ; ThlriwoU'i Orm, Ttd. EL pp. S3, 21 ; 
qT AiA t. V. Anitpaffati and Ue anthem 
' by C. F. Hennann, F<iL AA g 109, 
lie eerricee of Ephioltee to tbe denm- 
axiited the toncotrnu enmity of Kinie 
of tbe oljpidu, and led to hi* aiaaaiuation daring 
tbe ni^t, probaUj in & c. 4A6. It Hveon that 
to the thne of Antlpben (eee <it awl ^. p. 1 37) 
the Budcnn hod not been diecaretsdj Dot we 
learn, en the aathoritj of AriMotle {ap. Plat. P*- 
net 10), tbat tbe deed wu petpetialed bj one 
Ariatodieiuof Tenagia. The character of ^hi- 
bj eneient writen, ii a high and 



with AriitddM for hit inflexible int^rity. Hem- 
dodee Pontieu telli ni that be wu in the habit of 
throwing open hi* jroondi to tbe people, and giT> 

ttotemait whidi aiwin inmniiotent with Aelkn^ 
oeeomit, poidbty nan ileloiical than tnie, of bie 
poTcrty. (Plnt.<:bi. 10, Dim. 14 1 AeL F. tf . iL 
43, n. S, liiL 39 ; Vol Max. iiL 8. Est. 4 ; He- 
lael. Font. 1.) 

i. One of the Athenian oraton whoae nurender 
woe leqoiied by Alexander in B. c 3S£, aAer the 
deMmctiou or Thebei, though Demodee pre?ailed 
on the king not to pioe the demand sgeinit any 
bot Choiidemiu. (Arr. Jȣ. L lOi PlDL Deiw. 
23,Pi<«.ITi IMod. iviLlS; Suid. t. e. 'Ah(- 
mn-poi.l 

4. Plntorch (JIim. 41) mentioni Ef^ieltee and 
Cienu ai thoM who bronght to Alexander the in- 
telligence or the treachery and Sight of Harpelei 
in a (^ 324, end were thrown into prioon by the 
Idngoignil^ofalnmny. Tbe pUj of the eomie 
poet Pbnnichiu, called ** Ephieltee," doee not 
Mem to have had lefetence to any o( the abo*e 
penoDB, but lathei to the Nigbtnuue^ (Meineke, 
Hot Crii. Com. Graae. m. IS-i—lSi.) [RE.] 

EPHICU'NUS. [IPHicufjniL] 

EPHIPPU8 {"E^wmO. of OlynUm*, a Onek 
hiitoiian of Alexander the QraU. Itii conmonly 
beliered, though no m»n ii utigned, that Ephip- 
piu lived about oi ibortly after the time of Alei- 
■nder. There ii howsTer a peHige in Anion 
(AiKib, iiL B. $ 4) which woold delarmine the ege 
of Ephij^nu very oixnraUly, if it could be prored 
liiat tbe Ephippne there nuntianed ii idenliol 
with the hiilorisn. Aniin mji, that Alexander 
before Uanug Egypt qipointed Aeecbylui (the 
Rbodien) and Ephippoa rir XhAjciUmi, niperin- 
tandanti C'*'<"'o'oi) of the adniniitiation of 
Egypt. The reading tit XiAmSiwt, Ihongh 
adopted by the recent editon ot Arrisn, ii not in 
all HSS., end eome editiona read XoiUuUra or 
Xa*jn)IUfa ; bat if we might emoid Xa^nlia, 
we ahonld baie reaeon for mppoeing that tbe 
perxm mentioned by Anion ii tbe mnia oe Ephip- 
poi ef Olrnthiu, fn Oljntbiu wa* the principal 
town in Cbolddice, and Bphippo* might <i»t ■• 
well be aDed ■ mtiTe of Oljnihn* a* ol 
dice. If the Efliippiii then m Anian be 
ai tbe UHorian, he woe a contemponuy of Alei- 
toder and Mrriiad him for eoue time, for be wiots 
an accoont ot the kingV bnriaL The work of 
Ephi^nis il diitinetly reforred to by Athenaeni 
omy, thon^ IHodonie and othen alio aeeni to 
have mode ate of it. Athenaen* alli it in Hme 
peae^e* wfpl rqr '/tXa^Uipeu mi 'H^aiinUmi 
^teroAAarf f, and in ottienheh*jTa^iorT<AniT^ 
in*t(ad of fieraUsjnii, to that at all ennt* w« 



of Cb*lci' 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



36 EPBORUS. 

mut oondnde that il conuiiied miaannt of tfaa 
bund of AlcTwidar u well M of bit d«>lh. 
At few fiagmcnU Rill aitant, it would tppcar thM 
EpUfqiu dncribed mon the piintc uid pi 
duHKtcr of hia henwa thu tbeit pablic □ 
(Alhm. iiL p. 120, it. p. U6, i. p. 434, i 
S37, S38.) It ihonld be nmuked Ibit bj a nn- 
gnl*r Diiitake Saidu in liii BrlicLs Ephippui giia 
■n accoimt vf Ephonis of Cniiiae. Plis; (f&iHiL 
lib. IIL. liii.) mentiani one Ephippu) amang thi 
Mithorili« fafi coojultcd upon planu, and it u g^ 
mtnUj beliared that hs ii a di%nal p«un boa 
oar biMoriaa; but all the writen whom Plinj 
mention ahmg with hioi, belong U the period of 
Akmudar, h that it ii bj no meuu improliable 
that hs ma; be Ephii^iu of Olyulbna All that 
u known about Ephippui and the bagmenta of hii 
work, il collected bj B. Qsiti, in hii AUmtudri 
ilagn Hittar, Ser^iiorf, agtote nnnm, Lipi, 
18*4. pp. 309—317. IL. i] 

EPUIPPUS CE^hwoi), of Atheoj, wai 
oomic poet of the uiiddle comedy, ai we learn 
from the leatjmoniet of Snidai (i. v.), and / 
ehnaof AleTaadria(Athen. li. p-482, c),and from 
the olliuioni in hii fragment* to Plato, and the 
Aeadonic philoiophera (Athen. xi. p. 60S, c d.), 
and to Aleaander of Phetae and hia amtempDiB- 
riet, Dion^aiiu the Elder, Cotjn, Theodonii, and 
otbera. (Athen. uL p. 112, £ li. p. 482, d.) The 
tllhlwing are the known title* of hia playa : 'Afrt- 
jut, Bo^ifU, IVwInTi, 'E^ToXij^ 'E^ifSai, Kfpini, 
KMw,Naia7ilt,'Ofl€\ia^poi,*0>uin,ntXriHrnfi, 
XoT^, *iAit|H. An epigtam which EuMatiiioa 
•■erilH to Ephippna (ad Iliad, n. 697, p. 879. 
38) i* nut hii, but the prodnctian of aome un- 
known anthor. (Comp. Alhen. z. p. 442, d.) Tberg 
are tome bonoente ^lo eitant &iim the onknown 
play* of Ephippui. (Keiatke, Fragm. Com. Gme, 
vol I pp, 3£t~354, iii. pp. 323— 340; Fabric 
fiiW.C™«.ToLii. pp. 297, 298,440.) [P. 8.] 

E'PHORtJS CEfivwi)- 1- Of Cn^la^ a cele- 
brated Qraek hialorion, woo, according to Suidaa, 
to whom we an indebted lor oar iaformatiin] »• 
*peeling hia lif«, a ion either of Demophilo* or 
Antiochni ; but aa Plutarch (£■' i^. iWpi. p. 
389. a.) mentiona only the former name, and ai 
Ephanu'i ton wo* called Demophiloa (Atheo. ii. 
p. 232), we mnit beUere that the fitter of Ephomi 
WB* called Demophitna. Epboraa waa a contem- 
faaaj of Theopompoa, and liTed about n. c. 409, 
a dale which Harx, one of hii edibm, atiangelj 
■t.iM«ln» fyi the time at which Bphotna *ai horn. 
EpbonummthiTenirriTadtlieacoeiaionorAkian- 
dar the Omt, for Clenwua of Alenndria <Jtn>Bt. 
i. p. 403) alate* that Ephonu reckoned 73£ yeeia 
fnnn the ntum of the Herodeidae down to B. c 
333, or the jear in which Alexander went to Alia. 
The beat period of hi* life muit therefore baie 
fallen in the reign of Philip. Ephonu woa a pupil 
of Tkocratea in riietoric. at the time when that 
ihetoiicion had opened hii achool in the ialand of 
Chio*i butDOtbciDgterf much gifted bjnature, like 
matt of hii eonntrrmen. he waa fiiond unfit for 
entering npoD liie when he ntomed home, and bia 
firtber thanfon lent him to ichool a aecond tima. 



If to the (tndj of 

rowned with a nc ce ei , for be and 
Theopompoa wen the moal diuinguiahed among 
iba pupili of Iwcmtei (Manud. Khel. ^Mifti. 



draStm. p.fl26. ed. AMaa}, and bom Seneca (A 
TVm7. Anim, 6} it might almoet appear, that 
Epbvn* began the oueer of a public orator. 



cooiae. for he well knew that ontoty waa not 
the field on which Epfaorut (suld win loORli, and 
he eiborted him to derote himwlf to the itody 
and conipoailion of hiiteij. Ai Ephonu waa of 
a mon quiet and eontemplatiTe diapooitioa thaii 
Thei^ioaipna, laociatei adiiaed the former to writs 
the early biatorf of Qreece, and the latter to take 
up the later and mon turbulent perioda a( hitUtry. 
rSuidaa; Cic de OraL iiL 9; Phot. fiiU. Cod. 
1?6, 260.) Plutarch (diSCiwATn^- 10) relate* 
that Ephonu waa among thoae who were anuKd 
of banng conapired ogainat the lite of king Alex- 
ander, but that be aucceiifully nfated the chorga 
when he wai aunnnoned hefine the king. 

The abore ia all that il known mpectioR th« 
Uh of Ephonu. Tbe moot celebrated of all hia 
worita, none of wbich hare eome down to no, 
waa — 1. A Hiatory ('loTopiiii) in thirty booka. 
It began with the ntnn of the Hcndeidae, 
or, according to Snidao, with the Trojan times, 
and brought the bittnry down to the aii^ or 
" " ■' *■■ It treated of the hiatoiy 

aa of that of the Omka, 
and woi thai the lint attempt at writing a mii- 
Tenal hiatory that wa* eier made in Qreece. It 
Mnbraeed a period of 750 yean, and eodi of th« 
thirty booka contained a compact portion cS the 
hiil«ry, which fanned a complete whole by iteelE 
Each alto contained a apedal pnbce and mi^t 
title, which either Ephorai hinutdf 
grammarian aeema actually to bars 
given to each book, for we know (hot uw foartli 
book wu called Ed,Min^ (Dial It. 1, T. 1, xri. 
14,26; Polyb. T. 33, ir. 3; Stnb.Tii. p. 303; 
Ciem. Alex. Slnm. L p. 403.) Ephonu himaelf 
nnplata hia work, and it waa 
1 Demnphilot. [DmomiLii^ 
legau hu hiitory at the point ft 
which the work of Ephonu left off Ai the woric 
unlortunatdy tott, and wa poaaeea oohf iiolaled 
Lgmenta of it, it ia not poaaible in au caeee to 
detennine the exact contenia of eaeli book; but tlte 
coUecton and editon of the ftogmenta tt 
)nuhaTedDneea,aa£traaitiafeaiible. Among 
the other worki of E^onu we may mention — 
2. IIcpl ttytutimr, or on iuTeatJona. in two books. 
(Suidoa i Athen. ir. p. 182, TJii. p. 352, zii. p. 
"" " '"" ' 3. Xarnrfin t*'K*' 

r. Homer. 2.) This 
e been nothing bnt a 
chapter of the fifth book of the loTopliu. 4. n^ 
A4{»r. (Theon, /'ntJjiiM. 2, 22 ; camp. Cic OnK. 
£7.) Thii work, too, like a few othen which ans 
mentioned a* aepante jnudaclioni, may hiTC been 
m of the Hiitory. Suidiw mentioiu 
Forlu, inch aa n*pl ir/aSir mt mniw, 
tw iw iawrraxw AfXlo, of which, 
howcTer, nothing at all ia known, and it ii not 
impoiaiUe that they may bale been enerpta o> 



under hia name. 

Aa for the ehataeter of Ephonu oa an hiatorian, 
we have ample evidence that, in accordance with 
mplidty and aincarity of hii diaiaeter, htt 
deaired (o giie nbithriil account of the eTuota ho 
had to itlate. Ha ihewed bii gvod wDue in not 



D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



u Ik Mn of tbt UandiMM I but dw fai)M]r 



lU Ufai nd ajtUad laditiou ; md it miut ba 
KbwMpd thu kk attopti to rartan agonili* 

Urn; br ImMaf tha tndhiani baa w)i*t ha 
codnj BjtiDcd <c Unlooi, wna in moat 
OM k^Ur ■iiiiaimfiil. wd iODWtiiiiaa tna 
iWid nd pdDile. Ha aiadNd ■ Btt of criti- 
OB wUdi ■ njthiag bat tint rf ■ tail hictociui 
(SbL a. f. m), and in ioae inMaiKM ha 
Inil Ui aalboilica ta anit Ua owd nan. For 
ikaihtBaa fca aao* to hara pnAned tba 
W f " » to tb* apk pacta, tbooiib dw lattai, 
Kan aal Beaded. Bren tba latar ponioua 
tiahktaj, whan Ephom had Rich goidat ai 
Btndooi, Thiqrdidai, and XcnofduHi, conlaiiud 
■dJin^aadnfrgmlui gnat pndoceMOia, and 
<■ puU ta wlndi thaj ware antillad to cndit, 
ikn Ep4ma, to a; th* lout, omnot b« nouded 
■ •mad ndaaia gnide in tha atndr <^ mMoij. 



RPHHAIH. 3r 

Oabomk in thia acaonnt, it ibnild be abaarTsd, ia 
tol* a ctneclion of VolalemoDi, ibr ths comnuin 
nadiiig io Snidai ii roX^twi!. (Caap. Ujuz, E^tior, 
Frmm.p.1.) [L.a.J 

KPHORUS, as Epheoan painter, and t«Kbat 
ofAFU-LU. (8(ud.(.n'AnU4f.) [P. S.] 

EPURAEH. Hm naiM ia Tatioiulf mitten 

Fsnl afflfoiiitkal iRiton of tha Oieek and 
Oriental chuchah 

1. EraautuB. To a writac la oOed, and to 
Ime name no diMiaetiTa qMlhct on ba attaehad^ 

laaibed tha acoDimt af Sunta Ahnm and 
Marr (Ada SS. AbramU <( liariat) ii 



MiapOM Epbaaa, an^ aa Aladnoi, ^ potdt 
•(fiMilia(INc«. Uat ii. IOC, 1 10), and Stiaio 
iWF^t^Uatic (Kog. laact. T. 59.) Ponhjriiu 
'~ " ' ~ p. Bmug, X. 3> dkupa ^bonu 



■Iriidaa tnoaa of p^iaiMB 



; Sdiba (ViiL p. 333) acknoTledgta hii 
■"ill. I7 tijiBt that be aepanled the hiiCorical 
^ Ik geagn^ial partjani of iiii wo'k ; and, in 
npii Is thi httar, ka did not confine bimielf 
'fwi^af naaaa, bat be intcodoDcd inmti- 
F'ii tnaiaiiiiaji tb* oi^n ef nattoni, tbcir eon- 
aoaoaa mi laamiieia, uid nan j of tha geognk- 
I'al bigBBUa wbi^ bare cam down to U 
ana bnjj and bcaatilnl daacriptioM (Poljb. 
B- 1; Stnh. ix. p, 400, Ao, x. pp. 465, t7B, A&) 
Ai npnb ihe itjle «f E^tna, it ia anch ai BUght 



„^ , lied, but at the M 

bat dilaia taA dcfieut ia powar and ena^, 
Ibl EfWae ii faj no laana aqoai la bit maal 
I>''ljb. m. 28 i Uoari. da Camp. Vii. 26 ; 
I^ia. n^ ^pmr. | 6S ; Dion ChiT»L Orat. 
nii. ^ U«, ad. UoreL ; PInL PaicL 28 ; Phi- 
■n. ni. Sati. L 17 t Oc OraL 51 ; Phot. BiU. 
'^Mi.) Tbab^siBiUoflhewo^ttfBphDnii, 
"' >^et af whi^ ndght prohablf be mnch 
"B^d it Diodonu hM alwaja mentionod 
xilmia^ wan Gnt oidactad br Uoiar Uaix, 
C-lnh^ IBIS. - ■ ' ■ ■ ■■■ — 



•^ ait Ii. 4, p. 754. Ac Thar on abo oon- 
■uxd ia a and Tb. Mallei^ Fngm. Hilorimr. 
'^ pp. 2S4— 277. Parii, 1841, 8™. Both 
"nai ban paaliud ta tbnf editiaoa critkal dia- 
■"WiaM <a tho lib and writinga af Sphorai. 

X Of CtaM, called the Yannger, wa> likawiaa 
■ ummbb, boi Iw ii mentioned only by Soidaa, 
^"^ ta wboB he wnta a hiitarj of Oalienin 
a wMk on Coiinth, 



> b« • 



Tie I 



hi* intndnetian lo the Bcsonot, , __. 

the wriler lired abont the middle af the uxth ea>- 
tDiy. Tha BCGonnt, of which tie ia tiia astliar, ia 
■OBWtiinea aKnbed (ai in the Catahjgne of the 
"--TiLiteaiy at Peril *. n. 1740) but inconeetlT 
^hraera the Syrian, It haa alto been aacribeo, 
hot iDcnnclly, to £)Anm of Caria and Ephron a. 
MyhM. [Noa. 3 and 7 beh>w.] 

2. EFBUiuiim (Fftin^iiai). or, aa Thaophanaa 
writaa tha name, EuraBaiHiDa (Zi^fitiuei), 
patdwch of Aktiocb, or, ai it waa then 

"id, Thei^xdia, If the deaignation gino faint 
, Theophinca {i 'AjiAot) indicatea the {daee 
of hii buth, he wm a natin of Amida in Ar- 
nania, near the aonrca of the Tiarii. Hii fiiat 
nnplaynuDta wen dril : and in ue rdgn of the 
emperor Jmtin I. be attained ta the hi^ d^nitT 
of Count of the Eaat. While in thie office be 
recaited, aacanting to a cnrioni itory, nooided 
in tha tiAitmripm, or Fnbtm ^Jvtfaob, writ- 
ten by Joannea HoachDa, bat etnneouily ascribed. 
I7 andenl u well u modern vritan. ta Sinihninina 
patrianh of Jenunlem, an intimatisD of the ea- 
cleaiaatHBl dignity to whii^ be wm dtrttintd to 
attain. In (he yean S25 and GSis, Antiocb wia 
neariy deatnyed by tuoceanTB ahocka af an cartb- 
qnake, and l^ a fin wliich had bean oecaiianed hj 
the orathrow of the hnildingik Anong tha ant 



ju of the fi „ 

Moole, grateful in tbe conmanioDate tan whicb 
Ephniauui manifeited lor them in their diatreaa, 
choae him inceeaaar to the deceaisd prdate. Mil 
eleTation lo the palriarehate i> geneiBlly placsd in 
the year £26, but peih^ii did not take place tOl 
the year following^ Hia oonduct aa nlrianh ia 
highly eok^giied by ecdeuaitical wnten, whs 
■peak eapecially of hii charity lo tha po«, and of 
the aaal and firamew with which he oppoaed he- 
reay. Hii «1 againit heratio *ai maiufeited in 
a caiioni aocomiler with in hentica] ityhta, la 
piUaMaint, in which the henlic ii laid ta have 



of Origen; and wn 
NealniaiM, Eutychiani, S 
and in deCinoe cf tbe Coimal of Chalcadon. 'Bat^ 
towaid tho dcae of hie life, ba wm obliged by the 
Emperor Jnatiniin, nndei a tbnat of dapantioD, 
to aabaoSbe the aandamnatioa of thna of tht 
doereMof tha Caundl of Chalcedon, which ba had 
hitfaecto ao eanieatly npported. Facondn* tl 
Uennii, the itienaoaa admala b( the niiili iiiiied 



4,i,.=.otGot>^[c 



98 EpntUEH. 

itmm, repcot h w EphrumiiuDn tblt neanoa, ud 
with JDitin, u man toikitoat for tht {iitKi (alioii 
of fail offia tbui for tlw iDtemti of wlat he 
deeowd divine ud imponut truth. Ephniioiui 
died ■oon aftar tliu tmuKtion, a. d. StS, or per- 
limp* G4£, ift«c s patnucfaate. ueoiding to Theo- 
phufll. of cigfatBQn fflan, or, according to otfaer 
calenlatiaiu, of twsntr vean. 

Tha woifc) of Ephmmia* an known to m only 
\j tfaa account of tbani prgaarred in ths Bitiio- 
Ouea of Pfaotioa, who Hji that thm Tolumn 
written in delence of tlie dogmu of the Chunh, 
and enodiJI; of the decraea of the Coimdl of 
Cliakedon, had come dawn to iiii day ; bat he 

E'ree an occonnt onlj of two. Tha fint compiv- 
mdad, 1. A» yiitfi ID Zauliaa, ■ icholuticua or 
adnata of Kneaa, and oiu of the Met of the Ace- 
^lali i 2. Sam tpiiUm to Ot tmptmr Jartifaa .■ 
S. ^Ma ta AiMmia, UAop ^ JVgp iiiM. Dit- 
■HtMMW SpdMimt, mutnpiiilam cfTarua, Braam 
^ Ptnim, and oUtm; i. A%atl</a iyiud{ciir»- 
tun) vpgitii) held b; EjJiraimia* retpecting eartain 
nnocthodai booki ; and, h, Fimtgyrwal ami oOmr 
rfiuowsM. Tha Mcond Tidnma contained a tna- 
tin in four booki, in which wece de&ueet of Cjiil 
af Alexandria and the if nod of Cbalcedon againtt 
Iha Nertoriaiio and Entychiani ; and anawen (o 
BODta thooLogical qoattiooA of hii coneapondent the 
adnicata Anatalini. (Phot. Bad. Codd. 238, 229 ; 
1 Engrint, Eaia. Hid. in. B, S ; 



dted a* Sophronltu) 



FacnndiiR, i 

Jnanim Hoachnt (oammonW at 

Pralmm Spiritmab, c. 36, 37 in 

ToU xui. ed. Paria, 1651 ; Tbeopbanea, Ckroma- 

KA. ad Ann. £19 (Alex. £ia=fi2G Cominon 
] end tabla ad Ann. S37, 638 ; Baioniua, Ait- 
Koia; Can, HIALUbt. ToLi. p. £07, od. 1710-3; 
Fabric Bili. Grve. toL i. p. 7£0.) 

3. EniKEK, or [Blhei EpniiAaii CEfipaitii), 
of Cakia, a monk of unknown date, writer of a 
Gnek hymn 01 player pita by Raynaeui {Diturt. 
J'niim. it Atob^mt Qgim Gmmi, p. liTiiL in 
the Ai*a ^aMtantm Jmm, toI. iL) Thii E^uem 
la not to be confounded with Net 1 and 7. 

i, Efhrum CG^faJfi), biihop of ChenoD. In 
the title of hie only pnbuehad woA ha ii called 
anhhiahfwi, and loina modBmi ilyte him ** martyr." 
He ii the author of an accoont of a mincle 
wronght by the relics or the inteipoiition of Cle- 
■kent Df Rome, on the body of a child, who bad 
been oranrhelmad by the mb in a pilgrimage to 
Cleawnt*! fubiBBrina tomb. The accoont ia print- 
ad in tha Patcea Apoatolid of Colaleriiu (vol. i. 
p. 815. ad. Amateidam, 1721,) and in the Di 
Pnbatit jbwtom Fitu, of Surina, 29 Not. An- 
Mhec piece of Ephnim on the Miiadea of St. 
Clenenl, eridently difiarent imm the focegoing, ii 
DOtteed by Leo AUatioi, who call* the writer Eph- 
nemini; bnt Cotelerini wat not aUe to obtain it, 
■r ha would haTe printed it with the foregoing. 
<CoteIeriDi, Jlc,- ABatiaa, Da Sf m om u m Sar^itii, 
pp.90,S6; Fabric fiiU. iTmeB. ToLTii p.21, riiL 
3M ; Calal JKSS. BHIialk. B^he. Pari*, 17(0.) 

A. ErHBAiH of ConaT*imNOPi.a, a dinno- 
gnphsr who fiouriahed apparently abont the be- 
ginning of the fourteenth century. Hii chronicle, 
written in Iambic nm, ii repeatedly dted by 
Alladoa (Di PiSa, p. 22, Dialriia dt OtergiU, 
pp. 337, Stl, 3il, Ac, ed. Paria. IGSl), and ti 
jniiBlily extant in the Vatican Uhnry in MS. hot 
ka* nerer been pubtidied. (Fabric 001, Gran. 
iL78, 364.) 



EPBRAEH. 

8. ErBKlIHDB of Edb 

tha Syrian. [See below.] 

7. EpBaati, biahop ti Mtlaba in Caria [ae* 
NocIandS]. The time when he Uvad u onca- 
tain ; Imt religiona hoDOnn wan paid lo hii me- 
mory in the fifth oentury at Leoee' (near 
Mylaia), when hit body wai buried. {Aita Sam>- 
lormm, S, EmMat VOa, op, S, Jaaaar. rxA. ii. 
f. 600.) [J. C. U.1 

EPHRAEH or EPHRAIM, a Syrian, born at 
Miiibii, Sooriihed A. n. 970; Ha ipant Ida yonth 
in diligent itudy, t ' ' --*'■' ,^ . ^ . . 



He n 



biuoprc 



pnghimao 



d a duae friendihip with 

Baiiti bitllop of Caeaareia, and ihaied hia amnnnj 
againat the Aiiani and other heratica, irium he 
attack* with the Tiolence ehanderiHle of hia tgK. 
Ha apptaired in a truly CfariitiBn light at the time 
of a bnine at Edetaa, when he not only awiatad 
the nfiaring poor with the gnateal enargy and 
mo*t lealDUi kiodneai, bnt diio actively exerted 
himadf in urging the rich to deny themaelTei lor 
tbair bretbiea'* good. Soiomen (iii. 16) apaka 
with admiration of the manner in whidi Chria- 
tianily had lubdnad in bun a natnrally iraadble 
temper, and iilaittBlea it by a pleaiing anecdote, 
amntinB from iti quaint aimplidty. At the can- 

dn^on of a long bat, r*^ ' ■ '' " 

the dish in which ha wi 
Hit alarm at baring thui 
waa removed by hearing bim ny, ** Never mind, 
lince the food hai not coroe to n*, we wiQ go to 
it." Wheivnpon Epbiaem lat down on tba flcNW 
and ate (he ■£»{■ left in the fragment* of the 
broken diah. He died about a. d. 378, and hi 
hi* h«t illnea* forbad the natation of any fnneiml 
ontkm over hit remain*, and detired that faia 
obaeqniea ahould be conducted in the limpleot 
manner. Ht knew no langni^ bnt hi* nativo 
Syrian, though neariy all hi* works are tnnalated 
into arettc, and wen formeriy held in tuch high 
ealeem, that portiona of them were aomatime* nvd 
in churchei after tha goapel tea the day. Moat of 
hia writing* wan collected by Oenud Voaa, who 
tnmed them into Latin, and publi^ed them (1) wt 
Rrnna A. d. 1680-93-97. (2) at CobgDa in ISt)3, 
(9) at Antwerp in 1619. Voa*** aditioa i* in 
three volume*. ThaSntconiiatiafvariomtnatiapa, 
wtly on mbjccta loldy theolggical, aa the Piieat- 
hood, Pmyer, Fasting, Ac, with othen partly 
theological and partly moTal, aa Truth, An^r, 
Obedience, Envy. The aecond contoint many 
apiatle* aiid addmaea to monk*, and a cdlrction 
of apophthegmi. The third eouiialt of aereial 
trnliift or bomilie* on parte of Scripture and 
chanctan in tha Old Teitament, at Elijah, Daniel, 
the Thm Childnn, Joaeph, Noah. Pbotitn givea 
a litt ot 49 homiliet of Ephnent (Cod. 196), bat 
which of theae are included io Voaa^ edition it iaim- 
pofl*ibie to aaeertain, thou^ it it certain (hat many 
an not. Another edition of Ephtaem'i worfca in 
Syriae, Qreek, and I^tin, wat publithed alao at 
Rome with note*, praboea, and variou* nadiDga, 
■■ atndio Sim. A>*emBnni, P. Benedicti e( SiBfrfi. 
Evodii Aawiraanni," 6 vtd*. fbL 1733-46. The 
Greek verdon of tereral ef hi* writing*, fi'na 
eighteen MSS. in the Bodleiu) libnry, wii pub- 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



BPICHARI9. 
bMbrEdw.ThnilaBlOiibid,1709. Then 
bn b«a KnnI (ditioa of M^anta wokt. 

B iIb aid ta b* tbc Htlhoi of u 
< m>^ He banu U iriite 
I to Hanamiiu, toe Km acd 
!■ til* boetic, who eompoiad 
„ uj Kiiaq* emm of doctiiiw, 
K of iriud aroc Dot onlj of Bn faerstial but 
rratin bHlbn du^do^ denjing the nsnzni^ 
bn of tbe bodj, md enHauuDg Tuwi *bouI Ibi 
■an of Ilu wal utnettd from ttie miliiigi of 
|)^ lUloMfibn. Tbcw aonp bad become gnat 
branM ian«tb« cobbbh paople, and Ephnem, 

to MOB lllBI VTll 



■d adaoltd W tb 
iko diuBctn. 



TVudmt, IT. 27 ; Can, Ser^. EaL HM. IHa. 
pn I. BC. 4 ; C I^a^eike, OtguMrtotw CritiM 
t f^iMM ^pna SSL HferTinMli, fM MuJ Fa 



, and Dt Spiraimi ^fri arte 

.IgSl.) [o.kLc.] 

rPHYRA fEfV-}. ■ du^ier of Oouin*, 
in wWa EpbjTaca, tba bikkdI nana of Coi~ 
«k w dmnd. (Pau. iL 1. f 1 ; Viig. Gaoty. 
h; XX) [L. S.] 

EPIBATE^IOa (lir«inffiuH), tba god who 
aadoca an on b«id a abip, a miname of 
^oUd, gndtr wbkb Dimnsdei tn hii letum bom 
Tn; biDt him ■ tanpie U TnMKDC (Puu. il 
Htl.) In tba muh Kue Ap-Jlo braa tba tai> 
■w cf -Ee^Urioi. (ApuUaa. Rbod. i. «(W.) [US.] 

EFICASTE fKruc^ffnt), a dan^tar of Hnme- 
m, lad wife of I^na, 1^ wham iba becsoa tb« 
ankf et Oedipna, iriigm ibo aftervarda nn- 
•inmflr BWiiBd. She u nune comnKinly called 
Jintt (HmLfMlzi. 271; ApoUod. m.£.§7, 
^ ! He Ontirua-) Re^iectiDg Epicailei the 
'ajbta rf Caljdim, lea AaiNaii, No, i ; a tbiid 
£)na ia iHBticMied bj Apollodonu. (ii. 7. 
M.) [US.] 

IPICELEUSTUS fEir»AtiWTBi), a natiTe of 
(^ai, obo lived pmbald; in tkt tecoiid or Gnt 
■atoj B. c Be il menliDTied bj Erotia 
(C«. flfyocr. p. B) ■• hanng abridged 
dttnillj amued the work bj Baccb«iiii od 
■UlIi wadanaiiid In the writiun of Hii 
Ma. IW.A.O. 

EPITHARIS CEvfxapu). a freadiroiDaa of 



i. G2). (lia waa tba 

L, and it siay be tiM 

Sana ■^"■■"'■^ with 

Bt e( the onupinton, tboogb Tocitui nja 

fand her knawledae at it She endotiound bf 
d Meat to iiwiwi*** the conamiatan to cwTf 
1^ flm islo ^Rt. Bnt ai tbej Kled ilowly 
■ail nb gnat heiiiatjon, >be at kngth grew tired, 
•al naind npon trjipg to win otb the aailm of 
^ (Kt of HiacDDiD in Campaiiin, vbeni ahi 
^TBg. One Volnaia* Pncdni, a chiliardi of 
At flat, appeaia to hare been the finrt that ■■• 



et, appeaia to hi 
idbrWin the 



EFtCHABMU& 



who) tba cooqiincr waa diacarend, Nan ov 
h« to be loRoiBd beeaUB dta nfiued naming anj 
of the Bccctnplieea ; bnt neilha Uowa, nor fin, nol 
.1 . .. - . -^ (uj^ ^ [jgp tonnentwa, eoold eitort 
ion froDi her. When on the lecend ot 
thud daf aflei ihe wu earned in a aedan-chair— 
for bei linba wen alnadj broken — tc be laitared 
M, lbs itran^ed henelf on her waj bj 
her girdle, which ihe fiutened to the cbair. ^e 
' ' ai Tadliu mjt, nion nobly than many 
• or icDBtor, who withoat being tortared 
betrayed their nsaieat relatiTea. (Tac. Amu. xv. 
11, G7; Dion Caaa. liii 37.) [L. S.] 

EPICHARHUS CErlxofVU"). tl>« chief nnie 
poet among the Doriana, wai born in the ialand of 
' jul the 6(hb Olymmad (b. c S40). Hia 
Elotbalea, wai a fAiyuaan, tl the raca i^ 
tba Aadapaada, and the pro(>aaun <d madieina 
leema to UTe bean followed for aasw time by Ej^ 
channoa himaelfl aa wall ai by bia bntbar. 

At the age of three monUu he waa carried to 
He^ia, in fficily ) Or, according to the acconnt 
neoened by Snidaa, he want thitbet at a much 
later period, with Cadmoi (& c 484). Tbence ha 
Ted to Syiacoie, wilb the other inbabilanta 
of Hegan, when the latter ei^ vaa deetroyed by 
Qelon (b. c. 481 or IBS). Hen be epent the re- 
mainder of hit life, which was prolonged thraugb- 
ont the reign of Hieroii, at wboae conn Epichamna 
iiaoeiated with the other great wrilera of tbe time, 
and among them, with Aeachyliu, who lecma to 
haTo bad aome influence en hii dnmitic coona. 
He died at the age tf ninety (a. c 4S0), or, ac- 
cording to Lncian, ninety-ieven (a. c 443). Tbe 
dty of Syiacnai encted a itatne to him, the ia- 
fcription on which ia preacrred by Diogenea I^r- 
tioi. (Diog. Laert. Tiii. 7B ; Snid. b v. ; Lndan, 
MaenL 25 ; Aelian, t'. if. iL 34 ; Pint Mom^ 
pp. 68, a^ 17S, c; Marmor Parium, No. 55.) 
In order to nndentand the relation of Epichar- 
moi to tbe early comic poetry, it mnit be mnera- 
bend that Megan, in Sicily, wai a colony Eron 
Uegan on the lithmui, the inhabitant! of which 
diipnted with the Atbeniani the inTcntioD i^ 
comedy, and where. Bt all (Tenta, a kind of comedy 
wu known ai eaily ai tbe besinning at the liith 
ccntniy s. c [SuunioN.] Thii comedy {whether 
it waa lyric or alio dramatic, which ii a donbtlid 
point) waa of coiiiie found by Epichaimoi eiiiting 
at tba SiciliBn M^aia ; and he, togetbar with 
Pbonnia, gare il ■ new fonn, wbkh Ariatotle da- 
Kiibei 1^ tba woidi tJ faMavt mw (Poil. 6 ar 
5, od. Ritter), ■ phnia wbki aoma take Id mau 
comedie* with a regnlar plot ; and othent eonudia 
on mytbological aabjecta. The lattn Hema to b« 
the beltw intefintatiDD ; bnt eitlier expfauution 
eitabliibea a clau diitinslioii between the comedy 
of EpIchanBiii and that of Megan, whicb n— - " 
hare been litde nan than a nit of low bi ~ 

With iMpeet to the lime irtian E)uehannu be- 
gui to eompoea wnnHliBai mnch conftium baa 
ariBn ban tbe itatement of Ariilotle (or an in- 
terpolator), that Epicbainnii lived limg b^on 
Chionidei. (PoeL S \ CaaaaowL) We hare. 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



BO EPICHABMUEL 

Fcnum mr (a. c 485-t}. Thu it •ppean AU, 
lik« CiUiniu, hs wu an old mu befon he begm 
to write CDmtdj ; and tliii igraM wall with tke 
fict thtt hia pMtry wu of ■ ym pbilowpfaie 
chancier. (Anon, dt Com, L e.) "Hm imij OM of 
til piny I, Ibe dite oC wbich ii certunlr kiMwn, i> 
till N&riu, B. c. 477. (Schol. Pad. Pyti. L 98 ; 
Clinton, ni ami.) We fasra al» txpnu tettimoii; 
of the bet that Elolhilei, llu bths of Epklunmu, 
fanned an icqiiAinluice with Pytha^mi, end 
that Epichumm iutmelf wu a pnpil of that gnat 
ptulowpher. (Diog. Lajirt. I. e. ,- Sdd. t. n.; Pint. 
A'hm, B.) Wa mi; thanfom conDdci tbfl life of 
EpidMRnu ■■ diniible inU two paMi, nemelf, hit 
lib U Megan np to i. a 4B4, dariiig whidi he 
wH engaged in the itndj' of philoao^j, both 
phyiical and malaphTnca], and the renulndar of 
hie life, which ha ipenl at Sj^unie, ai a comio 
poet. The qoemioii nqiecUng the identity of Epi- 
chamm the eomedian and Epiehumua the Pjtha- 
B«ra«D philoeopliec, iboat which mhim writen, both 
ancient and nodem, haTe been in donbt, may now 



BdLaXH. Lt.1 PeriioiL ad Atliam. V.H.iLSli 
Clinton, Ftut. HtO, jiL iL Intnd. pL xxxn.) 

The nmnber of the camedin of E^channiU ii 
di9eiedtlr etaled at 53 or at (5. Then an MiQ 
BXtaot 35 title*, of viaA 26 a» pi'oeufTed b; 
Atbenwni. The mijorit; of them an dd mftbo- 
logical nbjecta, that ii, tiareniei of the henic 
mfthi, and tfaeae plajri no donbt ttrj maeh leson- 
bled ibt Btjric dnma of the Athenian). The 
Mlowinf an their tillea : — 'AAnW,'A/u«u, Bide. 
Xcu, B^oi^i, AtvmAfw, AiJrwoi,*H(t|i yifiat. 



iubjeeti, political, 

culoDn, and, it wonid 

dumder t thiMa, howeTar, of hii etoiediei which 

beltas to the laat head an niher genenl tl 

indindnal, and naembled the aubjecta tnated 



of the old comedf , the; miut be nsdentood aa re- 
leiiing lather to bia aatiqmt; in point of time 
than to any cloae naembiance between hie woib 
and thoM of the old Attic comedian). In bet, we 
baTe a proof in the caie of CiLana that enn 
among the Atbeniani, after the eetabliibment of 
the gennino old comedy b; Ciatinna, the mytfaob- 
giol comedy ollll maintained it) gnxmd. The 
play* of Epichaimiu. which wen not on mytholo- 
gical aobjecta, were the following : — ^ArpwrTTusi 
(Sicilian Onak for 'AypmBii), 'AfiraToI, va kbI 
MAaoto, Ai^M, 'EAvlt i) lUflvrai, 'Eo^ nl 
Noma, •Er.rltiai, -HpiiAtiTn, e«pei, Hr)«pfr, 
Hqni.'O^ IIiplaUiB^ TU/ni, TUtmr, Ipmc&a, 
Xtptiarrn, X^fw. A oon^denUe nnmber of 
Eragmeuti of the ab 
thoH of which wa can 
from Ibe extant Engmeal* an the Marriage tf 
lUitynAHrfliai^mtitamBmiMtn. UUUer he* 
obHmd that the painted raaeaof kwer Italy oftsn 
aaabla at to gain aeomplataandTiTid idaairfthoae 
theatiicd raprawntationa of which the play* of 
- ■ ■ -.0 type. 



d Uagarian Mnedy, and of the 



EPICLEIDAS. 

of the Pythagorean philoeapbei, 

laiqwe WM nDunkably elegant: he wu 

rated far hia ehirice of epithet) : Ua play* 

•bonndad, na tha ailant fragment* pmTa, wiili 



the inatinct of ani- 
erree that ■■ if the 
element* of hia diama, wbidi we hats diNoreied 
aingly, wen in hia play* combined, he mut ban 
aet out with an derated and philoaophical new. 
which enabled him to ladriie """H™^ without dit' 
tnrbing theodnneBi and tranquillity of Uilhongbti; 

were maiked with the acute and penetiating genim 
which characleriied the Siciliau." In proof of 
the high ealimate in which he wa* held by the an- 
cient*, it may be enoogh to nbr to the notice* of 
him by PhUo {ThtatL p. 152, &) and Ckeia. 
(Ttw i. B, ad AS. L 19,J It i> aingnkt, how- 
enr, that Epichirmai had no incceaKiT in bii 
peculiar atyle of comedy, except hii ton or diiciple 
Deinolocho*. He itA, howerer, diningoiihtd 
imltalon in other time* and conntriea. Some 
writer*, making too much of a few worda of Ant- 
tfitle, wonld ttace the origin of the Attic comedy 
to EpSchaimiu ; bnl it can hardly ba donfatsd that 
Crate*, at leaat, waa hi* imitator. That Plantni 
imitated him ii eipreialy atated by Hotan (^'i'- 
iL 1. 5B),— 
** Plantn* ad exemplar Sienli propnan EpdmnnL" 

The paiaaite, who fbrma to conamcnona a cbane- 
I in the play) of the new toncdy, i* fiDt foond 

EpicbumnB. 

The fonnal peenltari^ea of the dnma* ti Ejri- 
cbamnu cannot ba notind hen at any length. 
Hi) ordinary metn wn* the lirely Trachaic Tetrfr 
meter, bnt ha ilao nted the Iambic and Anapaeitie 
metna. Tbe qneation* nqwcting hia acenea, num- 
ber of acton, and chonu, an fully treated in tbe 
work of Gnmr. 

Soma wnlen attribole to Elnchannm trpaiate 
pbilowiphical poema; bnt then it little donbt that 
the paoBgea ivfeired to an extract) Erem hia 
eonudiea. Some of the andent wrilen atcribed to 
Epidiaimna Ibe invention of toma or all of thote 
latten of tha Oreelc dphabet, which wen nanally 
attribnted to Palamede* and Simonidea 

of Epidiatmiu are printed in the 
ooUection* of MareUin* (&M!Miaa «(. Cbancu, 
Parit, 1633, Sro.), Herteliui (QHtd. Fragm. 
Gunai, Baai!. 1560, Sto.), H. Stephana* {Poau 
Plabi^Mca, 157S, Sto.), and Hugo Qntin* (Et- 
tajL la Tng. ti Ckmoed., Pari*, IGSG. ita.), and 
•CfMratdy by H. P. Krnteman, Uaiien. 1834. 



bTWelcher(.a»lnk#) 
— 1123),aiid 



ado by Welcher 
■actiA 1336, p. 



filrdiiJIleaiiB 

ilhen. The ma 

ihaimna i* that of Qry*ar, di D 
Colon. I S33 ; the aecond rdnme, containing the 
fragment*, haa not yet appeared. (See ilao Fabric 
BibLGraecTtL it. p. 298) BarieH, d> ^idtanu, 
Bnim, 1632; UUiler, ZtorwH, bk. ir, c. 7: Bode, 
OfrUMe d. Hdhm. DickOmut, ToL lit part i. 
p. 36.) [P. Sl] 

EPICLEIDAS (^*iiili*llai), brother of Cleo- 
mea III^ king of Sparta. According to PaoB- 
nia* (ii. 9. S 1. 3), OooiiMnta poiaoned Enrydaroi- 
daa, hia eolleagve of the houte of Prodiu, and 
ahared the royal power with hia brnther EpideidaL 
The latter aflerwarda bll in the battle of SelUiia, 
222. [C.P.M.1 

b,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EPIC1UTB& 



wntiDga sf HiffOtntet, which be aiTwig«l io 
i)pl»l>rtkil oidtr. H« liyed aflei Bucheiat, 
ud thacim imtiBblj in tha leGODd or Gnl cen- 
dttb-c [W.A.O.] 

EPl'CRATES CEmcpirqi), an Alheniui, nlio 
Ipok » proc ttip gnt pvt id paUic B&iii after tbs end 
iitlhi Pi li|inii»iiii pir HBWua aalani mem- 
ber of tbc dcBwcntkal p4rtj, wid bad ■ ihare in 
Ike onrthnw rf the Tluity Tynnti (Dam. dt 
Fab. LrgaL. p. 430) ; bat aftannida, wbm aent an 
a iiiilMiiaj to tbe Peniao king Aitkierxea, he 
WM wacnaul mt Odlf of corrnptiini, in nainng 
T &Ba Amitnaa, baC»laoi)f ptenlation. (Lji. 
Or. 37, e. Eirenltm, p. BDe, &c) U^oaD- 



s asto jtnjaut thU inatead of 
ain* mbaMadon t« th* Penian king ihould be 
luiadly chaan bf tbe Athmiana. FlaURh rIio 
■n that ke did DM den; die chuge oF connpliaii. 
He ae^Hi. boweivt, to bn been acquitted ( PluL 
and Atk. <l.<K)ptDb*bl7tlin>ii^ tbepoverfiJ in- 
Kcn( peaeiaed b^ hnBelf md bj'bii fettow cfi- 
Bmnl,pb«maii>a.(Dioa7i.K>tZ)ihI2.} H*lud 
been gtSq of avnqMien OD • fannv ocoudd alao. 



EPICTETUS. 



31 



e.) Thia fint oBtnce of bia waa 

1 tike oecuian wben Timocntc* the 

Tilbniiatef to bribe the 

Itv^ Xenopluia (^tielL iiL 5. g 1.) aaaerta, that 
'■' j( nceire any monej from Ti 



E£^»' 



me tmf iiwn» from Ti- 
iptdoua on the Eaoe of it). 



17 Cephahuuid 

it of the kcqnittal of Epi- 
fsoe* on ike ekuge of eamptioii in hii anbaaa; to 
ARubxcb, aeeau at fint light oppoaed to the 

aial of DanoathoMa {dt Fait, ijgat. pp. 430, 

Ul},tiatt be wHandemiMd todeath,and that he 
naactnDj »— i-^-J But, in bet, Uemotlheaea 
tima to be R&ning to a dialinct lod third oeca- 
iM aa which BiaciMea ma chaned with comip- 
tia I far in bia repetition of tbe cbaige Ibera ii the 
Bpartaat head, w^ti^fttMfAtw twi* cvtii/ix"'* of 
vkick wc find uothii^ in the onlion of Ljiiaa, 
bat vhid ii JoM tbe cbarga wo ihanld eipecl to 
k Bade spinet tbe Albnuaii enToy who took 
fart in accepting the peace of Antalddaa (k c 
ST): awl tlmt Sptcrale* waa ralJ; that aavaj ii 
Ike wse pmbabie from the Act, whwb ii eipiHaly 



IkM ptwa to the Athenian*. (SchoL AHMd. i, 
p. »!, ed. IHndoil) 

bioMB and Pboniuuiu wen atladud bj 
AniU*ka>e* (Balm. 6»-Ti, Aaa. t. 965, and 
ScbaL) and ^ Plato, tbe eoinic poet, who made 
alBHr the tabject of a whole piaj, the 
■a. Both an lidicnled for their large 
~ ia naaon Epicratea waa called 
>. Et7Bi.Uag. t.e. ; Si]id.Le., 
larpocimL i. e. p. 163, com not. 
n Vak*. i £i«t. &cni<. 13. p 29 (Plat. 
nmdr.p.7ZI,Yi.;itaDtk.e,HiiLCHLCim.Oniee. 
r^ I>2, 183 t Bcq^ dc StiifK. dm. AU.A'L pp. 
I»— 394.) [P.S] 

EPI'CaATES (tlw«|>itni>}, of Aabnda, waa 



cording to tbs leatinon;of Athenaeui(i.p43-iCt), 
confinned bj extant figment* of hi* playi, in 
which he ridiedea Plato and bit diaciple*, 5pea- 
dppoa and Henedemiu, and in which be refen to 
the eomteaan Idii, aa being now &i advanced in 
jt»n. (Atben. ii. p. 59, d., liii. p. 670, b.) From 
Iheie indication! Meineke infen that he BonriBhed 
between the lOlK and lOBlh Olympad* (ac, 
376—348). Two jdaji of EpicTBtea, 'Ettnfm and 
'ArrAOtt an menlioned b; Soidaa (l v.), and are 
qnoled bf Atheoaeai (lii. p 635, L, liiL pp. 670, 
b., 606, e.), who alao qootei hia 'Atiaiim (i. p. 
422, S.) and AAiwpwroi (ti. p. 362, d.), and in- 
forma na that in the Utter phiy Spicntea copied 
aome thing! from the AAwptrrot of Andphaiie!. 
Aelian (M..4.iii. 10) qnotea tbe Xopei of Epi- 
cratea. We iiBTe alao one long fragment (Athen. iL 
p. 69, t.)taAVwo ahoneroDM (Allien. xi.p 7S2, 
I, ; PoUdi, It. 121) frun bia onknown pliji- 
(Meineka, Frog. Cbfl!, Oniac. toL i. pp. 414, 416| 
tdI. iii. pp. 36&~S73i Fabric BiU. Graie. toL 
ii. n.. 440, 441.) , [P. 8.] 

EPICTETUS CEwliimrret), of Hienpolia in 
Phrjgia, a freednnn of Ep^liroditni, who waa 
hinuelf a tnedmsB and a Mffiile bTonrite of Nero, 
lired and taught lint at Rome, and, after tke ei- 
poliioa of the pbikotophen by Domilian, at Nieo- 
polia, a town in Enirui, fonnded by Angnatna in 
commemonlion of hia Tictory at Actiiun. Altbonjih 
he wat fitTDond by Hadrian (Spartlan. Hadr. 16} 
— which gaf» Dccadon to a wMk which waa nn- 
doubledly written at a mnch later time, the - At- 
lenatio Hadiiani cnm Epicteto" (aee eapedally 
Henmann, Ada PUioi. L 734}— yet be doei not 
i^ipear to have ntuned to Rome ; for the dia- 
eouraea which Arrian took down in writing wen 
deliTered by Epictetuwhen an old man atNioopoli*. 
(MHBr«.L26,19,witbSctiweig^aaier'inote.) Ths 
italementof ThenuatiDa(Oiil. t. p. 63, ed.tUrdiiin) 
that Epietelu* wae !liU alive in tbe reign of tbe 
two Antoninea, which ia repeated bj Soidaa (r. i.), 
aeema to nal npon a copfuaioa of namea, vnce M. 

miTvr of Epjctelua, doea not mention him, bnt 
Janinii Rnaticoa, a diidple of Epictolna, among bia 
tew^er! ; in like manner, A. Oelliiu, who lired in 
the time of the Antoninet, ipeaki of Epictetua aa 
belonging to the period which bad Juit paiaed 
away. (Jd. Antonin. L 7, vii. 29, wiA Oataket'a 
note ; Gellioi, vii. 1 9.) _ Beiidn what if hen 

of. Epictetn! an recorded, toch aa bia lameneia, 
which i* ipoken of in nry difienut waya, bii 
poverty, and hit few wanta. The detailed biogn- 
phy written by Arrian haa not come down to na. 
(Simjdic. Brootm. Cammmi. ia EpieUL BteUrid. 
if. p. S, ed. Schweigh.) 

It ia probable that he waa Mil a alare (Anian, 
ZMiaert L 9, 29) wben C Moaonini Rnfiii gained 
bim for tbe philoaopby of tbe Porch, of which ha 
remained a &itbful follower througfaont lila. In 
what manner he conoeiTed otd tuodit II, we aea 
with aatiiftctoty completenea* from t£g nolea which 
we owe to bia laitbinl pupil, Airiao t although of 
Arrian "t eight book* of ooonranlarie! fcnrare loiti 
with the eicepdon of a few tiagmenta. Epictetua 
himaelf did not leare anything written behind him, 
and the ibort manual or eollectiou of tbe moat ee- 
aentia] doctrinea of Eptctetoa, waa compiled ban 
hi* discouKi by Airian. (Simptic a Eadgti^ 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



n 



EPICTEtUa 



Pmtm.) The ■booiI (SKilniiiia) »ai 
BanMriea o( Arud, tflgctbet with iba axpluBtiiHU 
of Simplidiu to tha IbniMi, ud Mmw later pan- 

C' Hn, lm« .bnan edited b; &ch<reiglNlKT< wtM 
■ddad ths note* of Upton, Mi own, ud Ann 
III tOBU othar commeiititan. (S^iiiMeae PlSaiO' 
pUae Mammmta, pa$l J. Uptmi oUdivium etmt, 
tdidil et iOa^raea J.SAae^ii^ittr, Lipnie, 1791'. 

We may eppl; te Epictetni himaelf what hs 
■i]r> of tut Stoic muter, tu. thit he ^ke m im- 
prewTctf , vid » plainlj deecribed the wickodncM 
of the indiTidDsl, that efsrjr one fell atnck. h 
thoogh he hunaelf had been q»ken to penonallj. 
(Dimrri. iiL 3S, S9, comp. c IS, L S^ Being 
deepi; impreeaed with his matioii u a teacher, 
be auned in hie diacouiK* at nothing elu bnt 



whidi the; produced. (Airian, i^. ad L. OtU. L 
P. 4.) Far frnn an; conlefflpt of koowtodge, 
lie knowi bow te nloa the thoor; of fomuDg 
eoDclDiioDi and the like. '{Dimert i. 7, 1, Ac, 
(onp. L B, 1, &c L 17, ii. 33, 3Jl> He oal; 
deorad that logical emdiea, Iho itud; of booki 
and of eloqamce, Aonld not lead panoni awa; 
ftoa that of whidi tb«j ven morel; the taMm, 
and that the; ihoold not miniiUr la pride, haiuli- 
tineee, and aTiiioe. (L 8. 6, ftc, 3S. 66, iL 4. 11, 
9. 17, 16. St, 17. SI, 21. 20, iii. 2. 33. 17. 2B, 
21. 78.) Ha nerai deTOUi an; time to duqidii- 
timu which do not, either direct]; or indirectl;, 
contcibate towaidi awakening, animating, and 
pori^ing man*) moml conduct (L 17. IG, 39. 66, 
iL IS. 10; camp. ir. 8. 3i, 6. 24.) 

The tnw C]mie— and he ii the lamB aa the 
Stoic, the pbiloeopher, — ii in the oinnion at Epic- 
tetm a meuenger of Zent, lent to men to delinr 
them from their emneoiia notiona about good and 
aril, and about bappineta and anhajrennoea (iii. 22. 
2S), and to lead Uiem back into Uiemaelna. (ii. 
S9.) For thii purpoee he reqniree natoial graoa- . 
bsbieu and acnleneaa af latellect (A. 90), for hia 
wotdi an to jnodnce a liTel; impreasion. 

The b^inning of philoai^;, aocording to bim, 



ona'i ii^illit; lo do thai which ii DoedbiL (iL 11. 
1; comp. iiL 33. U, iL 17. 1.) Along with thii 
percepum we become aware u the tsnteit which 
u gomg on among men, and we grow aniioui to 
aaeertain the eante of it, and coneeqaeatl; to di*- 
aarer a ilandaid b; which we ma; gire oar deci- 
uon (ii. 11. 13, &c)-. to meditate upon thii and 
to dwell upon it, !• called philowphiiing. (■& 2* ; 
comp. iii. ID. 6.) The thin^ which are te be 
meaiortd an conceptinu, which fDrm the material ; 
tin wtdi which ii to be eonitmcted out of them, 
ia their jnal and natural application, and a con- 
trol OTor them. (iii. 33. 20, 23. 42.) Tbi* joat 



in their braor (rposlptsii. myairiStaa), coniti- 
tnte the nature of good. (iL 1. 4, 19. 33.) Onl; 
that which i* eubiect to oui cboice or deciiion ia 
good or otU : bU the reit ia neiUier good nor aril ; 
It amcamt ni not, ii ii beyond oni reach (L 13. 9, 
36. 1, iL 6. 4} I it ii tomelhing citenuJ, movl; a 
nbjcct for oni choke [L 39. 1, iL 16. 1, 19. 33, 
». 10.26); in itaeU it ia indi^Tont, bnt iu a;^ 
cation k not mdiSennt (iL 6. 1 , 6. 1 ), and iti im- 
plication ia either coniiatent with or conUar; la 
Mtnia. (iv 6. 34.) Tb« choisa 



BPICTETUa. 
oar npinton apon it, are in our powv (L IS. S7) i 
in our didoe we are free (L 13.9, 17.38,19. 9); 
nothing that ia external of na, not aroi Zena, eaa 
OTCRome OUT diiuee : it alone can conlnd ilaeIC 
(L 29. 12, iL I. 23, iT. 1, ii. 3. 3, iiL S. 10, L 1. 
33, It. I. 69.) Our diaioa, howem. i* detarminad 
byonr leaion, wUdi af all oufiKidtiea aeeeand 
leeti ilaelf and evaiTtUi^ daa, (L I. 4, L 30.) 
Rouonii OUT guide (ri ijyjgiaiHiiii), iBdopafala 
of cooqnering all powen wUeh are not ^ijaet to 
Creedom (iL I. 39 ; eomp. iii. 3) ( it ia the pvem- 
' ' " ' 1.7, 17. 

idnnd I7 it (L 2.) It ii b; hii nuon ahne that 
man ii diitingni^ed from the bnto (iL 9. 2, iiL 
I. 36): he who imoonoea hia naaon and allowa 
himi^ to be guided b; eitemal thinga, ia like * 
man wha haa forgotten hia own boa (L 2. 14) ; 
and he who deairei or repudialea that which Is 
bajond hie pawer, ii not bee. (L 4. 19.) 

That which ia in accoidance with naaon eoiD- 
ddee with that whidi ii in aoeordance with natata 
and ^eaaing te Ood. (L 12. 9, 26. 2, iiL 20. IS, 
iL 10. 4, L 12. 8.) Our reaanUaooa lo Ood (L 
13: 27), ar anr relationihip to the Doit; (L 9. 1, 

a and the coinddeoce of our own will with tha 
of Ood (iL 17. 22, comp. 19. 26, iii 24. 96, 
It. I, 89. 103, 4. 39), nmuit in our acting in ao- 
cotdance with teaion and in fraedom. Thtongh 
reaaou our aonli an ai dotal; eonnectad and miaed 
up with tha Deit;, aa though the; were |arM oT 
Mm (I 14.6, iLS. 11,13, 17.33); (or mind. 
knowledge, and reaaan. conititnU Ua eaaence of 
God, and are identicel with tha eaunca of good. (ii.S. 
l,&c) Let Di therefora ioToke Ood*! awiitaDee iti 
our Miifo after the good (ii 1 8. 39, comp. L G. 2 IX 
let nt emnlaM him (iL 14. 13), let ni pnrif; that 
which ia our guide within ni (iii. 32. 19), and let 
na be pure with the pan within ni, and with th» 
IWtTi (iL 18. 19.1 

Tha prophet within nt, who annoancot M na tha 
nainn of good and btQ (iL 7. 3), it tha daonaa, 
the diTine pari of enr; one, hia nereF^etting and 
incotraptiUe guardian. (L 14. 13.) Ha ■*"'*■— ^ 
hinuelf in our opiaione, which bsTa taBathing 
oominon with one anodia and are agreeing with 
one another (i. 22. 1 ); for the; are the thingi whidt 
n aelf^ndent, end which we (eel obliged U cany 
Dte action, though wa ma; combat them. (u. 3A. 
■) That which ia good we mnil recogniae aa 
Dcb a thing : whereTV it i^pcan, it diawi na to~ 
raidi itiel^ and it ia nnpoiaible te njecl the eoo- 
oaptioa of good. (iii. 3. 4, comp. L 4. 1.) The opt- 
JBit dotcrilwd an tha help* wMch nature haa 
given to erer; one for diacorering tiiat wMch is 
trne. (if. 1. 61.) Wiiererer the; an nat reogg- 
niied, at it the caae wilh the fiiilowan of the Neir 
Aeademj, our mind and modeet; become petrified. 
[L 6. 3.) To tnTttligate Ihii critidNU of what ia 
in accordance with natore, and la maalei it 



maatoiT ia obtained ontj b; the ealtiT»- 

ar iinnd and by edutation. (woiMa [ L 3. 

6, 22. 9, ti. 17. 7.) The pnnice in theory ia tb* 



lion of OUT m 



part; the application in life ia tham 
5cn]tane,andiitheab)eetofallth«)iy. (L 96. S, 
29. 36.) Wa find that at &r at praolica] ^ipl^ 
cation ia eoDeemed, many men an Epiennana and 
eSeminate Peripatetica, though they pn(eta tha 
docuiMt ot the Sb^ and C:n>ici- (it- 19< 30, 12. 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EPtCTBTUS. 
1. IS. M, u. ai. 13, i*. !■ 138, 4. 14. <S, 6. IS.) 
Ib (cder to abtnp anHtaiT in Iha q^iUcmtian of 
naol pnodphi la E&, a csMunad pnctke ii n- 
quml ; bal tkii jaaedea u fint and chiafly ta ba 

IhiniiJ aba of 0«r paiiioiu uid denies, iriuch 
■ iiii— !!■■ ■ imlj mods of Bmcrotjoil (IL 18. li^Ci? 
29^ IT. 10. SS), ind u nch tbtj pcett ud fom 
SI : ana ptnoa bang more under tha infloenea of 

■nadcr kind ; far which RaioDaTaiyoaB,aocordi]ig 
la hu r— ~— ' pceoliuit;, oiut appoaa to than s 
omtimmtA pnniei. (i 25. 26, il 16. 22.) Thit 
lint and bsM tiiinlial pnettea rnnit ba ucnmi*. 
niad by A ■ecoiid, wbich ii dincted tawaldi that 
vUd ia afipiuyi kta (duty), and a thiid, the ohject 
■f wUcb it imMf, trath, and 



t tLa fi 



(dL3- G. 13.ia,dK.) Tha 
wliat ia geod, the abaolnts tTDidaaGe of whnt it 
liail, the daara inr dincted tomtdi the qipn>. 
pfiata. cairfiillf-inagfaed leaohitioiit, and a foil 
eonaeat ta thcei, are the nema of the phileupher. 
(a. 8. 29.) Tlun^ them he acquire* freedom 
aad ^ntin indepeDdBDee of anrfthii^ whieh le 
Bat anlqact to Lit choice (it. t. 39, iiL 22. 13), 
and ia eonfiding nbrniatiaii he loirea the maaage- 
■•at of it IS PniTidrDce, vhoea niUTenal role 
taaaot eacape the eye of an unbiaiaBd and giatefhl 
,hm LI of the oecacnDce* in the worid. (L 6. 9, 
4, 12, 13,14, 16,30, iL U.26,iii. 17.) In tliii 

aiuaiitj, in aidei to be able to pr eeer re nocfaangMi 
ear oatinid peace of mind in all the ooconence* 
■( Eifa, ID aomw and in want, ve aee the tiarit of 
the taadaiD, and we maj njr, eonobled Porui ; the 
'~ i* ei pta at ed in the magj and pnritj 
«|B, and in the pringup of principlei 



i-*'"^''!- aad abftoct coniiitencj of the eariiei 




It man, at mch, it a 
ic conuDunitf of goda and 
a member of the eomma- 
M and faoulj, and that he ttandi to 
■boa in the tame nbUiau aa a limb to the whole 
H^aie bedj, and that thenfore be can attain bit 
U derdopment only with them. fii. fi. 26, 10. 3, 
he-t 2. 19, 13.) He reoogniiee the DKMtitj of 
lata aad confidence (ii. 82. 4, 1 ), and he denusda 
rf tha C71UC, that a, the tnie jMoMipher, t 
Btaaea Bmnue and bmilj life, onl j ttiat he 
dnaaa hmiadf with ail hit ponn to the terTi 
the da^, and to the dntiet of an nnlimited phi- 
baAnpj. (iiL 23. 67. Ac) It it tme that with 
Bpiiiiliia, too, the place of a politiia] ijitem and a 

' — '-' — *' """in of elhica, an npplied bj the 

-'lo', — bnt bow eenld a hTing 






imdaahla partion of et] 
■1 af a philoaonho', — 



, . d by tha ooiruptioni of 

hit age, ba doaa sot pmeiTo ita do** and neceaMuy 
Mi o r naB with tbe actiTB and unchecked leientifie 
aad aitirtic cOiita. Bat he acknowledge* their 
■ocal HpaMmee mom thaa bit predecemor*, and 
he ia i T a i.i d with the conrietiDn, that tha indi- 
ndail BBrt lira Ibr the whole, ahboiigh he it not 
ahk to detenuaa the iou in a manner pradoetive 
of patf naalla. Abote all thingi, howaTer, he 
pw mp tin prand acKaaSciancy which the Staic 



3 the TicdJiitndae c^ the wtffld u 



him on the firm belief in a wiae and benerolent 
gOTemniBnt of Prorideace ; and in thii napect ha 
approachei the Chriatiui doctrine more than an; 
of the earlier Stoioa, thongh tiiere it not a tiKe in 
the EfMUUa to ihew that he wni acqaainted with 
Chriitianitj, and itill lata, that he had adopted 
ChriitianitT, either in nit or entirely. (Chr. Crdini, 
file inpa^a U ial^t Bptditi DimrlaL Lip- 
tiae, 1711 — 16 ; camp. BmckK in ng^. Htlmt. 
iiL 2. p. 360.) [CH.A.a] 

EPltTTETUS CEvdmrmi), a phyiidan men- 
tioned by Symniaehiu {£^id. x. 47), who attained 
to the title and dignity of Ardiiater in tha time of 
Theodotint tbe Great, A. a. S79-S95. IW.A.G.J 
EPlCU'RIUd {"EwvaiCpto,), the helper, a tar- 
me of Apollo, under which he wii woiihipped 
Banna m Arcadia. Erery year a wild boar 
WM Kurificed to him in hit temple on meant Lt- 
ent. He had leceired Ihia mmune becanae ha 
d at one time deLiTered the conntiy fnon a pet- 
enee. (Pana. TiiL 38. $ 6, 41. J S^ [L. S.) 
EPICU'RUS CETfiEDupof), a celebrated Cheek 
philoKipher and the (bunder of a philotophical 
■chool called after him the Epicurean. He wat a 
•on of Neodei and Chamlrata, and belonged to 
the Attic deiaoa of Ougettoa, whence ha it lome- 
imet limply called ChaOargetliBn.(Cic.ai'/\»a.XT, 
IG.) Hewaabom, bowerer,intheitlBndofSamoi, 
n B. c. 342, foi bit bther wai one of the Athenian 
^temchi, who went to Samoi aad ntceited landa 
then. Epicaroi ipent tha £rtt eighteen yean of 
ib at Samoa, and then repaired to Atheui, in 
323, where Xenocratei wu then at the head 
of the academy, by whom Epicnmi it eaid to hare 
I inatmeted, though Epicnmi bimielf denied 
(Dii^. I^erLi. 13 1 Cic<JeAU.£>ear.i. 26.) 
Hedjdnot, howerei, atay at Athena long, (or after 
the ombn^ of die Lamion war ba went to Colo- 
where hit &ther wu then rending, aad en- 
in teaching. Epicnmi followed the example 
of hit father : he collected papila and 11 1^ to 
haie initmcted them in grammar, imtil gradually 
attention wit drawn towardi philoeopby. 
Epicnmi himielf aiierted that he had enteted upon 
hu philoupbical itodiei at tbe early age of Sota- 
teen, while accoiding to othen it wit not till Gra 
II ail yean Uter. Some laid that he wai led to 
he itudy of pbiloiophy by hii contempt of tha 
hetoricianii and gianunatiant who were unable to 
iiplun to him the pattage in Hetiod shout Cbiot ; 
md othen nid that the fint impnln wa* giTen to 
him by the work* of Demociitni, which (ell into bii 
handt by accident* It is at any rata nndeniable 
that the atomialic doctrinal of Deraocritni exer- 
a Taiy great influence upon Epicumi, thongh 
•ertad that he wai perfectly independent of 
all the philoaophical ichoolt of the time, and en- 
deatoaied to utTe the great problem! of life by, 
independent thonght and inTeetigation. From 
Cdophon Epicuini went to Hytilene and I«nip- 
ml, in which place* he wai engaged for fire yeai* 
teaching philoeopby. In a. c 306, when he 
i attained the age of 33, ha again went ta 
bene. He then poithaaed for eij^ty mlnae a 
:den — the bmonl K^voi ^Erurevpotf — which ap- 
rentlywM ataatad in tha haaitof thecitj, andiu 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EPICURUS. 
I hi* ptdlaanf^ 
u frinidi ud p>^ and by til 

_. ^ Charidonu, aod Ariitobo- 

lu, «fco liluviia dtntad Ihtaudira* to dw ttaij 

at philoMphj, Epicnnu ifaai tb* noibJtr of hu 

life in hit guim at Atbotu. Hi> Doda of liTing 

u Mmite, taspmte, tad chMrful, (ad ths mMpO' 

a of noic pMU uid of hter idiikiMtihan who 

...i.-.-i.n — ^y and ie»cnbe him i» 



inw pnraiiiijJ w 



tithec well kDOwn hutaenc of ths time, periupi b 
long la the lune kind of ilaiider end CBlnimij i 



oiiti^ paitit 



kind-bMited 

He kept iloof from the jwlit 
tinw, and Icok no part In public tffian. Hi> 
maxim ni Add* ^i^om, vhich wi* panly the 
muk of hit poeiUiar {Anoiopliy, and partly ^ the 
political eondition of Atbena, vhich drote mm to 
nrii in tbamielTca happiMM and eouolatiiin for 
the IcHi ot political fiosdoiB. Doiina the latter 
period of hit lift Epiemni wu afflicted with nTete 
mKtiiDg*, and fn manj yean be wat unable to 
Talk. Id the end hi* niSeiingi wen incnaaed 
by the formation at a none in hit bladder, vhich 
tcnninatad fiUally alter a ictuii ill i Hat of a fort- 
Bight. He bon- bit toffenoga with ■ truly phlln- 
aophka] patienoe, cheerfdneaa, and amiage, and 
died at the age of 72. in Oljmp. 1 27. a. or B. c 270. 
Hi* will, which ii pmerred in Diogenei Laiirtiiu 
(z. 16, ic], ihewi the tame mildnes of chamclei 
and the lame kind ditpoMtioit and attachment to 
bit friendi, which he had manifeitad thcougfaaat 
liftL Among hii many papUt Kpicunu hinuelf 
gave the prefermce to Meiiodonu of Lamptacni, 

would have uipoinled to iiucoed him (Diag. 
Lain. z. 32, te.) I bat Metn>danu died ieres 
yean bafon bit maitei, and in hia will Epicuma 
Bppmnted HtmiaRhna of Mytilcne hit tacceator 
in the DianagentaDl of hit tchool at Athena. 
ApoUodone. the Epiennan, wrote a life of Epicn- 
nu, of which Diogenca made gnat ate in hit ac. 
eonal of Epicuni, bat tfait la now loM, and oar 
ftindpal tonus of iutormation retpeetbig Epicnn 
H the tenth book ot Diogenet lAertint, who hoi 
crer, aa otual, only putt together what he fiada : 
othen ; bat at the tame tiaie he fomithea HI too 
Tory important docmaeDta, tuoh u hit will, (bur 
letten and the nifau Ufoi, of which 
apeak below. With the acconnt of Diogenet 
we faave to eotnpan the philotophical poem of Lu- 
ctetiaa, and the RDwrkt and crilicimu which an 
•cittared in the worti of later Onvk and Roman 
wrilcra, nearly all of whom, hoi 
boatile tpifit about Epicaraa and hit phlloeophy 
and UDtt therefore be uied with grent 
Among them we mnil mention Cicero in h 
Bophicel tr«tiiei, eapecially the Di Fmibia, 
and the Df Aatura Dtoram ; Seneca in li ~ 
letter to Locilisa, ood tome treatiaet of Plulaidi 
bit to-called MartUia. 

Epicurui sppean to have been one of the mo 
pnlifie of all tha ancient Greek writera. Diogeaei 
ui>rtiui(x. 36), who call* him wAvyfa^tJnatei, 



EPICURU9. 



HitwoA(,baweTar, are aid to hate hen fall «F le- 
patitloiitandqnotatiaiaofaatboiidta. Abttofth* 
beat of hi* wnfciit giToi byI>iopnat(i.27, Aic), 
—' 'BHngthen «« may motiaD tb* 111^ ftnm i 
boAt, n*p) MfHW aal Koioi, "Enrarii Tw 
^homm J i, n^ Todt Urimfintt liairiipliii, 
tUpMi Wfoi, n^ riKm, Ilepl Kftt^ftai 4 mnfr, 
XMMmiot 4 ^*A litSu, IIipJ fiLr in three bodia, 
IIipl riji If T^ iri^i^ -jwIbi, [Iipl fl/iafiiiwtit, 
n^il tOttAM, nipl IwBiair^ntt nol rvr dUaw 
dpnwr, and 'ErirroW. Of hi* epittlea Ibar an 
pmer?wl in Diogenei. (i. 22, S5, Ac, 84, fa., 
122, Ac.) Tha fint it Tery brief and waa ad- 
dretted by £|Hcniat jott befon hia death to Idi»- 
meneu. The tbno other* ate of &r grottat im- 
portance: the £nt of them it addnated to ot» 
Harodotna, end untunt an online of the Oman and 
tba Phytia ; the aeeoad,iddreited to Pythodeticon' 
taiui hit theory about meteon, and the third, whidi 
i> addniaed to Meooaoni*, gin* a eondaa ilew of 
hit ethic*. *a that thav thn* Spiitle*, the geaoin*- 
of which can tcaneW be doubted, funuah na 
on Dutliae of hit whole tJiiloa^ical tratcm. An 



iridgement 
178, fte. 



Rint of them u [ceaefTed i 
178, Ac They wen edited te^uately by 
Umboger in bit edition of the tenth book of 
Diogenet I^artiat, Niimberg., 1791, 8m. Tha 
letten, to Herodotui and Pyihocle* wen edited 
leparately by J. G. Schneider under the title of 
Hpiimri Pl^iiea ti Meteonhgiai dtobn ^lit- 
bjiit aHnpniaiia, Laipaig, 1813, Sto. Theae 
letten. together with the abora nwetioned lUpiai 
te'foi. that it, fbrty-four (mpotitiont contuning tba 
■ubatance of the ethical phlloeophy of Ei«ania, 
which an likewiag preterred iu Diogenei, muit be 
onr priocipB] guide* in enminii^ and judging of 
the Epiennan philoaophy. All the other wociit of 
EincORU hate poithed, with the araption of n 
coDiiderable nnnber of bagmenta. Some paiti at 
the aboTe-mentioned work, tlqil fAritif, taf^ 
cially of ths tecond and elerenth booka, which 
treat of tha iftiiAa, haTe bean found amouf the 
relit at Herculaaeum, and an pnblitbed m C 
Coruni-t VUimu. Hertalaa. Tol ii. Naplea, 1809. 
from which they wen reprinted eepanteljr bj 
J. C. Onlli, Uipng, 1318, Std. Soma fragmoDta 
of the tenth book of the Hme wodi hai« been 
edited by J. Th. Kniaiig in hi* Cbattiail. Ot 
SallaH. HitUtr. Fragm. p. 237, Ac If we maj 
judge of the Myle of Epicuroi from theie few 
nmaini, it mutt he owned that it i* dear aod 
animated, though it ii not djilingiiiihed fiir any 
other peculiar meritt. 

With regard to the philot^hical lyiteni of ^i- 
curui, then i* tcarsely a philoaapher in all antiquity 
who bmled n nnuh at Epicurui of being inde- 
paident of all hit predeceuora. and thoae who 
wan belicTcd to hare bean hi* teachen were 
treated by him with tcora and bitter boiiilit;. 
He ^ided himielf upon being an o^reSUiKTBi, 
hut sren a tuperfictol gUnce at hit philoaojihj 
thewi that ha Wat not a little indebted to tha 
Cyrenaid on the one hand and to Deraoeritua 
on the other. At far at the ethical [tut of hit phi- 
lotophy it concained thn* much may be admitted, 
that, Ilka other tyilem* of the time, it aroee from 
which the Oraek 



Mck within t! 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



BflCURUg. 
1 fUlMaphni radotODNd to M 
findMii butd qian etkial id 



^Ih, nd to aniadm it is aplt* M oMwud ^fn*- 
■iB, ■• l«* ikan to nmn it a^iiM ma't own 
fMMBS «ri nil jaafmmlM Perfkt indipoid- 



B iigBiiliiiI ■* iha ki^Hrt good and •■ tlis 
, IttiM which aka* oould ndia man lam, and 

«ail ■< all [Ailiinifcj'. it wai lucanaif tor him to 

^j7 Ha had lilds 
a, but a* he Mntld not 
1, ba pnfiiad to hii 

. n introdsctiDa to aweRain tlw 

■ which na to goid* Ud id hia March 

after toUh a>i in diMin^d^ing good from aviL 

■trim tn 



f^mptiaa iiiliiiiiiil with thopght aid laflwiion. 
Wa abasia an knowledfg asd bm oar ctDcap- 
laaaa af than -— — "-g to him, thnngb J9m>M, 
i. * iaafto of thmgi rtiib «n raflaetadfioBthtak, 
nd paa ihuili <nt MUia into imr miuda. Such 
• thaiBj it daatratlira of aD ahaolole tnth, and a 



, Epiconu, Bowanr, dndopad and annoblad 
tki> Chaarj ia a aaoBu whidi etnutitntM the 
faoiSantf aid nai marit of hi* phOoaophy, and 
■mioA ganad fat him M manj biai^ and adminn 
belh in mtiqaiij and in nwdBrn tiniaa. Pkanua 
withhiBwaaBDta 



BDlal an jgymanta, that ia, ia dra^ia and daaria, 

whiah diMub tba pMca <rf oar mind, and thaiAj 
•ar h^hn^ wUch i* the moU of it. The 
HBMB fa^H. aae»ding la him, eouiaUd in tUa 
ftaca af wad ( and the great pahkaa of hii ethia, 
thxafcm, wM to ■!»« liew it ma to ba attained, 
mi ctUca waa aat aij the prinBfal btaoch of 



H^ aa ia which thej wen eoaiueted with athice. 
Hit feaecaf mind wiahaeed opon f fii -^ta, whieh 
hedf ilml aa iha baginning of oTwyttlM good. 
■ a« ocigin at all rirtnea, aind whkb he himMlf 



la Oe pbjnal part of hii philDeophj, he fid- 
baed tba *'*~'"^" docttinai of Dnwciitu and 
Kigiaai HieTiawiaie wBUknoTB Ann Uwro- 
tiaili psan Ih Aram iVatev. It woold. 
haacaa^ nav that waetimea he mMoadaataod 
Ihcnaw* ef hit fcadawatwa, and dktnted tbM 
h]r iiAadmaw thmp which woe qmW ~ 



thM BC baaad apim the dlMka which an raflaetad 
fam tham and pom into em minda. Thay waa 
aad claBja had ban in tha enjojmHit of paibct 
htfMa), which had nal baac diaurbad by the 



rar opon the wind or man. 
papil* of E^eana who pnp*- 
, «■• eztrmaelr gnat ; biu hii 
philaaophj laceiTed no fbither dorelopnent at 
theii bandt, excapt peih^ii that in raUaqaenl 
limM hia lofty aotirai of pleemia and hupinBia 
waaiadaead to tltatof muorial and tenmal plea- 
tan. Hit immediataditcipUa adopted aad Mowed 
bit doetrinea with the Boat tciDpidaa* contcieD- 
tUmmm : they ware altKhed and derated to their 
maalar b a raunar which hae rarel; been equalled 
either in ancient or medam timca : their eateem, 
tore, and Tenenticn Ik him ahnoet bardered npon 
wonhip; Ihej are Mid to ban enunitted bit 
woifci (0 Bamorj j Iha^ bad hie pcttrait eBgl>T«d 
apoo ringi and dlinlong Teteeli, and eelabcated 
hie birthday avarjr fntr. Atbena honoored him 
with bnuua ilatata. BM natwilhttanding tho 
■xUaotdinaiy daretian of hia puplt and bieodii 
whoia nonbit, «aj» IKcgiDea, aneedcd that of 
the ptpolatim of wlule towna, (hen ia no phikio- 
pher m anliqmtir wlw hat beaa to liolmtlf M- 
ladud, and whoae ethical doetiinea ban been a» 
moch miattkoD and nitandenteed, ai E^cnrea. 
"nia eaaaa of thil nogokr iihaenomenon wti partly 
tupaifiiial knowledge of bii pbUotiiphy, of wlucli 
Gouo, ()r enrnple. it ^ty to a TBiy grtat extent, 
and partly alao the eondnct of men who called 
tfaemHlvea Epjcnrnnc, and, taking adnnt^o of 
the &Gility with which bit ethical theory vu made 
tha handmaid of a laniiial and dehancbed life, gaTo 
theoualTei w to the enjoyment of lentaal plea- 
At Rome, and during the time of Roman 



Epiconu noTcrtoak any firm iMtj ] 

— d there that, owing to the paramooni mnoence 
tha 6uAt ^rihieephy, we meet with tha bit- 
<it autafoniila ti Epiennu- Tba diipBln 
' and agamtl hia philoMphy, howaror, are not 
ifinad to aotiqiii^t they vera renawed at the 
M of dba nnnl irf lettan, and are tontinned to 

the preeent day. Tha onmber of workt that 
hna been written npon Epicnnu and hit philoio- 
phy 11 prodi^ODt (Fabric. AM. Oraec tdI. iii. 
p. GBl, &c); wa pan orer the many biitoriea of 
Greek philoaophy, and mentian oiuy the moat 
impiHtaut wort* of which Epicnnu ii the qwdal 
•nbJBCt Peter OaaieDdi, it Vita tl Maribut Ept- 

1647, and Hig. Comit. 1656, 4to.; OataeDdi, 
Ssmagma PUaicfUaa ^iari, Uig, ComiL 1669, 
tto., Londoo, 1668, 12mo., AsMaidaa, 1681; 
J. Randal, £a Fit f^iaitn, Parii, 1679, 12ido,, 
I^ Baye, 1S8G, ISaukt a Utin Iranilatioa of thia 

— ric appeared at *~*Tnlami 16SS, ISmo^ and 
Englith one by Dig^, Londan, 1712, 8n.i 

Balleu, La ittnii i'^pimn. Paiii, 1758, Sm t 
&(SMIV Firmck Mtar Apal^ dm Bpieur, BailiD, 
1776,8*0.1 Windtna, .Jyelgpia aaif Zebw .^w- 
oan, Oiabwald, 1795, Std.) and aipadally Stein- 
hart m£raoi a. Orain-, Ai^im,EiK!wiitDp. toLxht, 
p.45S,«c 
Dioganea Ubtini (x. 36) meationt three other 
caena of tho name M Epicuma, and Manage on 
that paattge pointi ont three more ; but all of 



4,i,.=.otGoOQ[c 



M EPIDAURUS. 
ofi^D, bat bom isd •dneUtd at ftitliigr. ud tbs 
•DO of a Cartlugiiikn Dothcr, hU gnndbtlwr 
tming been bwiiihad by Agntbocle*. and baniis 
HtMatCuthva. (Polfh. TiL 2 ; Ut. nir-G.) 
Ha MTrad, togaUer with hii sldv bnthn Hippo- 
cntHi with mndi diuiiKtuii in Ihs innj of 
Hunibal, both in Spain and Italy; and wtaca, 
aftct tha battle of Cannae, Hieran jmui oF Sjmciue 
Mnt to malca OTartum to Humibal, that gcnanl 
wlactcd Iba tiro bntthan aa bii eaTnyi lo Sjibcdh. 
Tbey toon gainad OTar tha wataiing mind o[ ibe 
Jimng king, and iodocad him lo daint tba Rmuu 
■lliansB. (Poljb, Tii. 3—6; LiT. cot. 6—7.) 
Bat tha murder of Hiennjmna ihortly after, and 
Iha raTolnlioo that anaoad at Synenie, fw a tima 
deranged their plana : tha; at fint demanded 
ourely a aafKondnet to ntniD to Hannibal, but 
aoon found that thajr conld do more good by their 
intrigDca at Syiacnw, where they eren anoeeeded 
in piKiiring thr" '"'^ '" "~ '■"" ~'""" 



party again obtained the dpmt hand ; and Hippo- 
cratea &>ing been aent viLh a feice to Leontini, 
E[HcTda« joiDed him thara, and they let at defiance 
tlw Snacumi goTOameat, Idmtini wna, Indeed, 
quickly reduced by Harealliia, bat hii crodtka 
ibae alienatad tha Syraenmu, and ''" ~'~ 






3t Hippooatea and Epicydaa (who h^ mada 
their eacapa to Erbeanu) ably aTailed thenuelTae, 
■ndnced tJie troopi aent againit them to matinj, 
and Rtnmed at their head to Syraeiue, of which 
they made themaelTei maitcn with little difficulty, 
a c 2U. (Ut. hit. 21—32.) HanxUu* hn- 
mediaiely pnceeded to betitge Syrame, the 
defence of which wai conducted with ability and 
Tigaur by the two brolhcia, who had been again 
appointed generala. When the Roman conunander 
fonnd binuelf oUipd to torn the nege into a 
blockade, Epeydaa eontisntd to bold Che city 
ilaal( while Hippocratei conducted the operatiiHu 
in othei parta of SicUy. The fbnner waa, howeTer, 
nnabla 10 prarant the lUipriH of the Epipolae, 
which wen betrayed into the handa of Manelloi ; 
but he atiU exerted hia utmoat eSbita againit the 
Romana, and co^petated lealondy with the amy 
bun witbiHit under Himilco ud Hippecntea, 
After tha dahat of the buter he went in paraon to 
meal Bomilcar, who wai adiancing with a Cattha- 
ginian fleet to the relief of the city, and haaten bii 
aniTal ; but, after the retreat of Bomilcar, he 
aeemi to huTe regarded the fiUI of Syracnaa aa in- 
atitable, and withdrew to Agiigentnm. (Ui. 
xiiT. 33—39, XTT. 23-27.) Hen he appean to 
haTe remained and co-operated with tha Nnmidian 
Mulinea, uutU tha apure of Agrigantmn (b. c 
210) obliged him to fly with Hanno to Carnage, 
alter which hi> name ia not again mtotioned. 
(LiT. uTi. 40.) 

2. A Syncoaan, aumaiued Sindon, ona of the 
lieu 



3. or Olynthni, a general imdei OphaHaa of 
Cynne, who took ThinbrDD priamar at Tenchira. 
(Arr.i^./'fcK. p.70,a.) [E.H.R] 

EPIDAURUS C^tOcofa), tha mythical ban- 
der of EpidaaniB, a aoa of Aigoa and ETadna, but 
atwjing to Aigin legmdi » tonal Pakipa, tai 



EPtOENBa. 
accoiding to thoaa of Elii a aon of ApoDa. f Apd- 
lod. ii. 1. i 2; Pauj. iL 26. j 3.) [U i] 

EPI'DIUE^ a I«tiD rhetoridan who taaght the 
art of oTBIoty towarda the doH of the rapaUic, 
numbering M. Antoniua and OetaTianna aaung 
bit icholara. Hia akill, how«T«, waa not nfficient 
to BTe him from a oonrietien lot malideni acco- 
•alion (oDbawia). We are told that he daimtd 
deicent {nan EpMia A ' u M oain (the name ia pro- 
bably corrupt), a nual duty, who apoaan to lure 
beaa wonhimad opoD tha bankaof the Sannit. 
{Snelon. de Oar. JUmt. *.) [W, R.] 

C. BPI'DlUa UARULLUS. [HitauLLua.] 
EPIOOTES fEnti^r^). a dinnlty who waa 
wonbipped at Laeedaemon, and aT«rted Hm anger 
of Zani Hiceinii ibr tha crime committed by Pau- 
(Fuia. iiL 17. $ S.) Epidolea, which 



name of other dinnitiea, auch ai Zeui at U 
and Sparta (Paoa. TiiL B. $ 1 ; Heneh. a. v.). of 
tha god of ilaep at Sieyim, who had a atatoe in 
the temple of Aidepini there, whkh mpnamted 
him in the act of lendine a lion lo alaep (Pant. ii. 
10. § 3), and laatly of tha beneScent geda, to 
whom AntoninnB built a nnctuary at Epidanrna. 
(Pani. ii. 27. 1 7.) [L. 8.) 

EPI'OENES {"Lwrtimn), aon of Andphoo, of 
the denuB of Cephiaia, ia mentianed by PUto 
among the diidplea of Socialei who wen with 
hin in hii laat momenta. Xenophi 
Secralet aa ramonttnting with him a 
of the bodily aierdaea reqniatia for health and 
itrength. (Plat, .d^ p. 33, Pkaii. p. 50; Xen. 

EPl'OENES (*E*rHr>|i). 1. An Athenian 
poet of the middle comedy. FoSux indeed (Tii 
29) ipeakt of him « r^w m ini»uH>, but tha 
lann* "middle" and "now," aa Clinton nmaika(^. 
H. ToL iL p. ilir.), an not alwayi tbit airfnllj 
allied. (See AiiiL £U. A'k. iT.8.g S.) Epigetira 
hinuelf, in a fngment of hii pky called HrafufTiee- 
(c^. ja. li. p. 473, t) iifmkt of Pixodama, 
prince of Caria, aa "the king^i aon"; and fhnn 
thie Mainfta aignia (Htil. Oil. Cba«. Oraee. p. 
3A4), that the comedy inqneation nsathaTe beat 
_!„ 1!._ .. ^ ^ fctharof PixodB- 



play called 'Afyvpteii d^anaiiii iheuld be aaaigned 
to Epiganei or Antiphuwa. Theaa poata therefbn) 
miut have been eontonporariea, [See toL i. p. 204, 
b.] The fiagnienti M tha oomediea of Epigene* 
hare been eoUected by Heineka (tdL iiL p. S37 ; 
comp. Poll TiL 29 ; Ath. iiL p. 75, t, ix. p. 384, 
a^ li. pp. 46S, c.,474, a., 480, K, 4B6, c, 602, «.>. 
2. Of Sieyon, who hai been nmfbunded bj 
Bome with hii nameaake the comic poet, ia men- 
tioned by Soidaa (a. a. StWu) ai the moat andent 
writer irf Irapedf. By the word "■ tragedy" here 
wa an nndantand only the old dithyrambic and 
•atyrical Tpayt/SIa, into which it ia poaaiUe th&t 
Engenea may hare been the fint la introdaott 
other mbjecta than tha otigiuai oaa of the fortnntta 
of Dionyna, if at leait *s mar tmit the accoDnt 
which wa find in Apoatolini, Photioi, and SnidKa, 
of tha origin of the nroTeib edW* wfit fiw Aii- 
nnr. Thia would iWty be ona of tha euliest 
atepa in the gndual bantformatiBn of the old 
dithyianibic perfbtmanea into the dnr-*^- ' 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



tk SnoDSM W« da nM know tli* puiod i 
■bd Bfigna Imiriihnil. nui tlie poiut wu 
Inlvftl ••> IB th* tiBM of Smdw, vbci mj* (t. < 
a'fn) Hal, MOldipg la atans, ha via lbs Iflt 
Mr IVipi^ wliile, accorduig to athen, tw 
iJBBil iaaaadBtdj pneded ^^w (See MlUler, 
IV. n. 7. 1 B; Hdneka. tfu^ CVit Om. Graas. 
r. iU i AcnL Pta. 3 ; Fabric SH. Oraee. tdI. 
ii. F^ ISO, 303, nL iv. p. 10 ; O^. ^ .Jaf. p. 
MO. *.) [E. £.] 

EPI'GENES (yrrrtrv) of Branliain it nip- 
p«l a hMjt Utm abcnt tiw time of Angnatu by 
■Be, nd iiTeial coitariea eatliet bj otkan ; ue- 
■Ui), ■ fact, ii known of hu date, except what 
BT be iifeiTed fian tha tSA% mention of liim 
tr Seaaca. Pliny, and Cenaonno*. Aeeoidiiig to 
Stata (Ate. <»■«(. Tli. SO.), Ep^mwa pcofowd 
B Wn lUdiad in Ckaldaa, baa wkence he 
^Hglil, MBBOg Other tUnga, the nodoDa of the 
CUkaai on cnwta, in hu tacemt of which he 
a hcU la iiSa mndi fma ApoUaniiu Hjmdiiu 
|iBUilife],tliDngli it iiBot,wa think, difficnllto 
Boadlt Ik Im. Plinj (/f.Miii.fiG) hai a pa- 
■ftahm Epgoiea, which Matee that he aBerti 
tkt ChiUran to hare had obeerratiDiu nsorded oa 
M {mdgim Unnfii) for 720 (?) jtm, and 
OM Benm and Critodemiu aaj 420 (P) fan. 
BU BHg the niioaa mdinga an found 720 
tmmi mi 420 tioaKmit, which leeDi to be Ike 
>** m^ fi> DO them Plin; goea on to remaik 
' i< ([« apfant otiem littennun nnu." Fa- 
Irioa ud Bajio (Diet art Batjlt») adopt the 
hft Kadiagt, and alao Bail);, who lake* them 
a eaaa dajL PLinj m^ pezhapa aecm to laj 
itu Fjigmta ia the bxtt aulbor of cots who made 
» iBch tiailiiiii about the Chaldean*: " Epi- 
PM . . . doot gtana aactor impiimii ; " and Ihu 
■Xfraed. he ia mads lo mtm that Epigaie* wai 
•Uti tbaa BenMU, and tkcKfon than Alexander 
i^Gnat WeidlcT adopla Ihii condnaioa on dif- 



(^»]«> 



[A. Do M.} 
EPIQBTIIDS, cornea et magiMer menoriae, 
■f rf ifce cearoiuion of lixtcBa, appointed bj 
in *■ D. 435, to compils tbe Theodoaian 
H sf the eight who acDiall; aignaliaed 
" I'ee m its compositian. [Dionoaiia, tdL i. 
mill [J. T. G.] 

EPl'OONI CEaiTWoi), that ia, the heira or 
'' ' la. By Ihii name ancient mfthologr 
b Ihe asna of the sefa henu who had 
■ ao sipediCHm againtt Tbdiea, and had 
[ADaiitTiia.] Ton yeaia after 
' danlB of the eeren 

aio^ Ihdr falhsn, 
irar of the EpigonL 
ig Id Hma tnditiaiia, tkk war wai ande^ 
"■Bi at iIm nqieat of AdnaUii, Ihg only auniTer 
' 4e tenas hanwa. Tba mraea of the Epigoni 
t M Ih* Maa in all aeeooniB (Apnllod. iii. 7. 
I^Ac'lDiod.i*. 66i Pma-z. 10. f 3 i Uygin. 
^'''Tl); bat tbocoonni liMa caUain AkauwoD, 
wfjalm, Dionedn, Promdina, SUMoalu.Ther^ 



EPIMENIOES. 
after wboae bll they 
protect ihsmadTei within their dty. On tha 
part of the Epigoni, A^iateui had blleo. Tha 
•eer Teiredaa, howeTer. indooed the Thebana to 
quit thsir town, and take their wlrea and children 
with them, while they leiit ambaaiadon to the 
enemy to me for paace. Tbe Argiveo, hawever, 
took poateuion ot Thebea, and raxed it to the 
ground. The Epigoru sent a portion of the booty 
and Haoto, the danghler of Teiieaiaa, to Delphi, 



the Epigoni waa made die labjecl of epic and 
Ingic poema. (PanL.ii. 9. i 3.) The lUtuea 
of the aeren Epigani weis dedicated at Delphi. 
(Pao*. I. 10. 9 2.) [L. S.] 

EPI'OONUS {'EwlTOVot) of Thenalonica, tbe 
author of two epigmni in the Greek Anthology. 
(BiviKk. JmL ToL il p. SOG ; Jaeaba, tqI iii. p. 
IB, ™l. TiiL p. BBS.) [P.S.] 

EPI'OONUS, a Greek tIatDary, whose wotki 
wen chie£y in imitation of other artieU, hat who 
diiplayed original power in two worki, namely, a 
tmmpeler, and an tn^t eareiaing iU alain mother. 
It ia natural to uppoH that the laller work waa 
an imilaliDn of the celebrated pictun of Ariileidea. 
(Plin. iiiT. S. a 19. % 29.) [P. S.] 

EPILY'CUS ("EitUmoi), an Athenian eomic 
pool of the old comedy, who it mentioned by 
an ancient grammarian in connexion with Aristo- 
phaneaand Philyllini, and of whose play KHpaAincot 
a few Eragmenttare preaeryed. (Snid. «.o.,- Athen. 
IT. pp. 133, b., 140, a^ li*. p. GSO, c, tt. p. 691, 
c; Bekker, ^flscd. p. 4lt. 17; PhoLXcr. &o. 
Trrreyorari Heineke, Frag. Com. Onaec toL L p. 
3C9, ii. pp. 8S7, 969 ; Beigk. de Biiiq. Om. AU. 
Ant. p. 131.) An epic poet of the lun* name, a 
hnther of the comic poet Crates, i> mentioned 
b; Saidai (,. v. Kfiimi). [P. S.J 

EPI'MACHITS, a diilingnithed Athenian aichi- 
tect and engineer, bnilt the HelepoUa of Demstiina 

- "' [PS.] 



,) [L. S.] 

EPIHE'NIDES rEwiiwain). 1. A poet and 
prophet of Crete. Hit Ealhcr's name was Dosi- 
ades 01 Agenreea. ^^e hare an aecoonl of him 
in Diogenes Uertini (i. c 10), which, howerer, is 
a very nnoitical mixture of hetengsneoos tmdi- 
tiona, ao that it ii difficult, if not altogether impoo- 
uhle, to diaeoTSr its mJ biuorical tubitance. Tbs 



of a nymph, and of his being reck- 
oned among the Cunlea. It leema, hawe*er, 
pretty dear, that be wai a natiie of Phaestus in 
Crete (Diog. Laert. i. 109; Pint. Sal- 1'2 ; •!» 
D^el. One 1 ), and that he spent Ihe gneter part 

There ii a ttory that when yet a 
ot by his bther to ietch a iheep, 
and that seeking ihelter bam the heat of the nid- 
da; son, he went into a caTs, He dien fell into 
a deep in which he remained lor Mty-seTen years. 
On waking he sooght for ths ibeni, not knowing 
how long he had been sleeping, and waa aalonished 
10 find ererjtlung around him altered. When be 
returned bnoe, be found to hii gnat amaienMnt, 
that hit yonnger bfother had in the meajitima 

Kim an old maiu The time at which ^menidet 
id, it delennined by his iniilatioii to Alb«ni| 

b,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



BS £PIM£NIDB3. 

whan b* bid ^nad; uiind M an admrnd afe. 

H* «u Indeed npoD b; tha Otm^ ai a mat i^ 

and ai ths &Tauiu of tlw godi. Tha Athaninu 
who wera ridud by • pl^M in connqBcnce of 
tha mma of C^on [Ctuih], eoniolted tha Dal- 
^ac anda aboQl tha mtana ef thair daliTary. 
The gad cnmiMiidtd tham la gat their dt; puri- 
fied, and the Athaniaiu wot out Nieiai *ith a 
ihip to Cicle (a isTila EpiounidM to craw and 
Dndertaka the pnnficiticiii. Epunmuba aoniTd- 
ingif eama to Atheoa, aboDt a. c 596 oe OlTmp. 
46, and perfoniied the deaiicd talk b; cntain 
njitariaiu rite* and i«erifi«a, m centaiDeiKa of 
which the {degns cesKd. The nataEU Atboiiaiu 
decreed to reward him with a talant and tha Tanel 
which wu to cany him bade to hii natite iiland, 
Bnt Epmanidee refiued the maitej, and onlj de- 
■ind that ■ friendihip thould be eatabliihed be- 
tw«n Alheoi and Cnotnit Whather Epuaenidet 
died m Crete or at Sparta, whiih in lUar tiinca 
bouted of poM»>ing hi* totob (Kog. l«rt. i. 
115], i* tUMertain, hal he it nid to hare attained 
the age of 15i, 157, or OTcn of 399 jtan. Sach 

lU, howaTcr, are » bbolmu M the )Ioi7 

ia flftT-KVen Tean' ilaep. Aaardiiig to 



._ EnofOreece(Diog.tAerLiVao«B. 

LIS; Pint. JW. 12); bat all that tradition hat 
nded down about him <aggefta a t*^ dlSareDt 
charaetar &am that of thote lenn, and ha mnit 
lather be ranked in the claii of pHettlf baidi and 
■Bgei who an ganenll]' eompriaed imdar the lume 
of the Orphid ; for eiairthing we hear of him, it 
of a priaatlf or nligioat nalon : be wat a pmi- 
fjiug piieat at mpeihtiman knowledge and wbdom, 
B lev and a propbet, and aeqaaiotM with the 
be^ii^ powiRi of planta. Tbtae nolioBi about 
Epimuiidai wen fropuated Ibronghont antiqutf, 
and it waa probaU]' omng to the gnat charm at- 
tachad to hu name, that a leriea of wotki, both m 
pioae and in totw, woo altiiboted to him, tbongh 
few, if anir, on he conaidated to have baa genu- 
ine pndoetkau of ^ametddia ; the ago at which he 
be lived waa oertalnlj notan ua of pioae cempoaitlDn 
in Onaoa. DiogaiHa I^ntma (L 112) notieea ea 
MM* w^n, ooa on iMrifiaaa, and aaothei on the 
PcJitial Conrtitntioii of Cieta. Tbeta waa alw 
a Letta on the Cooititntian wUehUiiioahBd giren 
to Crete i it waa iwd to hare been addretaed bj 
Bpimmidet to Solon ; it wat written in the modem 
Atlie dialect, and waa prured to he ipDzioni bj 
Demetrini of HigoeBB. Diosenet hmiielt hu 
pmerred another letter, which i» iikewiae ad- 
dneoed to Solon ; it it wriltta in the Done dia- 
lect, bat ia no more geDuine than the fbnnar- ^Tha 
rapntatioii of Epimeoidei aa a poet ma; hare teeted 
on a (omewhal sircr fbnndatioa ; it it at an;r '*'* 
mm likily tiiat he thould hare onnpoaed meh 
poetry ai Xpi|o^ ud KatapfiMl than any other. 
(Soidao, I. o. "EniuwUifi - Stiak i. p. 479 ) 
Fam. L 14. ! 4.) It it, howarer, nrj doahtfld 
whether he wrote the Ttitns o^ Sta7»ia ef the 
Cuitaa and CocThanlet in AOOO tbtwi, the e|uc 
OB Jaion rad tha Aigonaota in 6500, and tha epic 
on Uiuoi md Rhadamanthya in 4000 T«nea ; aQ 
of whidi woika ate mentjened bjr IKoganea. Theie 
cannot, howerer, be any deobt bol uat there ei- 
iatad in antiqnity certain old-fuhionad potma 
written npon dtina ; and thi ■ k. « 

Sun UfitiM mi mad by thi 
anything old-'' '' ' ' 



EPIPHANIUS. 

bbSt. 

£(U Orw^ roL L pp. 30, fto., 844 1 ] 
Tol. iii p. 246, ftc ; Wa, Omek. iar HtOm. DiM. 
ToL I p. 463, Ac, and mere e^iecially CF. Htin- 
rich, BfimniJa am Onto, Lapo^ 1801, SfO. 

3. Tht anthoT of a Hiaton of Rhodii, whidi 
wu written in the Doric dialect. (Dfa» Lain. L 
Mb; ^ebaiodPiKd.OL'm.H^adAfMai.Bioi. 
L 1 125, iiL S4I, it. 57 i Sedoo. p. 81 [ Heinikh, 
^liaHwil. p. 134.) 

3. Tha aathor of a woA on ganealogin. {DWig. 
Laart.L 116.) [L.S.] 

EPIME'THEUS. [Paonxmna and Fah- 

EFINrCUB {lirlnmt), an Athaniu mm 
peet of the new comedy, two of whoae plan are 
mentioned, ITn^BXAJfUHi and MrvomaAifiai. 
The latter title deteraiiiiea hii data to the tiaie of 
Antioehni the Oint, about B. C 217, fcr Uneaip- 
lolemni waa in hitlorian m great &*onr with that 
king. (Soid. (.!.,' Endocp.l6E; AlbBi. i. p. 432, 
b., XL pp. 469, a., 497, a., SDO, £ ; Matneke, Pn^. 
Ct>m. Gmec tdI. L p. 4S1, IT. pp. 5l}5-5a&) [P.a.1 

EPI'PHANES, a loniame of Antmtu IV. 
and Antiodiui XI., kingi of Syria, {■» toL i. 
pp. ISa, 199], and al» of Antiochui IV.kii^ of 
Commigona, one of whoie toiu had hkewiat the 
•ame innume, ind ii the me mciuit by Tacitoi, 
when he tpeaki {HiiL ii. 25) of " Rai Vipfb^ 
net." [SeevoLi. p. 194.] 

EPIPHA'NIUS CEwi^id™.). 1. Of Alm- 
ANDku, eon of the mathamatJEian Theon, who ad- 
dreiiea to him hit commantariea on Ptolemy. 
(Theon. GnuMBtary oa itoJnaiy, ed. Uabna, PoTu, 
1821—22.) Potnbly thii E^planini ii one of 
the inthcn of a woi^ wtp) fiforrim wal drrpinw'. 
by Epiphanioi and Andreoa, or Andrew, fbrmerij 
in the library of Dr. Oeoige Whader, cauom of 
Durham. (Calal. MSS. AtgUat M HUtrmiat, 
OiDD. 1697.) 

2. Bithop of ConvTANTU (the andent Salamia), 
and metropolitan of Ctprub, the moit eminent of 
all the pareoui of the name el Bp^hamna. (See 
below.) 

3. OfCaNSTiKTiaaiidraatropolilBnof Cmti;*, 
diitingaiihad from the faeceding ai the Younger, 
WBI npieaented at the thiid coancil of CoDatanti- 
nople (the nxth general coimcil) by the biahop of 
Tnmjthno, one of hit mfiagaot. Seraral of the dia- 
conrtei which hare been ngudid ea written by 
tha great Epiphooiui are by acnter jodgaa aacribeid 
either to thu Epiphanioi, or to a third of the tame 
name and bithi^ric. [Not 4 below.] A work 
extant in H5. in tha Lilniy of St. Ha& at Veitice, 
and in tiia Imperial Idbrary at Vienna, ia aloo bj 
tome aaeribed to thii writer or tha foltawing. 
(Labbe, Owibi, Tol.n. coi. lOfiSt Fateic BibL 
Onm. ToL riii, pp. 258, 373, As, z. pp. 249. 276, 
279, 302 i PetaTina, PT^aei to tta tamd nrfiiM u qf 
jIw edttnt i/ Ef^iiaiaM ; Oodin, Cbwtfnn'iit da 
Scr^flar. Bab*. toL ii. SIS. 19.) 

4. Third biahop aS CoMVTAinu of the naina 
Alettttot bii,eoi4iBtnktiiu|JoanneaNJohn ot 
hii Piitoratton to the pattjarehrte of CoDatantiiioph 
(a. d. 8S7)i ia gimi, with a Latin Tandon, b] 
Uibe. (0>wil>a,ToL*iu.ooL1376.) Saathapn 
ceding ailicla. 

5. Of CanaTANTiiiOFLi. On tha death o 
Joannei or JcAn 11., the Ct^padocion* patriarch ■> 
Conaianlinople, ^nphaniui, tlian a pnabjter, wm 



D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EPiraANIU& 
dun toaoMl kiM : ka bad kMB tks ■'■TBnllm'' 
« pcmal MHadaK (the AmctiaD* of Ae nncaUiu 
« Bi Intnmii) U Ui pMleocaur. 'Aw atw 
IM (( Efi[iBis> ii iMMd by TkBphue* to bsTd 
ukti fla> b JA. ^ D. £13 of the Aluandiian 
(iTifWiti«, (fUMknt to A. D. 518 n ptobaUj 
i2<lif lUaaMutni tbtMcaoBt, tmumitud 
■Ij fav diTi id« Ui oidaiMiaD, to pops Hai- 
Hilda, li; th« doESB DbMmiw, tbm « C^tm- 
lafda, *■ (Be <tf tba legU«« of the Bomaa eei^ 
pna bjr Lebbe (CbMilb, tiJ. it. p. 1523), wh 
nceited at RdDt og the 7tli of April, t. D. 53«, 
tli^ MBit Ihcn&m baTV been lbs year of hii 
datka. He eeeaped tile en firem j. s. 530 till 
iw diatb in L D. 635. Thn^haoe* pluta bii 
dak ia Jna, i. d. 539, Alex. (ompuL = a. d. £36 
<f the bbumd a», tlUa a paliianhBte of liileeD 
ton ihI tkne luatbi ; bat Pagi ( OitK. ia Banuii 
Jeiijiiad BM. SS5, Nbl IniL) •hoitena thii od- 
' ' ■ b; a jar. Epipbaniu vw one of tb* 



Jf^ilyiii mulated by Sirietna, but not in that 
•f the ^mc BaaiL He »aa nwceeded bj Ai>- 
tlint, bh^ of Tapeni, 

Smt («Hhi of E^iphaaina to japt HofBudw, 
al if Ikt pgee to bim, an aztuit m Labb**! (3»- 
dlk,nLn.aL 1533-^7, 1545-6. 1554-5; nd 
■ lit OmdXa at Biaia^ nL ii. pp. 560-61-64- 
«-(l((^1606>( ID the latter dtay an giren 
olj ia Idtin. A dooee al Bpitdiaiihu, and of a 
aucfl in wbich be pieaided (appanotly the ceiu- 
td d CcoManthiojile in ^ D. 520, during the oni- 
aueef wbich he waa elected tatbe patriarchate), 



oudlBf CanitaBtiiiciplB, A. 



I. 536, under Menu 



oBipMriuch S Con- 
n oE the l^tin and 



UUe^Cbntia,*!!. >.0<d.851,>«l. Some Ian 
ad MMlilHliiiia of Jvatinieii are addnaaed to Epi- 
T^itl. (Jutin. Cod. I. tit 1 a. 42 i diEpmxpii 
*aon; NoTdbE,S,5.) 

bthelibtajof tbe fchia of BaTiikat Mnnieb 
' 1 ONik US. deeeribed (Hudl.CUaA9MAr.5EX 
('nc ki, Oti. eclri.) ■• containing. aiDDng 1 
ftap.alii«tiM bj EpipbaniiB, pMriuck et 
■M^xfle, eaflie 
liTNk ^nbia; oh 
^. brocc CUT. ICataL 
t Uht m m, OxoB. 1697) (ont^ni, with other 
^kn^k a wvfc by Epphaniiu the patriardi On i)ie 
HI I ri.i*ia if Ike Zatmt bg Hi eredu omao- 
mttfOt a^uimig laKtmius lie Pnemiom 
^tKiUfapwiL AlIatiiis>ko(i>iIa.OqgiW«wa>) 
OK) Ep|>Mia» Patriairha, da Origim diuiiii 
•*r Brmam *l ZaCcHM, prcAably the mat vaik 
■ lhMinitaaa*arianl& BM the Mttqeett of 
■^ tiMina daw Ihi7 wen of later data than 




a iaetcadof tb* pndeceMca; and to haie 
■ceded by Henaa or Meniaa, who wai 
•MC, not of Epiphanioa, bat of AnthimiDJ. 



a otal. 1 £rviaa, fiM Ecelt. i 



EPIPHANIUS. M 

3C i Fabric. BitL Orate, nd. niL p. 257, liL |^ 
666, 674.) 

6. Of CoNn-ANTiNOFU (2). The Ule of St 
Andnaa or Andnw, 4 XiAdt (tb* tool), bj hi* 
coDtemporaiy and biend Niseplranu, ceataini *b- 
rioui particalar* of the bietoty and ehatactiT of 
^qihaniui, a yoqng Conatanlinepelitaii, who ia 
dueribed u poiaeiied of evarj deaiable endow- 
nMut of mind and body, and as haTiiw maoifcated 
tin rtraweit afiection aikl regnrd for m aaint who 
fiiffeteld hi* Oration to the paOiarchate of Cod- 
Mantlnople. Nic^hotiu dedana that be lived to 
■ee thit prophecy liil£lied in the eieratiin] of Epi- 
phaaiai 10 that melrDpolitan dignity, bNt intimate* 
that he tbaoged hi* mune. The Kp^baniui of 
thi* narratiTe ba* been by Fabriciai confoimded 
with the fdbject of the preoeding artiidft ; but Jan- 
ninghui ha* ■hewn that ai St-Ajidlew did not liTS 
till late in the ninth century and the earlier part of 
the tenth, the Epiphanini ol Nice^raro* moat hiiire 
liicd long after the otber. A* be chamed hi* 
naraa, ha cannot be certainly identified with any of 
the patriarch* of ConatantinDple. JapninghD* con- 
jectnrea that he ii idoitial with PotyenetDi or 
Antonin* IIL(Studita),whD Moupied the ace in the 
latur half of the tenth century. (NicepborUK S. 
AmdrvK 1^ with the Cbaaaatarua PrtmBimi of 
Jaorunghn*, in the Acta Samdonm MaH^ tdL t], 
ad fin.; Fabrida*, BOL Orve. Tol.iiii. p. 357) 
Care, HiiLIM. T(d. i. p. 505, ed. Oi&rd, 174t»— 
43.) 

7. HaeiorouT*, orof Jbbiwauii. See b»- 



r, NO.E. 



Al- 



latina (de ^^neomun Seripbi, p. 106) | 
aoconnt of and extract fawn a Uie of tlie Virgin by 
ihi* Epiphaniiu, which eitiact i* abo giren l^ 
Fahridiu, in hi* Codtm AfmryjA. N. T. The en- 
tire work hi* linoe been wbliibed ia the Amadala 
LUeratia of Anadutina (tcJ, iii. p. 39, &c) with 
a l^in TeniiH] and introduction. When he lired 
ia not LnoWH : it i« conjectnred that it waa in the 
twelfth Mnlory, •* he mentkm Joannea of Thei- 
•alonica and AndccM of Crete (vho li'icd Mtu- the 
end of the leTenth conlnry) among "the father*," 
and ii himielf quoted by Nicn>honu Callitti 
{Ecda. Hilt. iL 33) in the euiier half of the four. 
teantb eentncy. He wrote al*o a HUloTy o/ lie 
Lifimd aUKf A Aadnm, lit ApatU (AUaUni, 
de ^aaiM. p. 9D) i and he i* probably the aathor 
of an account of Jeroaalem and of part* of Syria 
(by "Epiphanioa HagiopoUta," i.t. inhabitant of 
tin Holy City), whieh be deaeribe* aa an eye-wtt- 
neaa. Tlu* account wu pobliihed, with a Latin 
nrtioD, by Fed. UoreUii*, In hii Etpamtia Thmo- 
lam. Peril, 1630, and agun by Allatini,' in bi> 
Ji/tliMTK. It may be obaenad, that Horallni 
pnUiidted two edition* of the EirftmHo TVnoteii 
in the aborc year, one withopt the Onek text i^ 
^phanioi, and one with ic A Ma in the Bod- 
loan Lilnary {BaToat. ciIiL No. 3D) it dncribcd 
a* containing " Epjphaoii Hooadii et Pietbyteri 
ChanultrB. Vargait tt Dommd Nodri" (a dif^ 
[■rent woA fisia that mentioned abora) ; and 
" ejnadtm, ul tidelar, ifa Z W ai 'Ji ia r Quateor Enitgt- 
tefarwaawM JJairrMtwaew OrM.' {Oalal. MSS. 
Oxford, 1697.) " 



LOndin, Oiataeat. da Ser^*)r. d ScHptk EaUt. 

i,.=.otGoog[c 



4B EPIPHANIUS. 

9. CUM oKHMiMulf mi Pat*u«cb, uthsr 

of MOM WOlll OD dw KhiBD Of Uie EMtMI 

WcMon ehudm. Sw ibon. No. 5. 

10. Of Pnu, na of Ulmmiu, n< ■ •> 






tn^ ibetoria M F«tn iwl u Atbeoi. Ha li**d 
■Iio at I^odkoK ID ^rri>> **"» )» ">■ Tayioti- 
nUe with tka two ApoUiiiirii, &tbai md un, sf 
whim tha bUat iftarnrdi beouua Um fbosdar at 
tlwnctaftbBAnlUiMriMM Tba ^poUimii waca 
■xeaanDnnicUad b; the blikop of I<wdic«to on ao- 
count af ttair inttanae; with B^pbmina, wba, it ma 
band wanld conTot Iboo to the n^ao of tfaa 



tha pemm to 
Libanioi wnita. (Libanin*, EpiM. 631.) Epipbe- 
niu did not lire to be tvj M ; ud both he 
hia wiia, who «•■ oniiwiit for her beanty, died of 
the mat diaeaaa, an affwtmi of the blood. He 
wiDte nianj wofki, which ace eounamted bj Sni- 
daa. Tbey are a* fbUowi: 1. Htpl hduwIu 
•bI Iiofepiit iw onfarw. S. npoyifw^fian. 
3. MiAfriai. i. A^tufx'"- S. UeKiimpxiiiit- 
6. A^)w 'EnSfumw' : and, 7. HiMellaniea. 
SoQiln meDtiom a hnaa to Bacchni, ledled bj 
him, attendaDce on which ndlation wu the ionne- 
diate aecanaii of the eiciimniiuucatioa of the Apol- 
linarii. {Sooalaa, Hiit. EaL ii. 4S ; Soiomen, 
Hid. EaL t. Sfi ; Eun^im, SopUlL TUaa .(£^ 
jAimim and LSxmua) ; Endooa, litmA, in the 
AntiAila Onuoa of Villoiion, Tol. L ; Soidaa, . 
"ETifdnoi; the pa«agea id Soida* and Ewl 

11. DcKribed aa Scsoianiciw. Szto 

Senaeallihimaa»dt,biitCirilli«(^BtB>n&Er^ 
tdL iri.) aad Can (HwL Lit voL i. p. Mb) call 
him an Italian. He hred about the b^ioDing of 
tha aiith centoTf. Hewn the friend ^CaModonta 



[C^MioBoaua]. a 



[DiDTMUB, No. 4.], the ^amtiat of 
iaeumim'i Somg, iud bj Caiaiadonia to b« by Eio- 

thia eipoutioD waa [Rnbabl; writtan by Philo of 
Garpaana or Cafptthiu ; bnt Foggini rindiaitea the 
title of Epiphanini to the anthonhip. Whethet 
Epphinini Seholaaticni wia coDCOned in the 
tnulation of tha JeaiA AttStfatia of Joaepbtu, 
and of the Nola on wmt r/ Ot CaOdia BjHnIfi, 
fmn the writingi of Clemmt of Aleinidria, which 
Caaaiadonu procnnd to be made, on onEj be con- 
jeetnied, b> CauiodDRu d« not nsne the traiu- 
klora. Kitni of Sena aioibea to E^phanina 
acholaatkoa a Caltmt (or ecoijrilalian u com- 
DMDta) OB at Pialmt, from the Oceak E^beia ; 
hut we know not on what ■athcritj; Bnt hia 
pindpal wnk waa tiamdating and (cnUDiDg into 



andTbaodORt. The ^Uonii TV^nrtila a( Ca^o- 
donu waa dimted tmn thi* comluned Tenion. 
He alio tianalaled, hj deaire of Caaaiedonu, the 
Ofbt Emq/dlM, a colleclioii of lettan, chiefly 
ajDodal, in defaDca of tha conocil of Chalcedan, 
which callection hai been reprinted in the Comiilia 
of BiniuB, Labbe, Coletna, ud Hardoin. bat moat 
cormllf bjr the laal two. Ilie •etaion ef the 



CMBaatary af Didnraa on the OmMi 
i* aaid [Didtmim, Nol 4} to he that gi 
BOOidmaPalnm! bat that on the JVpa^d haa 
Mt, wo bdbrt^ haan minted; the Tefnoni iif 
^IphatiiBB, Joaephna, and Clanenl of Alensdiii, 
have been pciDled. Tlut of EjoohmiDa « SUhkh'i 
SMff wia Arat pnUiahed hj Foggini, at Reaie, in 
1750, with a ptetne and nolaa. (Caaaiodanu, 
Pm^mOalor. n^^awt, Dt In^ilttkm Dmacr. 
IMtrar. tc i, 8, II, 17, with the DOteaof Qare- 



Fabric Bt&A. Mtd. t 
p, 101, ed. ManB, fiiUoAL Oniic. tdL fii. p.43S, 
ToL Tiii. p. 2fi7, toL liL p. 299 ; Caye, Collier, 
and Foggini, S. cc.) 

Beaide the foresoiiu, there are manj peiaona of 
tha name of Enpoanioi of when little' n nothing 
i> known bnt ineii name^ The ecdaaiaatka of Itat 
nama, who appear in the leeorda of the inaefit 
cooncila, may be traced by the Index in I^bbe'e 
Ondttt, toL iTi. [J. C. M.] 

GPIPHA'NIUS (Inf^tnn). biahop of Coif- 
aiAMTii sad metropolitan of Cygna, wia bom at 
Bexanduea, a amalt town in PalcBliiie, in the 
diitrict of Eleatheropcdia, in the fini pert of 
the fourth eentory. (Soaomen. tI 32.) Hia pa- 
rente were Jawi. He went to Egypt when 
yoong, and there appean to hare been tainted 
with Onoatic enora, bat aflerwaida fell into tha 
handa of aoane monka, and by them waa made a 
atnng adrocate for the monaatic life, and alrongly 
imbned with their own narrow apirit. Ha re- 
tntned to Paleatine, and lind there tor acHBe 



hia nadie place. In a.n. 367 be wu choaen 
biahop of Conatantta, the metnniolia of the lale of 
Cypnu, Comieily called Salanua. Hia wricioga 
ehew Um to bate been a man of gnat reading ; 
(ta be waa acqiwinted with Hebrew, Syriac, 
Otveh, and Latia, and waa deiefore 
'" ^iM'«t. But be waa entirely with- 
logical power, of real piety, bat alao 
of a Taiy Irigoled and dogmatical tarn of mind, 
nnable to diatingoiab the eaaential ben the non- 
riiaiiiirial in deetrinai diSkienoea, and alwaya ready 
dangecona beiaaj larked in 
af which niiad a little fnan 



of belief wl 






man Origen, whom 
underatand, ahonld appear a daagerou teacher of 
mot i and accoidin^y in hia wtifc oa herenea he 
thiaka it neceaaacy to giro an eMcntial waning 
againat him. A report that Origen^ opiniotia 
were ^ireading in Pakatins, and aanctioned eTen 
by Jahji, Inahop of Jenualem, eidted £ipipli»- 
nina to aneh a pitch, Uiat he left Cypnia to invo' 
tipta the matter on the apot. At Jenkaalem ha 
preached io violent a aenDon aniaat aoy abetton 
of Oiigeo'a oroia, and raade aocb erident alluaiona 



beg bim to (top. Aftemida, alien John preached 
againat anlhropiBBM^uam (of a tendency to which 
^phanioa had baoi ntpected) he waa fbUcmeid 
np to the pulpit b* hia nadaanted antagoniat, who 
annooncod that bo agreed in John'a eenaure of 
Anthrepamofphitaa, bnt that it waa equally neiipa- 
Mry to condnan Oiigeniata. Having excited ■oF' 
ficient commotim at Jenualem, Epiphaniua re- 
pured to Bethlehen, where he waa all-powerfo] 
with the monk* ; and there be waa as aocoeaafal 
I danandation of benay, that be petmaded 

D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



Ill wilh tl» Inibop 
cfJcndiB. After thi* he allowed hii nil to 
(tt tta boa •( in coHidaMiDiu of church 

n extent, thu he 
■% oi4*intd PaaT' ' . - - 

bfta-.lUlIu wght 
trntelkeiuki 
rat kpta), tai » prerent than baai appljing 



■»iitlm»i.m to the office of pm- 
^t Hrfoim the mioutecial nino- 
Dlu(wlui,n ohkI It that tine, 



MiHtwed to the Cbuck loi hou time. Tlw 
■at fHsd in wUdi Epphuuiu wti inralvcd 
n «ilk ChmoUoo. aiow nenkj of Nitria 
tii Un *ip«&ed bj Thet^hiliu, biihop of Atei- 
mim,m Origiiaiitii bnt were reoeiTod and pro- 
UeliiCaiutantinaple [CHaTBoarTOMua]. Upon 
Da The^hilu ptmuded Epiphuiui, now ehniMl 
B kk doOga, to MonmoD a conndl of Cyprian 
bkp^ vhkii he did ji. D. 401. Thi* anuahlT 
|iBed 4 MBtenoe of condonnaiion an Ori^en^A 
biki, sbich vu made knomi to ChijKutom 
ij Ims ; and Ejuphanhia proceeded in petion to 
CatOaiiaafle, to take part in the pending dii- 
pic ChiyHatoDi ma iiritated bj Epiphaniiu 
■Urfamg in the aarcnimeDt of hit diocme ; and 
ikt htis; jatt be&ie hii tetmn homa, ia rqinted 
i Ut hia bad feeling bj the 
" I hope that ;aa will 



"t Karj 11 iocarrect ; and ai both wiihei wen 
fWe^ it bean attong marii) of a tale innntad 
Aa tbt death* of the two diiputanti. Epipha- 
BH ditd OK bovd tbe ahip, wbicli wu coDTOjing 
kia kek to Cfpnia, i. a. 402, IcaTing ua a nw- 
Wfcgjj example of the nnrhriifiin exceeaei into 
>U4 bigoti; may harry a man of ie^ piety, 
"i I ucae deUTe (a do Ood lernca. 

Tie ndut woefca of Epiphanini an (1) Aw 
cwi^ a dieanme on the fiuth, bong an eipod'' 
IM if Iha doetiiiis of the Trinity ; (2) PamO' 
'^ a dianone agaiiut Heinea, of which be 
tOAt no leaa than eighty ; (3) An epitooK of 
^ alM Juaai p iafaeB ei i; (4) Ot i^Mrfnihx at 
J(»>^ tbr ; (fi) r>» .^<Wa ,- tha £nt to John 
bukif rf Jtrwlem, tiuulated by Jerome into 
I'll ; the noood to Jerome himHli^ in whoee 
■olu they ara both fbond. A great namber of 
i^S'i'uw'i wnlingi are loal. The eariiol edi- 
>Mam« at Baala, in Latin, tianalated by Cor- 
Mm^ 1543, and again in the following year 
>Mi 4 4far Jo. HtrvagiL Tbe edition of Dio- 
■!^ PrtBTioi, in Oreek and Latin, appeared at 
!^ 1(23, 2 Tola. ioL, and at Leipag, 1688, 
■Rk a aanentaiy l^ Valeoiu*. (Soxonen. Lc; 
nixayM. Jpcl. 1. ads. Jb^ p. 222 ; CaTB, 
M^Uf-TDLLi VmaiM, SiTdtt-gadaaUt, «oL 
ifUI4,4e.) [G.K.LC.] 

t^TOLE CErmM). a dan^ter of TrKhion, 
^Cuytlia in Euboea. In the di^gniie of a man 
•k vnt with tbe OiMk* ^ainit Troy ; but when 
''■^Bdia diaorend her hi, aho wae atoned to 
wb ky tha QrtA. anny. (Ptidem. Hephaeit. fi.) 



Ef^vaaalao 
*»ai (Heaydi-i. 
EPISrUENES (' 



'ZirinM.i) [L. S.] 
I'ExuMnn), tX Amphipcdia, 
the Qieck peltattae at tha battle of 



EPOREDORIX. 41 

Cnnaxa, and ia mentjoned by Xanophon aa an able 
officar. Hii name aecDn again in tha march of 
the Greeka through Armenia. (Xen. Avak. L 10. 

|7,ir.6.81.) [E.E.] 

EPI'STBOPHUB ('EirJirrpo^), three mythi- 
al pcnonagee of thii name are mentioned in the 
Iliad, (ii. £16, &c, 692, 8S6.) [L. S.] 

EPITADAS ('Enrdta)), ton of Molabra*,waa 
tha coDunandet of the 420 Lacedaemonian* who 
vera blockaded in tbe iiland of Spbacteria in the 
Tth year of the Peloponneaian wu, B. c 425. He' 
^fiean to have executed hie difficult taik with 
pradcnoa and ability, and waa qiated by death in 
the final combat the diigrace of nmendeT. (Thnc 
a. 8, 31, 88.) [A. H. C] 

EPITHERSES CEnM/io^), of Nica«,a gram- 
marian, who wrote on Attic comic and tngic worda 
(npl ti^tttt 'Arrutir ml Ha/uXMit iml Tfayatmt; 
Staph. Byi. 1. b Nlma ,- Erotiaa. ■. o.'Afi3i)r, p. 88, 
wbo giTea tha name wrongly Stpira). If he be 
the Hoe aa the hither of the rhetorician AomUiano^ 
ho mnil hare lired nnder the Empeni Tibeciiu. 
(Plat, dt D^. One p. 419, b.) [P. S.] 

EP0C1LLUS (TsrfmAAdi), a Uacedonian, wa« 



duct aa many of the Theaalian otralry and of the 
other allied tnopi aa wiabed to return home, a* 
bi aa the tc^coait, where Henei wu deiired to 

make arrangemeDta for' their pauage to Enboea. 
In B. c. 328, when Alennder wa* in winter 
quartan at Nautaca, he sent Epodllni with Sopolia 
and Meuidaa to bring reinfbrcemeata from Mao^ 
donia. (Arr. Anab. iii. 19, iv. 13.) [E. E.] 

EPtTNA (*In>Kt), from ipuM (Tnor), that !•, 
efoaa, waa regarded a* the protectrcB of honei. 
Imagca of hor, either atatnet or jaintinga, were fre- 
qnenlly leen in nichai of ttablei. Sho wa* nid 
to be the daaghter of Fulnu* Slellui by a mare. 
(JuTon. riii. 1£7 i Pint. J-aiaa. Gr. it Horn. p. 
312 J Hartang, Oia Aaf^ioa dar Somer, toL ii. 
p. 154.) [L. S.] 

EPO'PEUS ('Enrn^f), a aon of Poaeidon and 
Canace. U* came frran Theiaily to Bicyon, whera 
he nicoeeded in the kingdom, ai Corai died wilh- 
ODt leaTing any heir to hie throne. He carried 
away from Thebei the beaolifid Antjope, tha 
danghter of Mycteoa, who tbercTora made war 
upon Epopen*. Xho two hoitile kinge died of the 
woonda which they receiTed in the war ; but joe- 
•ioui to hi* death Epopeua dedialed a temple to 
Athena. (Paua iL 6. g It Apollod. L 7. § 4.) A 
different tradition aboat Epopen* ii related nnder 
Amfoion, No. 1. Paotaniai (ii. 1. $ 1) call* him 



lot A 






brother of Aloen*. Tho temple of Athena 
which he had built at Sicyon wai deatroyed by 
lightning, bnt hia tcmb wa* preaerred and ehewo 
then to a Tcry late period. (Pan*. IL II. { 1.) 
Another mythical being of thi* iuudo ocean in 
Orid. {MAiilGlB, Jcc) [US.] 

EFaPSIUS ('Ew^4«h), that i*, the aoperin- 
tendent, ocenn ea a nimame of leiera] godi, mch 
aa Zeni (Apollon. Rhod. IL 1124), Apollo (Heeych. 
«e.; corap. Soph. J'Uoct 1040), and of PoKidon 
at Megahipoli*. (Pan*. TiiL 30. 9 1-) H^ S.] 

EPORE'DORIX, a chieftain of the Aedui, waa 
me id the conunandcn of the Aednan canity, 
which, in compliance with Caciar'i reqoiution, 
wae aent to the aid of the Homani againit Verdn- 
gelorii, in a c £Z He alio informed Caoar of 
the detigu of LitaTiciu, who wu endeaTouring to 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



43 EQUESTER. 

Aaw th« Acdiu into tha OilKe eooMtaej a^ainA 
Roma, ud (Dsblad bim at Grat to roiuitenct tbniL 
But Mon iftnwardt h* faimKlf nTolled, togcthsr 
with ViridonvrUf vid tfaii completad the Aeko- 
Hm of hii amnUyineo. Ambilicm vu dorlj 
hit tootiia, fbr fae waa moch mortified whn the 
Oaoli cboae Vaitingttoiu for their commandat^ 
in-ehieC (Caefc B, G. riL 8*, S8— 40, 64, fi5, 
63: PtatOkxae, 27; Dim Ca-.il.S7.) Ha 
appesn ta liaT« been tha pentm irha vat aant ia 
command of an Aedtian fiine to tha relief of Vaiy 
cingitatji at Alaua, and a dtSercnt ma fnm the 
EpOTedoiii, who iraa praiiniily taken priioner bj 
Ifaa Ranumt in a battle of oiTalrjf and vho 
ii msntioTied aa haTins conunandad tha Avdni in a 
war with tlia 9eqium loma linia bdbre Caoar^ 
■nrital in Qanl. (Can. B. Q. ril 67, 76 ; Dion 
Caaa. zL 40.) [E. E.] 

M. E'PPIU9 M. r., a Bonun aenatar. and a 
member of tha tribe Terenlina, took an actiie pert 
in faioor of Pompa; on tha breaking out of the 
□Til WIT in B. c 49. Ha vaa one of the IrastM 
of Q. UataQna Sdpio in the African war, and wai 
paidoned bj Caew, with many othare of hli part]-, 
■Aat tbe bttttle of Thapani in B. c 46. Hie name 
la of Bdpio'i legatee on a txaa, which 
The obrtne repreiBnla a wo- 




tsan'a bnd, coreted with an elaphant^ ikin, and 
likewise an ear of com and a plough, all of which 
ba<a reftonce to the pToTince of Africa, with Q. 
MbTBL. Scifio lap. On the reycria there ii a 
figure of Herculei, with Efpivs Lao. F. C. Tbe 
lut two lallan pnbabl; npreienl Facamdmi at 
Ftrvaidam Oimnl, dt Flaxdm CVracit, and indi- 
cata Ibat tbe deoariiu wii tDnck bjorder of Bppioa 
It appcare from another coin, in wliich hii name 
Occure aa the legate of Pompey , that after he had 
been pardoned h; Caeiu he weot into Spaia and 
renewed the war onder Sex. Pompe; in & c 46 
aod 45. (Cic. ad Fw. liii. S. fg G, 6, when Ibe 
old ediliont ineorrectlj md M. Oppeu, ad AU. 
viii. II, B. ; Hirtiiu, BM. A/ria. 89 ; Eckhd, ToL 
T. pp. 206, 207.) 

EPPONI'NA. [Sabwdb, JULTOB.] 
E'PRIUS HARCELLUS. [MabOULDB.] 
E'PYTUS, a Trojan, who clong to Aeneiaa in 
tbe ni^t, when Troy wai dealiojed. Hewaa (he 
father of Periphai, who waa a companion of Jnlna, 
•nd who ia called by the patronymie Epylidea. 
(Virg. ^ea. ii. MO, r. S47, £79 j Horn. IL ttiL 
S23.) lU 8.] 

EQUESTER, and In Greek 'Imoi, ocean aa a 
annmrna of KTenJ dirinitiei, euch aa Poaeidon 
(Neptmie), wbo had oeated ifaa hotaa, and in 
whoee hononr horee-mcea were held (Scrr, ad 
Viry.Georg. I \2; Lir. L 9; Pani. T. IS. § 4), 
dT Aphrodila (Serr. ad Atn. i 724), Ken 
(Pani. T. ia. $ 4), Athena (Paul. L SO. R 4, 
81. 1 3, T. IS. S 4, riii. 47. S 1 ), and Are*. (Pbol 
T. 16. i 4.) Tba Roman gnddeia Fortona bora 
(he earns ramame, and tba conml Plaetna Towad 
B tennile to her in a. c 1 8(1, during a haitia agaimt 
tba (^lliberiane. (LIt. iL 40, xUL 3.) Tadtui 



E1U8I8TRATU&. 
{Ann. Hi. 71) mentioiu a tonple at Fortona Eqa» 
tria at Antinm. [L. 8.] 

L. EQU1TIU9, nid to ban been a ntnany 
•hve, gan bimielf cat aa a aoa of 1^ Qnechai, 
and va* in eonaequence elected tribnna of the plehi 
for B, c 99. While tribune denmtiia, he tort 
an actire part in the deiigna of Sanrainui, and 
waa killed with him In B. a lOOi Appian aiyi 
diat hie death happened on tba iaj on wbidi he 
entered npoa hie efflM. (Appian, B. C. L 32,S3i 
Val. Max. ili. 2. | IS ; Cic. ^no AM. 47, wbo calU 
him aaitivut g »i e elaJ | and pro C. Rabir, 7, when 
be 11 deicribed aa tilt ew comjied&jia aiqae tryatbib 
Oneehit.) 

ERASIIfTDES (-EfnotFiSirt), ww one of Iha 
ten commandera appointed to npenede Aldbiadet 
after the battle of Notiom, a. c 407. (Xen. Hdl. 
ifi.$16: Diod. liii. 74 : Plot. Jfc 3«.) Ae. 
cording (o the common reading in Xenophon (HtIL 
i 6. $ 16), he and Leoo were with Canon when 
he vat chaeed by'Callicntidai to Hytilene. Bol 
we find Eminidea mealioned aJWwarda ai one of 
the ei^t who eommanded at Arginoaae (Xen. 
HtU. L 6. $29; Arittnph. An. 1194); eilheii 
therefore, aa Momi and Schneider aaggat, Ardw*- 
tratni rout be rabatitnled for both the ahora 
namee In tbe painge of Xenophon, or we nint 
fuppoia that Eraalnidea commmded tfac trirane 
which eaoped to Athene with the uewe of Ccoan'e 
blockade. (Xen. HeU. L B. « 19—22; Lya. 
'A«\. Ivpot. p. 162 ; Schnt^ od Xm. HdL I «. 
% 16 ; Tbirtwall'i Gma, roL It. p. 119, note 3.) 
Eraalnidea wai among the aii generaliwho relamed 
to Athena after the victory at Arginniae and were 
pnl to death, a C 406. Archedemui, fai &et, took 
the fim Btep againil them by impodng a fine 
(JiriggXif) on Eraiinidei, and Uien calling bin to 
acconnt before a court of jiutke for retaining aome 
public money which he bad receind in the Hd- 
leapont. On thie charge Ecaainidei waa thrown 
into priaon, and the vucceas of the proaecntion in 
the particular coae paved the way to tbe more 
eerioui attack on the whole body of the graenli. 
(Xen. HM. L 7. gl 1-34 ; Diod. xiii. 101.) [E.E.} 
ERASI'STHATlI3<1>HrfoT^«>. one of tba 
»t celebreted pbyvciani and anatofoiita of anii' 
ity. ii genenUy mppoaed to haie been bom at 
111 in the tiland of C«h (Snida*, i. v. 'Epoirlrrp. ; 
Strab. X. £, p. 389, ed. Tanehn.), Ihongfa Stepha- 
nne Byrantmn* (i. c. Kvi) caile bim a natire of 
Coi. Oalen of Chios {IrOrod. c. 4, tdL lir. p. 683), 
and the empeni Julian of 9amae. (Maapog. p. 
347.) Plmy aaji he vai tbe grandeon of Ariatotta 
by hie daughter Pylbia* {U. N. uii. 8)_, but tbie 
ia not confirmed by any other ancient writer ; and 
according to Suidai, he waa the aoD of Creloxena, 
the liiter of the pbyiician Hedini, and Qeomho- 
Ini ; from which eiprearion it ia not qail« dear 
whelber Cleombrotos wa* hie fitOitr or hia aaaefc. 
Ha wu ■ pupil of Chryaippni of Cnidoa (Diog. 
lAert.Tii. 7. § 10, p. !SBi Plin. M AI. izix. 3 ; 
Oalen, dt Vai. SteL adv. EntiitT. c. 7, *oL xi p. 
171), Hetrodon* (Scit. Empir. c MaOem. i. 
12, p. 271, ed. Fabric.) and apparently Theophraa- 
tna. (0«l»m,(toS»i.j.«iArter.c7,Tc4.iT.p,7-29.) 
He lived for aome time at the court of Seleneua 
NicBtor, king of Syria, where he acquired great 
reputation l^ diacovaring the ditciM of Antio- 
chna, tba king'i etdeat ton, probably a. c 294. 
Seleucni in hie old age bad lately married Stntn- 
nice, ibe young and beautHiil daughter of Dane- 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



KSASUTRATUa. 
taa Piliiiifcj. nl A* hid ilmdy bom Un 
■I duU. (not JJHMlr. e. 38 1 Apnui, A 
lUm ay. t.l».) AndMhw Ul TiolMdr b 
InvUi Ul mdia^law, btl did not dbdoM 
)■■ (Min, ud dun* ntlut to ptu >«aj m iv 



Mliif ndn iboat ia* bodj, b> bcgia to atipect 
Ikai it Bot k* bit mind whkh vm di«ti»ed, and 
Hal it Bghl periMfa be in lore. Thi* canjactiin 
vu rtmfmu e d vbm be obeerred hit ikin ta be 
trtur, Ul calmir la be bdgbtenad, ind hi* pulie 
fDckonJ, vWorrct Stntoaiea ouD* near bim, 
(Uk MM if tbeae irmptenu accuned en idj 
■Ib MCMioi; Ukd acEodiiig); he told Selninu 
<ht Ul mt ■"— wu iucunhle, for tbat he 
m ii In*, nd thu it wtu hapouihle Uuu bii 
pma aald t« gi^lifiad- The king vtrndored 
■bt lb diffiEBllr eoold be, ind uked vbo the 
Ujim "ilj wifa," nfilied EneiftntU) apau 
"■ ' "' ' ' ' 'm to gJTe bef 

id him if ba 



Sdaevbnn b> pt 

9 to hii NO. "nt ^yadan > 
•iM 4. « Unmtt itk-mmi 



H giadlj; apon 
Bid bia ibu it *u tade«d bu own wifo who h»d 
■;inj Ik pwimi, and that be cboM nlher to 
6 Ihu to diedoee bii leaet. Setnou wu h 
pid ■ hii mud, ud DDt anl; gna op Btataniee, 
ha ^ migMd to bii WD •erenl pnvinset ct 
h> Sfn Thii eelebnlcd M017 ti told with 

|iffa.^Aiad^.e.fiS— Gl; Qilen.^Aw 
•Ae<4>V.e.G. Td.iiT. Pl630; Jnliin, A/ns- 
n^^ltT,ad.^Dheimi Ladaa, dt i^ria Ota, 
<* 17, IS; Plin. H. ff. iiiz. S I PlaL Df 
•».*.»; Suidai, k e. 'Epovfirrp. ; Jo. Tieti. 
(U TO. HiW. 118 ; Vdst. Ukx. t. 7), mi > 
■nhr mBdote bu been Idd rf HippoGiUei (So- 
■■•^ Fib^Tfpar.inHippiKr. C^»ra,ToLiiL p^ 
t»),Oila(A AiMH«. ad^i^ c 6. toL lii. p. 
<3tJ, AnOBM (MS Bicgr. Viet, of the U'l^ 
fMi Ak], tnd (if the nune* be not fictilioui) 
" — ii(Aiiiteeii. J^iM. ' ■-' 



Plinj (i. &), u ij pn- 
U; the oao, EfMJetcatin ii nid to bin ra- 
^^fA lot hmidnd talmte fiv berng the qcbk 
* TeMvnflg the pimce to '*^'*^', wliich (mppoeiiig 
Ik Ank iUndBd to ba moot, and to be equal to 
"■^i \h.) vDold imotnU to 2M7U— coa c€ tha 
^W labial {■(■ npoB raeoid. 

Vsjliola Bun ii known of tha p< 
■Tof KtawtTMna : he lind br ■ 
^JoBiUi, wbkb «M at tbi 




BBASISTRATUS. 4S 

mmaKnu pnpQi and GiUawen^ asd ■ madia] tdod 
bearing hi* name eontinnad to axiit at Smytna ia 
Inia BcailT ^ tha time of Stnbo, aboot tba be- 
||Biiii« of Uw Cbiirtian eia. (Snah. liL B, nb fin.) 
The fbUowii^ an the umea of the moM ealebnted 
pbjriidaui belonging to the aeet fbnnded bj bin t 
ApoMnanUi (Gden, dt Vmot JM. adv. EratiMr. 
e. 3, vol. xi. p. Ill), ApoDouna HonpbiteH Apol* 
loiAaaei (OuL AtnL ^ Jfort. JenC ii. 88, p. 160) 
Aitemldonu, Chahdemoi, ChijBppai, Mecadidoa, 
Henuogenet, Hieaniu, MaBJalia, Manodoca*, 
PtolenuieDt, Stisto, Xeoophon. He wrote HTeial 
worka on anatomy, piactiGal medicine, and pha^ 
macf, of which onlf the litlea remain, logetbo 
with a fft»t uniDbei of ibDrt &>gmentt preetrr- 
ed t^ Oakn, Caelint Anrelianiu, and ollici an- 
cient writen : theee, howerer, are nffident to 
enahb ni to foim a toletablj conni Idia of hia 
opinioni both ai a pbjBcian and an anatomiat. 
It it in tba latter ohanotar tbat be ia nuMt calv 
biBted. and peibapa then i* do one of Ibe ancient 
phjvcJaai that did aun to pimote that bnu^ 
af medical acienoa. Ha ^^eaca to ban beaa tot 
nw Iba dlacoTai7 of Ibe drcnlatioa of tha blood, 
f« in a F""*!* pna cr rad bj Oalen (cl* Um Part. 
Ti. 13, Td. ill p. iSS) he aipnaaaa biraaelf aa 
(dOotri: — **TfaB *abi* ariata from tbe part wben 
the atteriti, that an diatribnted to tba whole bodj, 
bare their origin, and penetiatea to the Mngninean* 
[or Tiglit] Tenliide [of tbe bait] ; and the aneiy 
[or fubmary ana] aiiiet &am the put when Iba 
iei» faa«a tb«r origin, and panatntea to tha 
pomnutic [or Uff\ Toitricla of tba bcait." The 
dtecriptioii ia not Tery dwi, hot wemi to ihew 
that be auppoeed the venona and arteHaJ ijilemi 
to ba man intinutelj connected than waa genanllj' 
believed i which ii eonflrmed bj another paiaga 
in wbich he i> mid to haie difiend from llu other 
ancieni anatomiita, who inppoaed tha Teina 10 ariaa 
fnra tbe IiTti, and tbe aitene* frran the heart, lod 



both of tbe Teina and the arteriee, {Oalen, i» Hip- 
pocr. tl FlaL Dacr. n. 6, Tol. V. p. SSa.) With 
theaa idcaa, it can bara bean only hia belief that 
Che arteiiei contained air, and not Uood, that bin- 
derad hii anltcipaling Harrej'i eeleblUed diaco- 
Tary. The frwipiU ioJrb of the bait an gena- 
lall; laid to hara deriied their name &om Eiaaia- 
tntni ; bnt tbii ifipfan to be an oTeni^t, aa 
Qalen attiibatea it not ts him, bat to one of bii 
(bUowara. [fit Hvpoor. el PlaL Dter. ri. 6, vol. v. 
p. £48.) He appear* to hare paid particular attea- 
tion to tbe anatcmj tS tbe laain, and in a paaaig* 
oat of ne of hii weiki pnaenad bj Qaln (iW. 
ni. 8, n)L f. p> 603) ^nkt aa if bo bad taimaalf di» 
aecled ibnman bnnL Oalan nja (iiid. p. 602) that 
bafon Enaiatntni had nan cloaat; axamined into 
tbe (cigin of the nerrea, be imapned tbat tbaj aroaa 
bra the dnm aato and not fam the enbetaDce of 
the bnfaii aid that it waa not till be wia adTanced 
in Hb that be aatiifiad binualf b; actual impaction 
that mdi wu not the caaa. Aocnding to Rufba 
^heaini, be divided the nerree into thoae of aen- 



* Ha ii qieiking of the paiwManr oiitri/, 
which neeiTod tba nana <A^ dpr^puiSqi from 
Heropbilna. See Rn£ Epbei. it ArptIL Part 
Corf. Him. ^ ta. 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



44 ERAaiSTRATU& 

tbe bi^n Itwlf uid of tb« cenbellDm. (Oe ApptO. 

Part, fte. p. 6&.) Il u & lEnwrksUs iii)tuiae st 

acate phjuologUt Tsntoiing to muen, thit tbe 
•plcen iGtiea, Ik Am Bit, 1^7. "iLr.p.iai), 
(he bile (id. d» Faatli. ffaOe-. ji. 2, toL iL p. 76), 
and HTcnl other puti of the bodj (id. Cbn 
■I HippiKr. "A ^Um." iii. U. Tol. it. p. 303), 
mre tntirelj umIdm to uunutlt. In Uia con- 
tiDTeny thu irai curied on unong the ancienU 
■■ to whether floidi when drunk paiaed throo^h 
the tncbea into the loDgi, or through tht oewpha- 



Utler 



opinion. (Pint. ^|riit;i«. i 



L 11, 1 



. Ifi.) He 



. 1 i Gtli. 



1 hsTC bsen the fa 
idded to the word ilpr^plu, which had hilherta 

the longt, tbe epjlhet rpaxtoit to dietingaiib it 
frea tha aitcrio, and bean to haTe bc«D tbe on- 
^natoT of the modm bum Iraetia. He iltribntcd 
Ue —"T*''"- of hnngac to neui^ of the ■Comach, 



lia ft belt tighU; Touid their middle, la enable 
dwm Is ab^dn fami food for ■ longer time 
withaat laSeiiiig ineoiiTenience. ( Oell. in. 
8.) Tbe wrtOia, or ipufaai mitfensi, plared a 
Tei7 baurtant put both in hii ayileni of pbTiio- 
logf and patbolovj : he inppoaed it to enl«r the 
Innga In tba tndtea, thence to pau by the pnhno- 
tmy ■mat into tba heart, and thenea to be diffiued 
thrDughont the whale body by ineane of the aite- 
riat (Oalao, ife Difii: PaU. it. 2, rd. TiiL p. 703, 
at alibi); that the nM of reepinlion wu to Gil the 
■Heriei with air (id. di Utu Riipir. c I. tdL it. 
p. 471)', and that tbe polntion irf the aiteiiei wai 
caoead by tbe mOTementa of the pnenma. He 
aecoiuted for ditawn in the Bme way, and np- 
poatd that ae long ■■ the pnenma cODIiiiuad to fill 
the artariea and the bk»d woa confined to the 
TMSi, the indiridual wat in good hfalth ; but thai 
vhen tbe blood from xime oitue or othei got forced 
into tbe artarieft, infionunation and fcTor wot the 
cenKqoence. (Qalen, de Vaat SecL adv. EranlT. 
e. 3. Tol. iL p. 153, Ac.; Pint, ifo Pmtopi. 
Piac V. 29.) Of hi* mode of cnre the moit re- 
mariubia pecnliority woi hi* aienien to b1^- 
letting and pnigatiTe ntedicinei ' he leemi to haTe 
lelisd chiefly on diet and ri^imen, bathing, eiec- 
ci», friction, and tbe mott umple articlea of the 
vegetable kingdom. In largeiy he wai celebrated 
for the invention of a catheter that bore his name, 
and waa of tbe thapa of a Roman S. (Oaleo, Ititmd. 
C.13. ToLiiT. p.751.) Farther infermation re- 
pecting hi* medical and anatomical opinion! may be 
Ibnnd in LeClere, HiH. d* la Mid. ; Haller, BSiiaOt. 
AmaL and BiUiolk. Mtdie. Prod.; Sprengel, Hia. 
da la Mid. ; and alio in the following worfci, 
which the iniler hai never icon : Jo. Ftid. Henr. 
Hieronymi ZKuert /■nag. ertAau Ertuiilrali 
BratalraiainimipK HiMtoriam, Jen. 1790, 8to. ; 
F. H. Scbwaru, HcnfMiu nd Era^MtrxOia, 
e6H IdHoriide Parrdltit, Inong. AbhaodU WUn- 
boig, 1S26, fivo.. I Jerem. Rnd. Lichlenttadt, 
BraiiMraba iJt VoTsanga- vm Brenaait, in 
Uecker'i Awal. der HaUamdt, 1830, iriL 1S3. 

2. Eraflitrattu of Sicyon, mnA haTe liTcd in <n 
befan tbe fnt eentnry after Chiiit, aa he ii men- 
tioned by Aaeleiriadei Phaimedoa (qnd Galen. 
A Cbawt. MvUam. tec Zoom, i. 3, toL nil. 
p. 3i6>. [W.A.O.] 



ERATOSTHENES. 

GRASTUS C'Etmmif), tf Scepoi in 'naeB, » 
mentianed along with Coriaciu, a native of the 
ame place, among the diadpln of Phlo (Kog. 
lAert. iii. 46); and the nilh among the letten 
attributed to Plato n addreaed to iboae two Soep- 
mna. Strabo (xiii. p. GOS) cIbnh both men 
among the Bocntic phUoHphai. (Ait, Ptatai't 
Lthn a. Sckrift. p. £19 ; C. F. Hemann, OooL ■■ 
Sjiltm d. Plat PUlM. L nt 425, 592,Ac) [L.a.] 

ERA'TIDAE ('EfBvUta.), an ancient ilbuUini* 
bmilf in the iiland of Rhodei. The Entidae of 
lalynu in Rhodei an deecribed by Pindar (CC 
vil 20, &e. ; comp^ Biiclcb, Et^JtaiL p. 165} oa 
deieended from Xlepolemni and the Heiaeleidae, 
ef whom a colony leenii to have gme from Aj^oa 
to Rhodei. Danuntoi and hit eon Diugn* be- 
longed to the family of the Eialidae. [UAMAom- 
TUB, Duooais.] [L. S.] 

E'RATO. ('E^orrf], a nymph and tba wife of 
Ansa, by whom ihe benune the mother of Elatna, 
Apheida*, and Aiau. She itai laid to have been 
a pn^Aetie printeu of the Arcadian Pan. (Pao*. 
viii. 27. I 9 ; Aacia.) There are two other 
mythical penonigei of thii name, tbe one a Hnie 
and the other a Nereid. (ApoUod. L S. g i, 2. 
g 6 ; Ho. Tkeog. 347.) IL. 8.] 

ERATOSTHENES CEpareeVJnif). 1. One of 
the Thirty Tynnti. (Xen. HM. ii. S. 1 2.) There 
ii an oration of Lyiiai igoinit him [Or. Ij), irbieh 
waa delivered loon after the eiptdiion of tbe Thirty 
and tba laluin of Lyiia* Inm eiile. (CliBtoa, F. 
H. nib ann. B. c 403.) 2. The pernn for wboae 
ilanghter by Euphiletiio, the fint oration of Lynai 
iiadafiince. (Lyi. p. 3, &c} IP. S.] 

ERATO'STH EN ES (-er>«wU'4>). "f Cjren^ 
waa, aocording to Snidsa, the eon oF Agtaiu, aorard- 
ing to others, the mu of Ambndui, and waa bora 
B. c 276. He wu taught by Aii*toD of Chiui, the 
philoiopher, LyHoniai of Cyrene, the grunmarian, 
and Cilliniviui, Ihe poet. He left Athena at the 
invitation of Flokaij Eicrgetei, who placed hiD 
over the library at Aleiondria. Here he continiicd 
till the icign of Ptolany Epiphone*. He died >1 
Ihe age of eighty, about H. c 1 96, of Tolimtary atat- 
Tution, baling kit hii li^t, and being tind of liGb 
He wa> a man of veryextenuvehannng: we ahaU 
fint ip^k of him oa a geometer and aatranuuier. 

Il ii mppoied that Eratoathenea raggeited I* 
Plolemj- Evetgetea tba conatniction of tba large 
armiliat or filed drculsr initnment^ which wne 
long in nae at Aieiandria i but only beiaoae it ia 
difficult to imagine to whom elie they ai« to be 
anigned ; lor Ptolemy (the Mtronomer), thmigfa 
he mentioai them, and inddenlaJly ibeir antiquity, 
doee not ttate to whom they were due. In theee 
cirelei each degree wai divided into lii parte. We 
know of no obaerTntiDni of Eratoaihenei in which 
they were probably employed, eicept thoae which 
led him to the obliquity of the ecliptic, which he 
mnet baTO made to be 23" £1' 30" ; for be Male* 
the diitance of the tcojuci to be eleven tbnea the 
eighty-third part of the circnnifennce. Thii waa 
' ' ' for the time: Ptolemy (the 

ilent with it, and, aocoidiiig to 
<A noother. Of hii meanre 
of tbe earth we ihall preaeatly qwik. 'According 
Jromifhni, he waa the ioventor of tbe *i*- 
vtaannii Aridua^iaim, aa it hai ainoa been 
oiled, baiDg the widl known method of detecting 
the prime anmben by writing down all odd nnni- 
bera which do not end with 5, aui Uiikiag eat 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



MB^fdr A> mltipka U each, on* ifU* tl 



Vt MiD poiiw a 



a tbe Duw af EntoMhcDM 



mt of iIb auMtctbtimu. tfarir 
ol Ik ikn in thm. It u, hoi 
Upd «B lU bmdi IhBt tUa ii nol a work of 
RntrntWiwi. It hu tmi •hami bjr BemWd; 
B hii ftiHartrBii. (pl 110, he, B«rKn, IB32. 
t^) ti> be a miaenble nutpilatuiTi madfl by ume 
Gwk gnauuiui {nm tbe Po^tiam Ai ir o mm ion 
if HT(iDu. Thn book ni piiiitcd (Or.) in Dr. 
F(ll\ a the Oifcxl, ediliaD of Antoi, 1 762, era.; 
■pn (Or. Ul) bf Tbomu Ode, in llie OpMBiSa 
f%i«i<SUiiga, Anulerdam, ISSS, Sto.; ilH bj 
Stbatac^ with imtn bj HtTite, Otittiiigea, 1 795, 
tn.; liM, b] Y. K. Hattbiae, in bii Arati, 

t, 1817. Bto-, and more rc<aitJy by A. 

nm, in hi) &«)r4ar« Hi^anaa 
Bntd, |ip.339— 3E7. TbB ihort conn 
AntM,tttiibBtcd to EnlathenH, and iint printed 
ij P«(T Vietmiai, md lAcrwaid) bj PeMriot 
bUi trnBob^HH (1630, fel.}, ii alw named i 
Ike ttdi of both n bHBg attrilmted to Hipjarehi 

InjiFalnena} that it can i» attributed to neilbei . 
to Hipfaidnu ii mentioDed by name, alio the 
fintli qf Jalj, alio lUn faaifaanHV word iA.rrpav6^ 
(* h OHon, Tbieh the nun recent Qieeki neni 
•>d : thcH imona do not help each other, for 
^ iHnid dien the woii to be poiterior i 
anything, and the third ibem 



fi4lhu4;UTr«rMiar and Jnlj (and alio AagiiM) 
m d antioDed in one lentaiKe, which ' 
4ndf* an inteipidatitn ; and 

Ma ii freqaaBllj menCiiaied i 

ta Hipfaicbo* cratainlf i* mentioaed. 

1W mlj otha «ntii« of Entoithenea which 
nuu ii a laUB ts Ptoloay <"■ Ihi doplication 
^ 4c cabe, fca tike nedianieal perfbniaiiea of 
*Uch le had csntrned in inMronwiit, of which he 



a. Ac HaK 

>t tat had hiametlHid nigim>ed in 

^ilit huldii^, wHb vow tom which b> add*. 

iupon hai |iiiiaiiiiiil tUa iettet in hii commenl 

•• ^Hih u. flap. 2 of the ipbxu and cyiindec of 

liduBHtea. 

The gmteit voifc of EnloilhaM), ud that 
*hkh MBit alwaya make bit name coa 
■wtib hialoij, ia (he attonpt which 
■■"lii ibe magnitsde af the earth, — in which he 
bnnght facward and ued the method which it 
^lojfd lo thk day. Whether ol 
MAleaBolbetald,aaweihaUa . 
''eltm Irst that be wu the o^inatot of tba pro- 



' Theae ne the only mo 
^•m : Orion, irhieli the nigai call dArrporJ- 
", Inl rim in July, and Procyon in AngnaL 



EBATOSTHENES. iS 

eem hj wbidi we irav know, Toiy nearly indeed, 
' of onr own )dniet. DeJamhre layi 
he who adnaed the enctian of the 
■boT* allnded to, he mart be 
coniidered u the fbnnder of wtranomy : lo which 
il may be added that he waalbefoDndtrofgeadeiy, 
wilhoDt any t/'in the caK. Tbe nmnbar (tf ancient 
wrilan who bate aliudid to 

of bme) tl Teiy greet, and ' 



ilafiillm 



At ijyene, in Upper Egypt, which if inppowd 
to be tfae Hms ai, or near to, the town of Ajaonao 
(Ut 2i' IV N, Long. 32° G9' £. of Oieenwich), 
Bratoithenea waa told (that be oburred ii Teiy 
donbtfnl), that deep welU were enli^tened to the 
bottom on llie day of the imomar niiitice, and that 
Tertiol olijeRi cait no ihadowa. He cenehided, 
thenfbn, that Syene waa on the tropic, and hi 
latinide equal to the obGqdty ef Uw cdiplie, 
which, M we hate laen, he had deleimined : he 
prcnuned that it waa in the lame loagitode aa 
Alexandria, in which he waa out about S°, whidi 
il Dot enough to pndoce what would at that time 
ha*e betn a lenable cnor. By obiemtioni made 
at Alexandria, he detennined the aenith of that 
place to be diitanl by the fiftieth part of the cir- 
cnmference liau the lolilice, which wii eqniTalent 
to laying that the arc of the meridian between the 
two plaZee ii 7° IV. deomedei Hyl that lie 
nied the nof^ or bemiipherical dial of Bokmiu, 
in the delennination of thii latitode. Ddambre 
reject! the idea with infinite Kon, and pronannoca 
Cleomsdei unworthy of credit; and, indeed, it i* 
not eaty to eee why Eiatotthenei ihonld haw 
rejected the gnomoD and the larBe dnmlar imtm- 
menti, wnlraa, perbqie, fix the fiillowing leaeon : 
There il a tentence of Cleomede* which woni to 
impiy tiiat the diiraearance of the ihadowi at 
Syene on the day « the lommer islitice wai 
noticed to lake jjace (or 300 ttadia a*ety way 
roand Syene. If Eialoathenea took hit report 
abont the pbenemenon {and we hiTc no eridence 
that he went to Syene himielf) from (hoie who 
coold giro no better account than thii, we may 
eaoly nndentand why be would think the cnl^ 
quite accurate enough to obaerre with at hit own 
end of the are, lince the other end of it waa nn- 
certain by u nrach ai 300 Radia. He giTea £000 
■tadiafbrtliediitance from AJeiandiiato Syene, and 
thia round nnmbo inrmi fntthit to jnitifyiu in oon- 
eluding that he thoogbt the proceet to be at rough 
ai in truth it wai. HutuuraiCivdk(p. I94)ilatai 
that he obiynad thia dittanee fimn the meanina 
made by aider of the Ploleniiei (which had beeo 
mmmenead by Alexander) ; thia writer then im- 
pliet that EraloMhenet did not ro to Syene hinielt 

The lenlt il 350,000 itadia tor the ORnniteBMa 
of the caith, which EiatoitlwMa altered into 
3£2,000,thatliiiieniltBii^tgiTaaneuct nnmber 
of tUdia fi>r the degree, iian>dy,700i thii, of crane, 
■hoald ^*e been 694A. Plii^CA. JV.iL 108)call( 
thii 8 1,500 Roman miki, and iberaloifl mppoiei the 
itadiimi to bo the eighth part of a Roman mile, or 
takei for gianled that Etatoalhaiea nied the 
Olympic ttadium. It ia liluly enaogh that tba 
Pulemiei natunliied thii itadinm in iSgypt t but, 
nneitheleM, it ii not onlikely that an Egyptian 

b,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



4S BaATOSTffBNBS. 

■Iidlain vu employBiL If we umna thir Oljm- 
pie itadinni (202^ jsnlil, ths degna of Bnlo>- 
thenei ii mon than 79 mile*, upwanU CFf 10 miiei* 
too gnat. Nothing ia known of uj Egyptian 
■Mdinm. Pliii} (/.c.) ■'"FU thfttHippuebu, bat 
for what rauon he doe* not mj. wanted to add 
' a H foond bj 

ig to Plat>reli(d^ Pliu. PUL iL Sl).En- 
tonhanea made tiu mn to ba 8IH nuUioiu of lUdU 
Cram the earth, and the mom 760,l)l}0; luxording 
to Uacrabini (n Sonut. Sap. L 20), he made the 
dwnelsr of ths nm to be 27 timei that of the 
vrih. (Weidler, HiM. ^lEnm. ,- Fabric BAL 
Orate. ToL It, p. 117, Ac. | Delambn, HiH. dt 
r^Km.Jac.;Pel>Tiiii,^nBHiyua.)[A.DiH.] 
With ngard to the other maiiu of Entoilhenea, 
wa mut fint of all meatitw what he did Cor gw- 
grapliy, which w» doaely connected with hie ma- 
thnnatkal pnnnit^ It waa Enteethenee who 
fuied geogr^hy to the rank of a edence ; fat, ja^ 
vioua to hie time, it seemi to hare conaitled, more 
or leu, of a mat! af iofbrmatJOD (cUtered in booki 
of UaTel, deeciipliDni of panicular ootmlnea, uul 
Ike lik« All theae tnunna wen WMaible to 
Entoathana* in the lUmriea of Alaaandiia ; and he 

Ite iCBtleiod ■""-'•''i and muting than'' 

siganic ifftam of gtegnphj In hie 
WMt entitled rewTfn^m, oi ai it 
bnt amnaotialT, ealJed, ymypa^oiiioa or TM^fM- 
«ia. <8tiab. J. p. 29, ti. p. 67, x>. p. 6Sa ; SchoL 
miAfaBat.SJK,d.n.2S9,2St.3ll>) It {ouined 
sf thiee booki, the fint of which, fanning a aort of 
intiadaetioti, contained a critica] nriew of the ]»■ 
bonn of hit predecewm &om the wlieit to hi* 
awn timet, end inTeitigationt tonceming the form 
Had naluie of the sarlh, which, acoarding to him, 
waa in immorable glDbe> on Che laAa of which 
mtcet of a aeriet of gnat reTolutiani wen itill 
viiihle. Me concnTod that in one of theae raTola- 
tioni the Medilemoean had acqoind itt pratent 
fbnn i for, eccoiding to him, it ww at one time a 
laige lake eerering portioni of the adjacent eaoQ' 
bin of Alia tmd Lflqra, nnlil a paiaege waa fbiccd 
opra by which it enland into ooDununkation with 
. The aecond book contained 



been ^loken of abore. The third book contained 
the political geogi^ibj, and gave deacriptieiu of 
the Tariont eoantriea, decned from the wo^ of 
•ailiar tiBTcUen and gecgi^heia. In oricr to be 

able to deteimioe the aocncate uta of each place, 
he draw a line penllel with the equator, rnnoing 
from tiie pilhin of Heradei to ths eitnme eait ^ 
Alii, and diriding the whole of the inhabited canh 
into two holreL Counected with Ihii woil waa a 
new map of the earth, in which town*, moimtaini, 
riisrt, lakes, and -l'""t— were marked according 
to hia own improTsd mcatnrsmenti. Thii impor- 
tant work ef Entoathsnet fbnni an epoch in the 
biitory of ancient geogiaphy j bnt imfortitnalelT it 
it lost, and all that baa iimiTed ceniista in Eng- 



• Thii ia n 
oinre, which 
1, contmrj tc 



n foot, bare anpnaad to 
cidentaliy, ray eonect. See the Ptmj CJdo- 
foaHa, An. " Weight! and Menfans." 



ERATOSTHBNE& 
ment* quoted by later gtogiapheca and hiatctioM, 
ticta ai PolyUu, Stnbe, Ikrcsanni, Pliny, and 
othtrt, who cAan judge of him ■nfitTOtmbly, and 
controrert hia ttalementa ; while it can be pnTed 
that, in ■ great many paaMmt, they ad«t lua epi- 

cbargn Biatoatbene* with baring e^ied tbe anb- 
atanee of the woric cf Timoatbcfiea ai Porta Onfi 
AlUrm*), ta which he added bnt nnr Unle tl hia 
own. Thia dune may ba weltfinndad, bat can- 
not bnT* diminiAed the ntlne ef the we^ of En- 
toatbenei. In whid that of TimselheiHa am bus 
fimnad only a vsiy Boall pcnion. Ii asoBa to 
bars been the my anrwbelnung inuMasee oC 
the nogiaphy of Entoathenea that callad fitth a 
nmnber of iqiponenta, among whom ws meet with 
ths namea of Polemon, Hippanhna, PdybinK 
Seiapieo, and Harciauni of Heisdeia. The bag- 
menti of this woik were first collected by L. Ancber, 
DhlrilmmFnvo^ Otoffn^ BnHeMk, OoUiiwsn, 
1770, 410, and •fterwinU by Q. C F. Seid^ 
&vta^ Otoarapk. Fragmi. OottingBtt, 1789, Srok 
The best oiUectian is tl * " 



titled 'Efv<t(parh^ the w 

mentiinied above), was wnliai m raae ana neaiea 
oftbefbiniafthssartb, iti IsapaiatMrs, the dife- 
nstsUalieii^ and the like. (Bem- 

,. ._ p. 110, &0.) Anetber poon, 

'HpO^**, ii nmitionad with great eomnMndatisn 
by lAiuinas. {Dt SuUim. S3. 5 ; comp. ScboL ad 
Hom.Jlx.'lii BnBbardy,f.e.p^Ua.ftc) 
^atoatbenea distingiuihed hinudf also •* a pbi> 



re that all ths phiksophica] works whidi bars 

his name were really hit prodnctiona. It is, how- 

. certain that he wrote on aobjecla of ncsal 

philosophy, e. g. a work IIcpl 'Ayaiiif ad KoiMi 

(Uupociat.t.(M^fie<iTaI; Clem. Al«c Araat. iv. 

- '196), another il^ lUe^sn nl IlB^Bt (Keg, 

te'rt. ii. 66 ; Plot. TloiA 27), whicii same be- 

iTe to hara been only a portioa of ths p 

woric, just as a third Otfl 'AAnlu, which 

tionsd by Suidat. Soms othsr wodu, ou the etbei 

hand, Boch as Tltpl iwr aard *i>ArafIar AJpfavwr, 

Mtktrai, uid Aithcyn, an beEend to hare besa 

enonaeiuty attiibntcd (o him. Athenaans nan- 

tioni a work of Enteithsnaa entitled 'Afvvin 

(tU. p. 376), ^Mm (I. p. IIB), one ^MU ad- 

' to the I^isdaeiuinian AgcMr (n. p. 482), 

and laatly, a work called 'AfJorw, aftsr kit (oKbsr 

■ philoiophy. {ril p. 281.) 

Hit hittoriial productiona an closely eonnacted 
ith hit ""'*'—']—' poianita. Ho i« said M 
in wiittao on the expedition of Alsiandec the 
Onal (Pint AU^. 3, 31, *c ; Arrian, AiHi. v. S. 
S 3) ; but the atatementa quoted famn it belonged 
in all probability to hia geognphital or Dhi0DaL>- 
gical work. AnothBi on the hiatoiy of ths Qal>- 
' ii(ra\aTUEi),of which tho33rdbookiaqsa«td 
_ Stephana! of Bjcantinm (i. v. 'TSpifXa), wan 
ondoubiedly the work of another ErataathBf. 
(Schmidt, de Oa& Ejpid. p. IG, Ac ; Bsmhardy. 
tap. 243, &c) There waa, bowenr, a Tery im- 
portant chionolagical woik, entitled Xptrf^m ^ m 
been, ao- or XfOHyfafmr, which was anqneatknabty tho 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



emiltiB Btarji* mil n politicil Ufloiy. (Har- 
pidit LB. Etirn; DioDyt. i. *6i Ckn. Aki. 
»MLp.lU.) m* work, of wbidi wma &ig- 

Iff, ud ippean ta mtb baen 
B by (ha iBciaiti. Afiolladani 
■d Bnebia nade iiwt dh of it, wd STweUn 
(|l K; c.) liM pnmnd fron it » U*t of 38 Idngi 



• 'OAwnnwT—i, (Dwg. l«(irt. 
nJLJl; Alktn.iT.ii.lS4; Stkiri. mi £v^- ^- 
ii4W9.) Itooluiiadk^niutlwealUnof the 
naoi b tlu Oljiipk guno. and otbei thiDgi 
•nactad TiA tkn. (Benkaidj, p. 217. Ac) 
AaMg bii pwiiaatici voiki m modca Uiat 



ESOINUS. 47 

caitli, tlmiB^ which tba ihala* gut iota Hadei. 
(Hiini.Jl.ni.p.38a; camp.HADn. [L. 3.] 
EnSCBTHBUS. [Euchthoniub.] 
E'BBSUB ('Efmnit), a im of Muw, fiom 
whom lbs tows of Enau in LobcM deiiTed ita 
Baiiia. (Staph. Byi. «. v.) A Ncond otherviiia 
ukDown paioa of tbii nuu wai [laiiiled in ths 
Hcha at DdphL (Paul. i. 27.) [L. B.] 

EREUTUA'LION CEpfiifaMw), an Anadian, 
bo, in Iha aimoni of Aioitboiu, which Ljcnirui 
had giTon him, fought a^urt the Pjliuu, but 
WH >lun bj Nertot. (Hon. IL it. S19, viL 131, 
ftc) [L. &] 

EROA'HENES ['Eerfoi^ni,), a king of Mt- 
Toe, an Ethiopinii by biith, bat who bad noaiTad 
■ On«k edaeatian. Ha waa the Ant who orcr- 
thnw tbt powK of the priMa, whith had baen 




I J portiana «f the fint 
lo Ibe (Xd Onnadj. Afiar thu 
vat ncBOBEtim, Ewtaatb en ea diwuaed the 
•wki <f the priDDpal conie »eti thtoaalTaa, Hch 
» *"-t'"~*'. Cratuiw, Eupolii, Phemiatei, 
•■' ithai, antaing into delailad critidBn, and 
pTBf eiqikBalioBa both ctf thair language and tho 
■iJKli of their oaBcdiea. We atjl] poanM a oon- 
■iniUi BBoibv of fr^manti til diii work (col- 
lBBgloBanhari;,£e.Fp.30£— 237); and famn 
■^ h «ra ahonl AiiatMhane^ it ii sTideDt that 
^ jndfanl wna aa aoond ai hb infonnatkia wai 
"itain. He ia Autba nid to han been engaged 
a lb oilkia and aiplaoatiaD of the Ho 
POi, aad to bue wiittv on the life aod pi 
■Mrf that poet; bnt nothing certain ii h 
■ lUi ROBCL For moia complete liM* of the 



A-MttBenhaidj. [L.Sl] 

EBATOSTHBNES SCHOLA'STICUS, the 
•nhia rf bv epigiaiis in the Qcedc Anthology 
(Bnuck. Jmat, Tid. iiL p. 12S ; l^ab*, mL It. p. 
M). (> which m^ bt added, on the anlhority 
c Ui Vatican Ha, a Afth, whieb atanda in the An- 
<Mkgj Mong theae sf Panl the SUenliirr (No. 
U^ la afl probability, Etatoathenei lired nader 
■b aapenc Jnatiiuan. (Jaooba, AaU. Oraee. 
nL an. p. 8»0 ; Fabiic. Bibl. Graei!. toL i 
^«*.> [P. 8.] 

EHATtrSTRATCS. [Hiaa«Ta*Ti;B.] 
rRATUS i'Epati,), a aon of Henelea by 
%a«iii, waa king of Aigoa, and made ■ 
loAl mmHtiaa againK Anne, whicb wi 
■^ Bd tafcaiL (Apollod. IL 7. § S ; Pan*, ii. 
Kji.) [L.S.] 

E-KEBOS CEf^Cco), a »a of Cbaoa. begot 
AahcTa^H(BaabyNTx.hii iiitcr. (Uaiod. 
711^133.) Hygina* (Foi. p. 1 ) and Cioeta (da 
Ait Our. m, 17) coBDMnta many penoniJica- 
t>«* ef abMiact notiaiB aa the o&]mng of £raboi. 
^ Bae dgnifiea dirirn>a». and u tliaefna ap- 
lU iln ta the daik Bid gioomy ipGa under '' 



_ deipolio aatboiitT. He wai omtanponry with 
Ptolcay Philadalplina, bat we know nothing of 
tba relation* in which he itood toward* that miai- 
arch. Hii name ha* been diioovend in die 
bierogljphio* Bt Daklteh, whence it i« inferred that 
hii dofainiani extended a* 6a north a* that point. 
(Diod. iii. 6 ; I>rDy■a^ H il b io mua , loL ii. p. 49, 
278.) [E. H. B.] 

E'SQANE (V^dim) C9 B'ROATIS, that it, 
ths worker, a nunanie of Athena, who waa be- 
lisirsd to presida OTer and initnct man in all kind* 
of am. (Pan*. *. 14. f 5, L 24. $ S| PIdL de 
Fort. p. S9, a-i HeaycL j.o.) (L. S.] 

E'ROIAS ('E^tIm) of Rhode*, it mentioned ai 
the aatLor of a work on hi* natire iiland. (Atben. 
Tiii. p. 360.) Oeaner and otben are of opinioD 
that Ergiaa i* the tame penon aa Erxiaa, who wai 
the author of KoAa^anaBL (Alhen. liii. p. £61.) 
^t which of th* two name*, Ei^ia* or Erxiaa, i» 
the correct one, cannot be detennuied. [L. S.} 

EROl'NUS {'Efiymi), a wn of OymenDi and 
Boiyge Of Bodeia, wa* kuig of Oitbomeno*. After 
Clymenai waa killed by Perierei at ths fntiTal of 
the Oncheitian Poieidon, Eiginni, hi* eldest sou, 
who mccseded bim a* king, undertook to aTsnge 
the death of hit father He marched againat 
Thebei, and luipaaaing the enemy in the number 
of hii honemeu, he killed many Thebani, and 
oompeUed them lo a tnnly, in which they bound 
thettuelre* to pay him for twenty year* an annual 
iribaleof lOOoien. Heracie* once met the herald* 
of Erginua, who ware going to demand the usual 
tribute : he cut off their tan and doki, tied their 
hand* behind their heck*, and thu* *eul them to 
Erginna, laying that thi* wa* hi* tribole. Erginui 
now nndsitook a aecDnd expeditiDn against Thshes, 
but was debated and ilwn by Heiacle*, whom 
Athena had pronded with aimi. (Apollod. ii. 4. 
§11; Diod.iT. 10; Strab. ii. p.414; Burtalh. iirf 
Horn. f. 372 : Enrip. Htn. /mr. 220 ; Theocrit. 
itilOfi.) Paa*aniaa(ii.37.g2,Ac}.whoagTees 
with ths other writtn in the fint part of the my- 
thn*. *tate*, that Erginn* made peace with Hera- 
cles, and devoted all hi* energy to the promotioD 
of the pcospsrity of hii kingdom. In this manner 
Eninns airiTSd at an adfanced age without baring 
either wile or diildrsn : but. a* he did not wish 
say longer to lin alone, be coftinitad the Delphic 
«acle, niiicb adnaad huD to lake a yonthiiil wife. 
This he did. and bscams by her th* father of Tro- 
phoaiui and Agamedei, or, according to Euatathiu* 
lit.) of Aien*. Etginni ii alao mentioned among the 
Aigooauti, and ii lud i« hate ■unaeded Tiphy* 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



a ERICHTHONIUS. 

u belnumm. (ScksL ai ApoBam. Hkod. i. 18S, ii. 
d9S.) Vrhto Um AigmiMiU took put in tlia fii- 
nenl game* whidi Hnaipjia c*lebnt«d U Lam- 
DM in hownic of lu* htbtt Tliau, Eniniii ■!» 
contended 6a ■ ptiw ; bM be m* ridiciJed b; the 
Lennian women, bacatua, tbough >till yonng, be 
had gnjr hur. HoveveT, hs canqnend ths una 
of Bona* in the feol'nce. (Pind. OL it. 29, &c, 
widi the Scbd.) I^ler tndiuoni repreient oar 
ErginiU oa ■ Hileuan ftnd a kd of Poieidon. 
(Apolkm. Rhod. L IGi, &e. ; Orph. At^im. ISO ; 
Apollod.L9. gl6; Hfgin. Ai. U; eoni[k Hol- 
ler, Ordnm. p. 179, Ac 2nd edit.) [L. 8.] 

EROI'NUS CEfiJm), a 9yri»i Qnefc, who 
batimjed the citadel e! Corinth into the handi of 
Aiatna, b; informing him of a teciet path bj 
which it wai aBZMibla. For thi* Mrriee he re- 
eeind 60 talent* fnm Antto*. At a inbaeqaeat 



AntiEonni Gonatai : bnt Sulad 

which waa diaarowed bj Aratu. (Pint. Ami. 

cc 18—22,33.) [E. H. a] 

ERIBOEACEfitf™)- Then an three nTtfaical 
penonaftea of thii name. One waa the wife of 
Atoeu (Horn. tL t. 385, Ac), the aecond the wife 
of Telamon (Soph. Ajiic, 66S; Find. /iCba. tL 42), 
and the Ibird an Amaum. (Diod. iv. 16.) [L.S.J 

ERIBOTES [•Ifititn^), the aon of Teleon, 
wu one of the Armnanta, and ancan to hare 
acted a* inrgeoD, aa he ii repnaenled ai attending 
on Oileua when he wu woonded. (ApoUon. 
Rbod. Arym. L 73, IL 1040 ; Hygia. Fai. 14 ; 
Valer. Flais. Aryix^) [W. A.G.] 

ERICHTHO'NIUS (Vx«™')- 1- There 
can be little doubt bat that the namea Erichthonina 
and Erecblheo* an identical ; bat whether the 
two heme* mentiooed by Plato, Hjginm, and 
ApoUodoru, the one of whom ia utiially called 
Ericbthooia* or Erechlheni I. and the other Eredi- 
Ihetu II., an likewite one and the aame penon, aa 
3IUlleT(OraloiiLp. 117,2dedit.)and other* think, 
ia not ao certain, thoogh highly probable. Homer 
XIL ii. St7,&c, Orf. viL 81) knowa only one 
Eiechtheoi, u an antocbtbon ud king of Athena ; 
and the first writer who diatjngniihei two peraon- 
■gea ia Plato. (CriL p. 110, a.) The slorj of 
^hlhoniui ia related tbni: When Hephaa*tiu 
wiihed to embrace Athena, and the goddeai re- 
pnieed him, he became hj Qe oi by Attbia, the 
daa^lcr of Crvwia, the father of a aon, who liad 
either completely or only half the form of a aar- 
pcDt Athena reend Ihii being withoat the know- 
ledge of the other god*, bad him guarded by a 
dngoD, and then entnuted bim to Agraolo*, Pan- 
droaoa, and Herae, concealed in a cheat, and fop- 
bada them to open it. (Hygtn. Poet. .iifr. ii 13.) 
Bat thia command wai neglected ; and on opening 
the cheat and eeeiog the cSild in the form of a *e> 
pent, or entwined by a aerpent, they were ui»d 
with madnen, and threw ihemselve* down the 
rock of the acropalia, or, according to other*, into 
the *«. The aeipent evaped into the ibi^ of 
Athena, and waa protected by her. (Apollod. iiL 
lt.§6; Hygiit./'ui. 166; Pan*. L 2. gS, 18. §2i 
Entip. lot, 260, Ac ; Oi. MO. ii. 664.) When 
Eritithoniu* had grown np, he expelled Amphio- 
tyon, and omrped the goTemment of Athou, and 
hia wife Paaithea bore bim a eon Pandion. (Apol- 
lod. La.) He ia aaid to haTe inCndnced the wor- 
•hip of Allwna, to h*T« imtiluled the faMiTal of 



the Paaathemut, and to have bnilt a temple of 
Athena on iba ■oopoUa. Whan Athena and Po- 
aaidon diapnted about the poaaeedon of Attica, 
Erichtbonn* daolared in faTonr of Athena. (Apol- 
bd. iiL 14. f 1.) He wai further the fint who 
need a chanot with four boraet, lor wbidi reaaon 
ha waa placed anumg the atara aa aariga (Hygin. 
P. A. Lc; Viig. Oaof^. i. 205, iiL 113; Aatian, 
F. H. iii. 38); and lattly, ha waa baljered to hare 
made the Athenian* acqoainted with the nae of 
iilTer, which had been diiooTered by the S^thian 
king Indoa. (Hygm. Fob. 274.) He waa buried 
in Ue temple of Athena, and hi* vnahip on the 
■cropoU* waa connected with that of Athena and 
Poaeidon. (Apollod. iiL 14. $8; Sun. ad Atu. tii. 
761.) Hii famouB temple, the Enchtheium, alood 
on the acTopolia. and in it then wen thne allan, 
one of Poaeidon, on which ■aerifioe* were oSocd 
to Erechthen* aleo, the eecond of Bute*, and the 
third of Mephaeelo*. (Pui. i. 26. % 6.) 

Enchlbeoa 1 1., a* be ia called, ii deaetibed aa • 
gnndaon of the fint, and a> a ion of Pandian bf 
Zeniippe, ao that he waa a brother of Bntca, 
Procne, and Philomela. (Apollod. iiL 14. § Sj 
Paat.Lfi. §3.) After hi* btbtr^ death, be aw 
oeeded bim aa lung of Athma, and wm n^puded 
in later timee aa one of the Attic epoormL He 
waa married to Piaiithca, ^ whom he bacane the 
bthei of Cflcnp*, Pandoroa, Helion, Omena, 
Procrii, Crenn, Chthonia., and Oreithyia. (Apol- 
lod. iiL 16. § 1 ; Pan*. IL 2G. g E; Or. MtL n. 
676.) Hi* fbnr danghteta, wbota name* and 
whoee itorie* diSer raiy much in the diSennt tra- 
dition*, *Knei among themaelTei to die all together, 
if one of them waa to die. When Eamolpaa, the 
aon of Poaeidon, whoie aiaiatance the Elaoainian* 
had called in agsinit the Athenian*, had been 
killed by the latter, Poaeidon or an oracle dsnand- 
ed the aacriGce of otie of the danghten of Eredi- 
then*. When one waa drawn by lot, the otfaen 
Tolnntarily accompanied her in death, and Erech- 
thena bimaelf waa kiUed by Zeoa with ■ fiaah of ' 
hgbtning at the request of PoMidon. (Apollod. iiL 
16.**; Hygin. /"oi. 46, 238 ; Pint " — " -- 
alAoH.20.) In hi* war with the r 
i* al*o *ajd to hare killed Immaiadua, tbe na of 
Eumolpn*. (Pana L 5. $ 2 i eomp. AtWAttLoa.) 
According to Diodonia (i. 29), Erecbtheua waa aa 
E^ptian, who during a fiunine brought atn to 
AUiene, in*titated the wonbip of Dameter, and 
"leadnian myderiea. , 

A aon of Dardanna and Bateia. He waa tbe 
hnaband of Artyoche or Callinhoe, and bther of 
Tioa or Aatancna, and the wealtbieat of all moitala, 
for 3000 mare* graiod in hi* field*, which were ao 
beantitol, that Borea* fell in lore with then. He 
i* mentioned alee among the king* of Crete- (Horn. 
-■ :. 220, &C. ; ApcSod. iiL 12. g 2 i Dionya. 
J Or. niX. IT. 33; Stn.adAm. TiiL 130 ; 
Strab. liiL p. 604.) [L. S.] 

ERl'DANUS ('HpOant), a riTel god, a aon of 

Oceauoaand Teth7*,and htbar of Zeniijma. (He- 

■iod. Tlaog. 338; Hygin. Ftib. 14.) Ha i* ailed 

tbe king of rirec*, and on ita bank* amber warn 

found. (Virg.Oear9.L482;OT.JUrf.iL324.) In 

Homei the name doe* not occnr, and the firat writer 

who mentioni it i* Hedod. Herodotn* <iiL IS) 

decUre* (he name to be baifaaroua, and the iii*Bi- 

ifaamepoaL (Comp.Strab.T.p.216.) The 

on which the andant poela aaaign b> the 

Eridaoni diOmd U diffarent tine*. [U S.] 



LFanO. Gr. 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



ZRroONB I^Jtfrj*m.) 1. A dui^tei oi 
IcDiD^ ifdand bj Baflehni, vba cmnw into ber 
bks-i ksBK. (Or. MtL n. US; Hj^ Fai. 
IM; cnpL lUMDK.) 

Z. A diugbla of Aegutbu and Oytoaiiimtn, 
ml hf Omla the madMr of Pectbiliu. (Paiu. 
ill (A) Hrtio" (Fl<*. !M), on the o' 
lal, iriUn thu Onata nnUd la kill fan 
ts Botkei, but tliml Aitemii mnOTed bit to 
Ki, ud llien nude htt ha priettM*. Othen 
■K. ikM Engaw pat >t> cud to henelf vfaen abe 
hard tint Ornla wn •eqvitted b j the AreiBpagai 
(Difl.Crrt.Ti.4.) A thirf Erigone i» mentioned 
b; Seniu. (Jd F^. £%. it. 6.) [L. S.] 
ERI'GONLIS, orifiiiiaOT ■ eolont^grindsT to ll 
pxia NmIk*, obliiiMd M Btach knovledm of 
!n DHtn\ art, tluil be beome the lacher la die 
(drlniid Hmtcr Paaiu, the btotha of the nia- 
i>Bij AtgiBUm. (Plia. zizt. 11, i. 40. $ 41.1 
FriD tliii Hatonent it follnwi tbil be SDuiiahed 
ibHiKc240. [Anomrrj.] [P- S.J 

ERIOT'IUS (tfhvuH, 'EfyOn), a Mytile- 
■on, Ml of I^iehiu, nj an officer in Alexaii- 
ia*i irej. He had bera driven into baoiahiDent 
^ PKSp became of Ua Uthful altichiDent to 
.Uouder, and ntanied when the latter ome to 
l^tbnoe ina.c336. At the battle of AtMa, 
L (■ Ul, he coramaiuled the earaliy of the alliea, 
■ he did abo when Aleixndcc aet out fnm £c- 
^aa bi ponait of Danhu, B. c S30. In the 
■■f Ttar Eijgjiiu wa* entnited with the eom- 
■ul gf ane irf the tbret diTiiiona with which 
Unndet isTaded Hyrania, and ha waa, too, 
EaxtiegeiHnUaaBnIagainatSatibBnaneiiVbam 
^•Itirb battle with hii own hand. (Carxnu8, 
^1 It Id 329, together with Cntenu and 
BfliiartiMi, and bj the aaaiatance of AiiMandei 
^ mlba^, he endaiooRd ta duanade Atei- 
■der 6>iD cnnaina the Jajtartca againft the Se;- 
^■B. In 328 ^ &□ in Isttle ^ainaC the 
^tin fagrtiiM. (Arr. ^aai. iiL 6, 1 1, 30, 23, 
^».i; OM. iTiL 57; Cuit. n. 4. S 3. <ii- 3. 
f i 1. H S2-40. 7. BS 6-29, riii. 2. a 40.) [B. E.] 
EBINNA ('Hpuva). There aeem to bare been 
'•'Onek pccteaaea of thia name. 1. A contem- 
f^ and bind of S^pho (abml B, c 612), 
•^ diid at the age of nineteen, bnt left behind 
^ pacBi which were thought w»rtbf to rank 
<U tboae ef Homer. Her poerat were of the epic 
*■: the diirf of them waa entitled 'HAaiotri, 
*> M*^: it eonnaled of three hundred line*, of 
■^ onlj fmr are extant. (Stab. Flor. ciyilL 1; 
iica. lii. p.S83,d.; Bergk. Pott Ljrr. Grant, p, 
«)^) II WH written b 1 dialect which waa a 
c^aSaa of the Doric and Aei^c, and which waa 
T^ at Rbodea, where, or in the adjacent idand 
<< TFiaa, Eiinna waa bom. She ia alao called a 
I^aai BDd a MjCilenaean. on account of her re- 
■xicBce ii Leaboa with S^ipho. { Svidaa, t. e. ,- 
'Kalih. MR. a. 726, ^ 126.) There are aereral 
yVBOi upon Erinna, m which ber pniae ia ce- 
'^nifd, and her untiBKly death ia lamented. 
(Bniiiek.J«LToLLp.241,n.81,p.218,D.S5,<n>LiL 
f.ll,iLt7,Tel.Si.p.361,n.623,£24,TaLu.p.4G0.) 



^ bf Taiin. {Ont. ai Orate. G2, pL 113, 
Wwtk.) Three fpitniiH in the OiediADlbologT 
niacnMtolMt (ani^Jaii(tnLLp.5S; /» 



EHIS. 49 

coba, Tol. i. p, SO), of which the firat hfta the genuine 
air of antiquitfi bnt the other two, addieaaed to 
flauda, aeem to be a later hbiic&tiaa. She had a 
place in the Qariamd of Melrager (t. 1 2). 

2. A Orack poeleaa, who, if we may belieTe 
Enaebiiu (Ciirw Ant., SyncelL p. 260, a., Hirmti. ) 
waa conteraporarj with Demoathenei and Philip of 
MBCedon,in01.1D7, B.C3J2. Sereral good acho- 
Ian, howerer, reject Ihi* lUtement altogether, and 
onlj allow of one Erinna. (Fabric BiU. Oraec tol. 
iL p. ISO; Welcker, dt £Via», Coriaaa, ^ in 
Cieozer'i MdtlaMala, pt ii. p. 3; Ricbter, SafjAa 
•Bui Srima; Schoeidewin, Dtlai. Poa. Grate. 
Eltg. jfc, p. 323 ; Idem, in Zimmeimann'a Zal- 
•oii^ fiir dii AUerUKmtuiiMatMKiqfi, 1837, p. 
209; Bod^Goal. d. HdL DiM. toL ii. pt. 2, 
p. 44a) [P. k-\ 

ERIKNYES. r£o>"Hii>An.] 
ESIO'PIS ('£fwni). There are Ibar mythical 
raonagea of thia name. (Horn. /J. liiL 697; 
Sehol. ad Pmi. Pf&. iii. U ; Pana. ii. 3. $ 7 ; 
Heajch...B.) [L.S.] 

ERI'PHANIS CHfH^fi), a melic pDete»i,and 
anther of erotic poetry. One partjcular kind of 
lore-aong w>i called after hu ; but only one line of 
faar'a ia preaerred in Albenaent (xir. p. 619), the 
only ancient antfaor thsit mentiona her. [L. S.] 

ETIIPHUS fEfi^i), an Athenian comic poet 

of the middle comedy. AKaiding to Athenaenithe 

le aame lime a* AntiphiLiica,oronlyalilt]a 

1 he cojued whole Teraea fnna Antiphanra. 

belan^d to the middle conKdj, ia adfll- 

denlty ahewn by the extant titlei of hia pUya, 

namely, At>\er, Kitdtma, niXio^nft. Euatathiut 

{ad Hoot. p. 1GB6. 43) calla hnn t^ua ii^p. 

(Athen. ii. p.S8,a., iii. p. 84, b.c. It. pp. 134. c, 

1 37, d.. Til p. 303, c XV. p. 693, c ; Antiatt. 

p. 98.26; Suidaa, K I!. ,' EDdoe.p.lG7: Meineke, 

fhig. Cam. Orate. tdI. i. pp. 430, 421, iiL pp. 

S56 — 558 ; Fabric BSJ. Orate. voL ii. pp. 441, 

443.) [P.S.] 

ERIPHY'LE (^fdxn), a daughter ot ToUua 

id Lyaimache, and tbe wife of Azuphiarana, whom 

aha betrayed t6r the aake of the necklace of Ha> 

monia. ( Horn. Od. li. 326 ; Apollod. l 9. f 3 i 

AIIFBua«l'^ Alcuaun, Hirhonia.) [L. 3.J 

ERIPHY'LUS, a Greek rhetorician, who ig 

mentioned by QnintUian (i. 6. § 4), but ia others 

■» unknown. [L. S.] 

ERIS C^o), the gcddeaa who alia forth war 

and diacord. According to the Iliad, ahe wanders 

oat, at Grat onall and ituignilicanl, but ahe (oon 

lea beibead up tohcBTen (ir. 441). She i a the 

end and nater of Area, and wilh him abe de- 

hta in the tumult of war, increuing the moaning 

mcn.(iT.445,T.51S.ix.4B.) She it intaliable 

her deaire for bloodahed, aid after all the other 

goda hate withdrawn from the battte-lielit, the 









ir tbe hi 



[t. fil8,ii. 3,&c.,73.) According to He- 
(TjhA^. 225, Jic.), (he waa a daughter of 
Nigh^ and the poet deacrihea her aa the niatbet 
of a lariety of allegorical beinga, which are (he 
canin or repreaentaiiTct of man^a miaforlnnea. It 
waa Eris who threw the apple into the aaaembty 
of the goda, the eaoae of m much aoflering and 
war. [Paris.] Viigil inlroducei DiKardia a> a 
the Homeric Eiia; for Ditcordia 






rith i 



a, Bellou. 



, and Virgil ia eridently imiiating Homer. 
(.laa.TiiL 702 ; Sen. od^fea. L 31,Ti. 280.) [L.S.i 



KRItTNlUS CEfxg^ixi) DT ERINNES. the 
piei at gocd fortiuie, occun u b lunuunc of Hec~ 
me*, but » iIm utcd u i proper nuie initml o! 
Ilennn. (Horn. JJ. iiir. 440, 157, Od. viiL 323; 
Aijitoph. Sai. 1U3.) [L. 3.] 

ERO'PHILUS, a dirtingniihiid engimTsr of 
gemt, wu the ean of Dioicoridet. He lived, there- 
fort, njider the cazlj Remen eiDpeiw^ He la odIj 
known by & beiutiCul gem, bouing the head of 
Aaguitui, on ifbich hu mune appeui, though 
puUiQ; defiued. (Hererco Winckclmum, b. li. 
c. 2. i IB. AMUiagat, No. 92 ; Uliller, Arrh. d. 
K«ut,%^m,n.l.) [P. S.] 

ERCrPON, ui olficH ID the conEdenca of 
PerMm, lung of Muedonia, who tent him in B. c 
16S to n^Dtiata in alliuice with EumeDet 11^ 
king of Pergunui, againit the Rociana. Livy 
layi thai Eropon had been vngeged before on 
aecrelKTrioearfthevnMnataKi. (Ur. ilir. 24, 
27, 28.) Thii nunc ihonld perhiqn be uibetitnted 
fur KpiKpiirTa in Folrb. uii. 3. (E. E.] 

EROS C^4"')< ■" tatin. AMOR or Cl'PI'DO, 
the god of lore. In the Kate in which he i* luu- 
allj conceiied, Eroi u the ueatuie of the later 
Onek poet* ; and b order to undentaod the an- 
ctente properlj we muil dlMinguiih three Erolet : 
Til. the Ena of the ancient coNoogonlH, the £n>i 
nf the philoaophei* and iDjitenei, who bam gnat 
reaemblimce to the fint, tni' ' " 
meet vith in tile epigiamnuCic and erotic poeti, 
irhow witty and playful deicriptioDi of the gsd, 
howcrer, can acarcely be coniideied ai a port of 
the ancient ivhgioDt briief of the Greek*, llamer 
doei not mention En», and Heiiod, the eariieit 
ulhor that m 
coemogonic En 
&e,), there wi 

and Eroa, the &ireit among tbe goda, wbo 
over the minda and the council ofgodi and 
In thit acconnt we alnady perceire a combination 
of the mo«l andent with later nolioni. According 
to the former, Enn waa one of the fbndamento] 
CBoaea in the formation of the worid, inaamach ai 
ha wu tbe uniting power of loie, which 
order and harmony among the conflicting tlemeata 
of which Chaoa cooiiited. In the iiuDe melaphy- 
aiea] aenae he ia conceived by Ahatotle (jlfeJafiA. L 
4)l and aimilarl; in the Oipbic poetry (Orph. 
Hymn. S; comp. Arialoph. An G9i) he ia de- 
Kribed u tbe Brat of the godi, who aprang from 
the world'a egg^ In Plolo'a Sympoaium(p.l7a,b) 
he ia likewiae cailled the oldeal of the goda. Il ia 
quite in acconlance with the notion of the coamo- 
gonic Eroa, that ho ii deacribed u a aon of Cnnoa 
and Qe, ot Eileithyia, or aa a god who had no 

f^a. a. c. 27.) The Em of later poela, on the 
other hand, who gave riae to that notion of tbe 
god which ia moat bmiHar to ut, ia one of the 
youngeat of all tbe goda. (Paua. t. c ; Cic de \Qt 
Dear. iii. 23.) Tbe pnzmlage of the aecond Eroa 
it very differently deecribed, for he ia caUed a eon 
of Aphrodile (^tbet Aphrodite Urania oi Aphro- 
dite Pandemoa), <v Poiymnia, or a ton of Ponit 
and Penbi, who waa begottan <m Aphrodite^ birth- 
day. (Plat. He.,' Sett. Eof. adv. AtaA i. MO.) 
Aecardina; to other genealogiM, again, Eiea waa ■ 
■on of Herme* by Artemu or Aphrodite, or of 
Area hy Aphrodite (Cic. <1> Kat. Dior. iiL 23), or 
of Zephynu and Iria (Pint. AmaL 20 ; Euatath. 
ad Htm, f, 555), or, laitly, ■ too of Zea by hit 



danglilet Aphrodite, ao that ZetU w>a at once 

hit father andgnndhther. (Virg.Ci'r. 134.) Eroi 

I lliia aloge it alwaya cwnceired and waa alwsyt 
!pieaented at a handionie yooth, and il it not 

II about after the time of Aleiasdet the Great 
that En» ia repreeented by the epigiaramatiatt and 

poeta oa a wanton boy, of whom a thou- 
tand tiickt and crael aporti are related, and imai 
whom neidier godt nor men were i^ He it 
genenlly deacribed at a ton of Aphrodite ; hut aa 



T which 

acribe him at of unknown origin (Theocrit. liiL 3], 
or they ny that he had indeed a mothv, but not 
a bther. (Meleagr. Epigr.&li.} In thia atage Eroa 
baa nothing to do wi^ uni^ng the ditcoidant ele- 
menta of the unirene, or the higher aympalby sr 
love which binda human kind together; bat he ia 
purely the god of teninal lore, who heart away 
over tlie inhabilanta of Olymput at w^ at orer 

tigcn, breaka the thunderbolta of Zeot, depritea 
Hemclei of hia acmt, and carriet on hit ipoit 
with the iDoniten of the tea. (Orph. Hyam. S7 : 
Virg. E/ia/. I. 29; Moich. Id^ n. 10; Theociit. 
iii. 15.) Kit armt, contiating of aixowt, which be 

one can touch with impunity. (Match. /i^^l. n.; 
TheoeriLxiiii. 4; Oy. Triri: v. 1, 22.) Hit ar- 
roBi are of different power ; tome are golden, and 
kindle love in the heart they wound ; othen ai 



It and heavy with lead, ai 






(Ov. MeL i. 468 ; Eurip. fpUg. Ami, 
548.) Eret ia fuilber lefmented with golden 
wingt, and aa Hottering about like a bird. (Comp. 
Enatath. ad Him. p. 987.) Hb eye* are tome- 
btindiy. - 



:0.) He I 



HoM. p. 987.) 
L. to that he a< 



thei 



I of hit m 



Aphrodite, and poeta and a 
moreover, at accompanied by auchallegoricBl being* 
aa Pothoi, Himetot, Dionytnt, Tyche, Peithcs tha 
Chaiite* or Hiuea. (Pind. (H. L 41 ; Anacr. 
iiiiiL 8 ; Heaiod, TiMg. 201 ; Pan*, vi. 24. f 5, 
vii. 26. $3, L43. $6.) Hit ttatus and that of 
Heimea naually itood in tbe Oteek gymnstia. 
(Athen. iiii.p. £51; Euitalh. «f //on. p. 1596.) 
We muai etpedally notice the conneiioD of 
Eroa with Anlcroa, with which pertoni ntnally con- 
nect the notion of ^Lore ntumed." Bnt originally 
Anterot waa a being oppoaed to Erot, and £ghtliig 
againit him. (Paut. L 30. $ I, tL 23. i 4.) Thi* 
conflict, however, wai alao conceived at the rivalry 
exitting between two lorcri, and Anleroa aecord- 
ingly punithed thoae wbo did not return the love 
of othen ; to that he it the avenging £[», or a 
dtu uZfor. (Pant. L 30. $ 1 ; Ut. AftL liii. 750, 
&c.i Flit. Fiatdr. p. 255, d.) Tha nnrabu of 
Erotet (Amorea and Cnpidinea) ia playfully ex- 
tended ad libitum by later poeti, and theie Emtei 
are deicribed either at lont of Aphrodite or o< 
ojmpha. Among tbe placet dittinguiahed for their 
wonhip of Eroa, Thetpiae in Boeotia ttandi fbre- 
mott 1 there hit wonhjp waa very anuent, aitd the 
old repreientation of the god wat a rude atnne 
(Pant. iz. 27. £ 1), to which in later timea, bow- 
erer, the mott eiquiaile workt of art were added. 
( Euitath. ad Ham. p. 266. ) At The^Ue a quin- 
quennial fettival, the Erottdia or Efotia, were cele- 
brated in hououi of the god. (Paua. Le.; Alhen. 
liiL p. 561.) Betidei Sparta, Samua, and PaiioD 
on the HeUetpont, ha wat alao wonhipped at 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



KBOTIANUa 

AAiaa, wbcn he hid in ilMr at ths enCnncs of 
tkAodoaj. (Pnti. L 30. g 1.) Ac H(«>i> hii 
niB, ligc^ with thiMe of HinHin ud Potha, 
and B the toiple irf Aphndils. (P«u.i.43, S 6, 
CDB^ iii. 26. g 3, tL 24. § 5, lii. 26. § 3.) 
Aniag tht thmgi aovd la Emt, Mid whkh be- 
qvntij fpoF with him in wo^ of ul* we niBy 
BatiM the ZQK, wild beiti which are tuoed bj 
his, (ha han, the cock, and the lam. En* VM a 
faniriu aobjeet with the anoenl atataarin, bat 
U nTwn'atinii mtrmi la bars been broa^E to 
fsfartiaa br Praiitdea, who conceiTed him at a 
M^owu ;«Lh of the moat peilect beast;. (Lq. 
oo. Ja. IL 17 i Plin. If. N. cxxri. 4, S.) la 
h«c taaea anUu Moved the axamiJe of poeti, 
ml inpieaented him a* ft little bo;. (iiut,MfHoL 
BiJ^S.f.2lS,lx.\ VitiekeT, Zatm*hfl fir 
^^Kmd,f.ili.) Rwpecting the connexioo 
knwo £na and Pajcba, aee PinrcHi. [L, S.] 
EROS ("EpM) Mton in thrat ancient Imtht 

■a cf vftsm it Bppoaed to hare been phjaician 
^B JiEa, the danghto- of the aafom AD|ru>nit. 
^Tkn ia «Rant a ihott woric, wriUen m bad 
Luio, aad entitled " Cnrandarmn Aegiitudinom 
Jlah^nmi anle et poet Fartnm Libtf nniciia,'' 
lUch haa ■omeumea beea alUibnled to ElM. 
T^ Ujle, howera, and the bd that wrilfra are 
IMed ia it who liicd long after the time of 
AifnulBi, proTC that thia aoppoailion ia not eoirecL 
\\ hit alio be«l attfibuted to a female njuned 
Imsla. Older vhoae name it ii gounllf qaoled ; 
^C.O. Otuner, who haa examined tbe inbject 
B a diiaeitation ontilled " Neqoe Ekm, neqne 
TntuU. aed Salemitaniia qiudara Medicu, iaque 
Cbn-tiBima, Anctor libelli eat qui De Morbu 
Mtlimm inacnbitor" (Jenae, 1773, ito.), pKiTea 
ihl thia abo ia ineomcL The work ia of Ter; 
iilt njne, and ia indaded in the Aldine collec- 
Im, HtitJed '^ Medici Anliqiii Dmnea qni Latinia 
liBia.'' &t, foL, VeneC 1547, and in the coUeo- 
tbe uf wiitoa ** Oynaecinnm," or ** on Female 
Oaaiar BaaL tto, 1566. It ma alio pabliihed 
ia lilt, Lipi. flTc, together with H. KoinDtann, 
■Ite Virginnm Stato," *c. [W.A.O.] 

EROTIAIIUS CEfWTioHd), or, at lio ii lomo- 
^aa tailed, Htrodiama {'Upmiuvit), the anihor 
•' 1 Greek woik itill extant, entitled Tw wa^ 
Imnfint A^HH- Z^a^irpt, Vocmm, ^mae apad 



H"blj 
aClhT. 



^30. bet he appeAn to baTe written (or at leait to 
bn ialended to wiile) lome otbei woiki Da Hip- 
pvUea bedde* that which we now pOHeu (pp. 
"■ "■" A F«n.l He mait bare lived (and 
at Rome] in the reign of the empemr 
o.hi — 68, aa fail work ia dediated to hia 

itieM liM ef the wHcingi of Hippocralei 
'H miia, in whidi we Gad tbe titlea of aereral 
I>BIiaa BOW kM, and alao miia aereral that now 
Wa jtn of the Hippacniic collection. The leit 
-' ■'■- —iric cbumU of a ^otmrj, ia which the 

a M preaent arnuued in a partiaJl; 
•TBoeual Banner, thongh it apptan that thji 
>°de (f arrangemoil ia not that which waa adopted 
hT the aathor hinK!£ It wai fiiat pohliihed in 
(inck, tm, 1M4, Paiii. in H. Btiphani Dtctiom- 
"OK J f a Jicni i ; a Latin tranalatioa bj Barth. 
E«»ehiaa atipeaied in 1566, 410, Veael. ; the 
lMudbert«ditaii*(hatb7Fiui,lJpa. 1760, 



ERYHANTHUS. SI 

Std., Greek and Latin, containing alio (lie glo*. 
■aiiea of Galea and HerodotiM, a learned and 
copumi commeataiy, and good indicea. It hat alio 
beea publiabed wilh lome editiona of the work* of 
Hippocralet. [W. A. G.] 

ERiyriUS, Tiouint and qnaeetor, one of the 
commiHioa of Sixteen, appointed by Theodouiu 
in A. a. 43S, (o compile the Theodoaitn Code. 
He doei not appear, however, to have taken any 
dialinguiihed put in ita compoaitian. [DioDonus, 
Tol. Lp-IOIB.] [J.T. 0.] 

ERU'CIA GENS, plebeian. Only one member 
of thia geni it mentioned ia the time of the repub- 
lic, aamely.C.Eniciai, the acctuerof StLcRoaciutot 
Ameria, whom Cieero defended in h. c 80. Prom 
Cicero"! account he wonld appcM to have been a 
man of low origin. (Cic pm Asis. 13,16,18 — 
1\, 29, 33.) Hii name alio appean ai one of (he 
ucuaen af L. Varenua, who wai likewiie defended 
fay Cicero, bnt in what year it nncertaio. [Va- 
aiHUs.] He waa caUad by Cicero in hia apeedi 

orator Antoaiui. (Cic. Fragm. pro Varm. S, p. 
443, ed. Orelli.) The Ericint ('EflKioi) who ii 
mentionad by Plntarch [SulL 16, 13) ai one of 
Snlla'a legatee in the Hithridalic wni, ia luppoted 
by Dimnann {Gmck. Eonu, vol. iii. p. GB) to be a 
fJie reading lai Hirtiut, but we DugBl peihapi to 
read Eridna. 

Under the empire, ia the aecond cenlnry after 
Chiiat, a bmily of the Erucii of the name of Clorut 
attained coniideiable diitinctioo. [Clahub.] 

E'RXIASl [EnoiAH.] 

ERYCI'NA ('EpM(lnij,a annuuae of Aphrodite, 
derived from mount Eryi, in Sicily, where ahe had 
a bmoua temple, which wni aaid to have been boilt 
by Eryx. a ion of Aphrodite and the Sicilian king 
Butei. (Died, iv, 83.) Virgil (Jm. v. 760) make! 
Aeneiat build the temple. Puphii, a daughter of 
Eryi, wai belieTCd to hlTB founded a temple of 
Aphrodite Erycina, at Piophus in Arcadia. (Pani. 
viii, 24. § 3.) From Sicily the wonhip of Aphro- 
dite (Venni) Erycina wai introduced at Home 
abont the ht^noiag of the aecond Punic w«(IiT. 
iiiL 9, 10, xxiiL 30, &&), aud in b.c IBl a tem- 

fU waa built to hei outtide the Porta Collatina. 
LiT. xl. 34 ; Oi. Fan. iv. 871, RtiK Amur. 549 -, 
Suab. vi p. 272 ; comp, Cic. » Ferr. ii. 8 ; Hmat, 
Cam. L 2. 33; Ot. Umid. xv. 57.) [L. S.] 

EKY'CIUS ['Efiiaai), the name of two poeti, 
whoiB ejngiaDU are in the Greek Andudogy. The 
one ia called a Cyiicene, the other a Theitaliaa ; 
and, from the internal eridenco of the epignuni, it 
ia pcohable that the one Ured in the time of SuUa, 
and about B. c 84, the other under the cmpcmr 
Hadrian. Their epigrami are h mixed np, that it 
distinguiah accnralelj belwoei 









I of the 



two poeLt wat the elder, and which the younger. 
We only know that the greater number of the ejH- 
grami are of a putcial tiatun, tnd belong to Ery- 
ciatofCyncua.(Bninck, .lHoi.ToLiLp.295; Ja- 
cob*, Anli. Oratt. vol. iiL p. 9, vol. liii. pp. 891, 
892 ; Fabric BOL Grate vol. iv. p. 474.) [P. S.] 

ERYMANTHUS ('E/nK^ao")- 1-A nvw^ 
god in Arcadia, who had a temple aad a ttatue at 
Ptopbii. (Pana.<>iii.24.S6iAE]ian, V.H.n.ii.) 

2. A aon of Apollo, waa blinded fay Aphrodite, 






le had H 



1 her ii 



„ . letaraorphoaed hinuetf into a wild boar, 
aud killed AdoniL (Ptolon. He^. i 306.) 

l.,.,..,GiVoqIc 



52 ESAIAS. 

S. A lOD ofArittu and &[h« of Arrhon, or, 
(Mocding to otlien, th> ion of Aicu and (slher of 
Xaolhui. (Puii. Tjit. 24. § 1.) [L. S.] 

E'KY MAS('Myuu), the ntune of three diSerent 
Tiojvu. (Horn. /i-iri. 34fi, ^IS; Viig. Atm. ix. 
702.) {L.8.J 

ERYSICHTHON CEp<iaix»ur), that ii, the 
tcarer up of the earth, t. A (On (rf' Triopa*, wbo 
cut down tree« in a gnn ncred (o Demelei, for 
which he «m pnnithed b; the goddeea with feaifnl 
hanger. (Callim. flyau. u Or. 34, ie. ; Or. AttL 
Tiii. 73S, &c) MuUei {Dor. ii. \0. f Z) thinki 
that the tiBditioni concerning Triopai and Eryucb- 
than (from ipivtipr^ roA^) belong to an agricol- 
liind religion, which, at the uma time, lefen to the 
infernal regioDi. 

3. A vm of OcTOfw luid Agrwdo*, died without 
iime in bia bther't lifetime, on hia retnni from 
DeLoa, from whence he hnmght to Atheni the an- 
cient image of ELlFithyi^ Hia tomb waa ahewn 
atPwiae. (Apollod.iii. U. ^ 2 ; Paiu. i. 18. § S, 
2.8.5.31.83.^ £LS.] 

ERYTHRUS ftpuSpof) 1. A eon of Leueon, 
and grandaon of Athama^ He waa one of the 
aoilora of Htppodameia, and the town of Erjthrae, 
in Boeotia, waa belieied to haTe detired ita name 
finm him. [Pani. ti. 21. $ 7 ( Miillei, Ordam. p. 
210. 2nd edlL) 

2. A aon of Rbadananlhiu, who led the Erj- 
thneana fram Crete to the Ionian Erythne. (Paua. 
Tii. 3. i 4.1 There are two other mythica] per- 
lonagei of the name of ErjChnt, er Erylhrioa, 
from whom the Boeotian ErjPthiaB, and the Ery- 
thncan Sea, are aaid to hare rreeiied their namea 
reapeetiTslr. (Enalath. ad Hon. p. 267; Steph. 
Bfi. a. e. 'Epuftpif ; Cortina, Tiii. 9.) [L. S.] 

ERYX (^h{). tbe name of thna mjthical 
penonagfi. (EKod. it. 83; Apollod. ii. £. % 10; 
Ot. Met. T. 196.) [I..S.] 

ERYXl'MACHUS CSfuiliaxiH \ a Greek 
phjlician, who liTed in the trarth centnry a. c, 
and ia introduced in the OommMm of Plato fp. 
18£) aa telling Ariatopbaaea how to cnl« the 
hiccup, and in the meaa time nuking ■ qieech 
himielf on Zona or iarmimf CEpan], which be 
illualreted from hia own pnifeaiioiu [W. A. Q.] 

ESAIAS ('Hiralu), Hmetimei written in I^tin 
Ibaul 1. Of CTPRl'^ liTed probably in the 
reign of John VII. (Palaeologua) about A. D. 
1430. NicolaoB Comnenna mentiona a work of 
bit, dcKribed aa Oratu d» ZtpeoiuiaaeUa, aa ex- 
tant in MS. at Rome ; and hi* EpiilU in defence 
of the pmceaiion of die Hoi; Spiiil bom the Fa- 
ther and tbe Sob, in repljr to Nieolaat Sdengiaa, 
ia giTen by Leo AUatiaa in hia Grarcia Ordio- 
dam, both, in the original Greek and in a Latin 
leinon. Two epiatlea of Michael Olycaa. ad- 

Eiaiaa an publiihcd in tbe Ddinai Eruditorvi 
of aiovaoni Lami, who ia diapo*cd to identify the 
perion addroiaed with Eiaiaa of Cypma. { Fabric 
iUJ.GRKe. ToIiLp. 39£;Wh£itan,.^H»irfuta 
Caie'i HaL ZM vol. iL p. 1 30, ed. Oxfoid, 1 740-3 ; 
I^nu, Ddidat ErtdUonm, roL TiiL pp. 33G-279, 
Florenet, 1739.) 

3. Of EaTPT. Palladini in the biognphical 
DDiuea which make up what ii uaually termed hia 
Lmuiae Hulorji, mentiona two brothen, Paeaiui 
(IIa4<noi) and Eniaa, the aajii of a merchant, 
~ " ut, by which trane nnderatand a Spaniib 

Upon the death of their bther (hey 



ESAIAS. 
determined to quit the worid ; one of tlwD Retri- 
buted hi) whole property to the poor, llie other 
expended hia in the fbandatliin at a monaatic and 
cbuitable eatablithment. If tbe OnUiav men- 
tioned below are correctly aacribed to the Eaaiaa 
of Palladiut, the iirat oration (which in tbe Lattin 
Tcruon begin* "Qui mecum manen ratti*, andile," 
Ac) enable* Dt to identify him aa the brothei thai 
founded the monaiterr. Rufinna in hii Lket of 
He Falien, quoted fay Tillemont, mentjont an uht- 
doie of Eiaiai and aome other penon* of monaitic 
chantcter. Tinting the confeetor Anaph or Annb 
(who had aul!ered in the gnat peneention of Dio- 
cletian, hut had aumred that time) jnit befine bra 
death. IF we anppoae Eiaiaa to hare been com- 
paratirely young, thia xccennt ia not incoanatent 
with Cave'a opinion, that Eiaia* fioiuithed A.n. 
370. Awenunni anppoeei that he Lived about the 
doia of the fbnrth centnry. He appean to have 
lived in Egypt. 

Then an diapened tfarengh the Eunpcao U- 
braiieianumbecof woikain MS-ataibedtoEaaiai. 
who i* varionely deeignated "Abbaa," " Pretbvter," 
" Enmita," " Anachoret*-" They an chiefly in 
Greek. Some of them have been pnbliahed, either 
in the original or in a lAtin Tenion. Aaeenuuni 
enumerate* tome Arabic and levetul Syriae woik* 
of Etais*, which, jadKing from their title*, an ver- 
aiona in thoae tongue* of the knewn woriu of thia 
writer. It ia not aaeertained whether Eaaiaa the 
writer ia the Eaaiaa mentioned hv Palladiul. Ca> 
dinal Bellarmin, fallowed by the editor* of the 
KWjMmd Piifrmi, placet the writer in the (eventli 
centnry iDbaeqnent to the tame of PaUadtua ; but 
the chancter of the work* inpporta the opinion that 
they belong to the Egyptian monk. 

(I.) Ckaptm at lit aicetia amd paaxfid lifit 
(Ka^oAiua lepl domlirHif nl ifm^Isi), pDhliahed 
in Greek and I^tin in the Tlieia*nu Aicgtiaii nf 
PiemPouin,pp.313-325; 4tA Paria, 1664. 









nexion with other paaaage* not contained in it. it la 

Sibable that the Ciaplen an incomplete. One 
S. in the King** Library at Pari* ia deieribcd aa 
" Eaaiae Abbalia CapAi Aie^ica, in dnoa libioa 
diriaa. quorum oniuquiique pnecepta centum cnm- 

(2.) Prtapla an Om^ia ponla UnmOaM, a. 
Latio Teraon of aixty-eighl Short Precept*, pnb- 
liihed by Lnou Hotiteniu*. in hi* Cbifw RBgula- 
nm MoKo M o am a, (voL L p. B. ed. AngibniKi 
1769.) 

(3.) OraHamf. A Latin tetiIod of twenty- 
nine diteoone* ef EtaiM wa* pnbli*hed bj- 

ingi of Nilu* uid othen, Svo. Venics, 1574, and 



They an not alt ondoni, hut, in one or two in- 
■tancea at leaat, are caUectJon* of apophthegm* or 
•aying*. Some MSS. oonlain more tban twenty- 
nine orution* : one in the Kingli Library at Paris 
contain* thirty, wanting the beginning of the Grat ; 
and one, mentioned fay Harieia, i* Hid to coDlsin 
thirty-one, difieiently arnnged from Ihoaa in tbe 
BiUioOtM Pamm, 

(4.) DtbHaHaiiM n riatMam EacUA. A 
MS. in the Royal Library of the Eacuiial in ^aiit, 
ii deacribed by Montfaucon {BUlioliaa Bihliolie- 
anm, p. 619) as contaming Sermomu tt Dubita- 
Hatt m RniMm Eiadidii, by " Eaaia* Abbaa." 
The Strmamn ordiKouie* an pnbablj thoaa men- 



.4,„.=.otCioog[c 



ESQUILINDS. 

Hi B pna ; but tb« MibiccI, u &i u it i* indi- 
innj bv tba tiile, nodtn it nrj dnnbtfBl if tita 
r*± tetoagi ts till ^jpDon Monk. 

Tit jMtlka ud Opaaila of Emiu, dcKiibcd 
ID Ciliiagan, uv peitups pqitimu or ortruti of 
Ik w«ki nstiad mbtnci Thii » piobabl; the 
ait irilb tlM puafa giiea by Cotelerini among 
lb) "SiTun of ths Fitlien.'' (Polluiiiu, JliaL 
Umm^ c. IS. t<L UnniD*, Lejden, 1616; 
TOkwnt, MHuira. red. ni. p. 426 i C*Te, /Tuit. 
U TsL L p. 251, ed. Oifind, t740-S ; Biilioae- 
' ii. p. 38^ *e, ed. Lyon, 1677 ; 



» of the 



f. ts, nott : Cntderiiu, EaitAit Grareae JUmn- 
inte, tdL i p. 445, Jk. ; Fibric Bibl. Graie^ 
nLii. p. 28-2, toL xL p. 39fi, AiUoAan Afaolug 
■( figijiBi r.^n.ii.M.^ Tid.iL p. 109 ; Calaltymt 
VJkna AUodgtog ibgw, <roL ii., Puii, 1704.) 

1 The PnsuH. The Jlcta of the Huljn, 
I in the Ai*a Samo- 
ioaafaOiMk 
■nUiictheD, tnd pnhably (till, extant in the Li- 
bify rf the Repohlie of Venice, porpartiog 
4nini up by EeaiBa. the eon of Adani. or - 
Wnai ('eqnee,"] of Sapor, Kingnf Pe 
Jnrtm ih« ia«rt™«iSeced, (.«■ " 
Jfarti ™L iiL p. 770, *e.) [J. C. M.1 

ESqUILrNlJS, a nama of «mnl ftsulie* Rt 
ilob >faieh they ohtaiaed from liring on the 



inbr family fna otheti of the mme name. 

1- Ab igDoineD of P. Lilimui Calvus, both 
Ub ud BD. [CuTin, Nn. 1, 2.] 

- Aa IgDOBBI of L. IClNUCIDN AUflDBINDB 



111 

1 L.i)rH. SaiuiiDB EsQinLMCR, one of tha 
"mi decHnnimta, B. c 460. (Uf. iiL 35 ; 
Duji. 1. 18, xL 23.) 

4. An agtuewn of the VnaiHn Tucotri. 
AhaB ill tha nmnbeii of the Virginia geni had 
tie lonHW Tikoatoa, and IhoHvhodmltan tha 
ijfnliiie had the nniBiiie Eaquilinni, juil at 
lUe htiif on tbfl Cadian hill had tha eunianw 
CiUKnroirTJKinL Two manbcn of the gem hare 
Ac onianw EaqaQinaa, namely, OriTiH Vnoi- 
nra Tuovrva EsquiLiNiit, who waa eoninl in 
L c 47B, filling the place of C. Seniliai Stnetui 
Akfa. who died in hia year of effice {PhiH), and 
Ui imidicin, L. ViBomiUB Tmcoanra Esi|uu.|. 
111^ DBvlai tribone in b. c. 402. The conduel 
rf tlir wge of Veii waa entmited to the latlei and 
b (dle^w M'. Sergina Fidenaa, but in conie- 
laan of thor piiTate enmity the caili|»ign wu a 
' li iaHn M one. The Capenatei and Falinn ad- 
■aod to the relief of Veil. The two Rmmm 
inenb hul each the command of a •epinle camp : 
^opai waa atlKked by the alliei and a mlty fimn 
■k tawB at the ame time, and let himielf be 
•wpowned by amboa, baoiue ha Would not 
■k kk etdlcagna far uaiitance, and Virginiui 
*nld BM iOKl it beoiue il waa not aiked. In 
'MMqaeote of lh«r puMODdnct, they were forced 
■> ro^ tbfii oOce brfbre their year had expired. 
Il iha bUawisg year they w '^^ ' 

■id madiuiuud by the pen^ 
(Ln.T.8,B,JI,12.) 






ETEONICUa. 53 

ETEARCHU8 rErAvx"')- I- An indent 
king of tha city of Arng tn Crate, who, according 
to tba Pyrenaean acmnnti, wai the gnuidhther of 
Battni L, king of Cynne. The itory of the way 
in which ha wbi indoctd to plan ^e death of hii 
daughter Phronime, aX the inaligation of her >tep- 
molher, and of the manner in which the waa pre- 
■erred and taken to Cyrene, il told by Heivdotiu 
(JT. 154, 155). 

2. A king of the Ammoniani, mentioned by 
Herodotn* (a. 32) aa the aalhoiity ibr aome *c- 
connta which he h«rd inm certain Cyimaaana of 
an eipedition into the interior of Africa undertaken 
by fire youiha of the NaiamoDea. [C. P. U.] 

BTEHUNDIS, the name prefiied to an epi- 
gruB af two linea to be Ibnod in Bormuut, JnMoJ. 
Lai. iiL 283, oi n. 547, ed. Meyer, but of whom 
oothing it known. [W. R.] 

ETEOCLES CETHK^qi.) 1. A eon of Andrena 
and Erippe, or of CephitDt, who waa laid to ham 
been the firat that oflered lacriiicea lo the Chaiitea 
at Orchomenoa, in Boeotia. (Pant. ii. 34. $ 5, 35. 
^ 1 ! Theocrit. Hi. 104 ; SehoL ad Pud. Ol. tiy.l; 
MiiUtr, Ordnm.f. 126.) 

2. A nm of Ocdipni and Jocaate. After hia 
bther'a Sight from Thebat, be and hia brather 
Polyneicet nndertook the goiammenl of Thcbea 
by tutna. But, in conaetioenee of diipute* bsTing 
ariton between the brothen, Polyneicea fled to 
Adrutii>,whg then brought about the expedition of 
theSerenagBiiutThebei.EADiUBTua.] When many 
of the heioea bad fallen, Eteocln and Polyneicet 
reaolTed upon deciding the conteat by a tingle com-, 
bat, but both the brothen fell, (Apollod. iii. 5.^8, 
6. gg 1, 5, &c. ; Paul. ix. 5. $ 6 ; comp. Entip. 
Piom. 67 ; Jocinri.} [L. S.] 

ETEDCLUS ('Et4hiA«) a ion of Iphia, wai, 
according to tome tradilioni, one of the iOTen heroet 
who want with Adrattua agtunit Thebei. He hod 
to make the attack upon the Neiflian gale, where 
he wui oppoied by Hegaien^ (Aeichyl. Sept. c. 
Tkeb. 444, &c ; ApoEod. iiL 6. % 3.) He ia Htid to 
have won a priie in (he foot tace at the Nemeon 
gamea, and to ba<e been killed by Leadei. (Apol- 
lod. iii. G. g3 4, a.) Hia ttatue ttood at Delphi, 
among thoae of the other Aigive hemea. (Pane. x> 
10. « 2 ; Euitatb. ad Ham. p. 104?.) (L. S.] 

ETEONl CVS CETiJnictii), a Lacedaemonisn, 
who in B. c 412 waa lieutenant under the admiral 
Aityochni, and otuited him in hia nniucceiifiil 
opeiationi againat Leaboa. (Thuc riii. 23.) Ha 
waa afterwirda barmoat in Thaaoi, bnt in 410, 
together with the Lacedaemonian party, wai ex- 
pelled by tha Thaaiana. (Xen. /M. I. 1. § 32.) 
In 406 we find him terving under CollicrBtidaa, 
who left him to blockade Conon in Mytilene, while 
ha himaelf went to meet the Athenian reinfoire- 
menti. After the battle of Arginnaae, by meani 
of a atratogein, ECeonicDi aivxeeded in drawing off 
the hind forcet to 
the naTsl fbmct tc 
where be found meant of rejoining Ihem not long 
afterwaidt. In the cooiie of hit atay hen, hi!, 
with eontiderable energy and promptitude, defeated 
a plot formed by aome of Uie troopg under hit 
command to idia Chioi. (Xen. /felL L 6. § 2G, 
36, Ac, iL 1. g 1, ftc) It il pndHbly thit Kteo- 
nicui whom we find mentioned in the Ansbaiit 
(tiL 1. ! 12] appaicDlly terving at an offlcei under 
Anaiibint M Byianlium. (& c 400.) Eleien 
ynn ifUnrard* (389), he it menUoaed M being 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



54 



EVAEHON. 
muwt in AcgioB. 



(Xen. HM. v. 
l.ll.t [C.P.M.] 

ETECfNUSCETwriiXKlMMndiintofBoeotiii, 
and fktfacr of Einon, from vhom the Bontun town 
of ElMDM dehied ita DsmC. (Eiut&tli.a^/ran.p. 
26i.) [US.] 

ETLEVA. [Omnus.] 

ETRUSCILLA, KERE'NNIA, wife of the 
enpem Dedni. The name not being swntiDiKil 
in hittoij, it WM k nUtec of diapate to what 
I baling the legend Henvtia 



i Bt Cnneoli itilh the iiueription 
nauNNUi.(;[n-iii!i8i!iiAi. Etkukhllai-Auu. 
Cqniuqi. D.N. Dici. Auo.Matiu. Auoq. NN. 
BT. Casthor,. S. p. Q^ tiom which, taken incom- 
bioBliDn wi^ mcdaU, it appcsn that her deiigna- 
tioa in fllU va% A hrh Capraaenia Htmaaa EUrur- 
dlla. (Moratari, p. IU36, 4 ; Mafiei, Afw Firm. 
p.l02i EBl[he!.ToLvii. p.3<7.) [W. R.] 

ETRUSCUS, HERE'NNIUS, ion of the em- 
petor Deciut, apoa whuM uceuion in a. d. 219 ha 
leceiied the appellatiaDi of Catmr and P rwgpi 
Javnlaiit. In -251 he wai conniU waa admitted 
to a partidiBtian in the title of Augaitoa, atut to- 
wardi the cloae of the year wat >Uin aJsng with 
hit bthei in a hlood; battle fon^t againit the 
Oothi in Thrace. [Diciua.] W« gathei from 
coint that hia deiignation at fnli length wu Q. 
Htraimu Btmciit Maaaa TVofonu Akuw, the 
namei Htrtamut Einaaa being derired (torn hia 
mothei Herennia Etnucilla, while the reM were 
infaerileil Croro hia aire. (AunL Vict, de Caa. xiix. 
Bpa. nil. ; Zonar. lii. 90.) [W. R.] 

ETRUSCUS t'ETpawmfi), oT Mkrbnb, the 
author of a lingle epigiam in the Oraek Anthology. 
(Bmnck.^iuJLToLiLp. 307; Jacobt, Tol.iii. [^20.) 
Nothing more is known of him. Haitial (tL S3, 
lii. 39) mentJoDa an Etnacnt who waa haniriied 
by Domiliaa. (Jacobi, Attk, Grate. tdI. liii. p. 
892.) [P. S.] 

ETUTA. [GiNTiua.] 

ETYMOCLES ('ETt^nAqi) wu one of the 
three Spartan envoya who, bqipening to be at 
Athena at the time of the inconion of Sphodnaa 
into Attica (s. c 37B), were airaled by the Athe- 
niani on niipicion of haiitui been priry to the 
attempt Their auuTaocei, howeTer, to the oon- 
trary wei believed, and they wen allowed to de- 
part. Elymadei ia mentioned by Xenophon and 
Plutareh aa a friend of Ageulaua, and we hear of 
him again aa one of the ambaiaadon aent to nego- 
tiate an alliance with Athena in b. c 369. (Xen. 
HdLi. 4. §§22, -23, 32, ri. S. g 33; PluL ^jm. 
2S.) [E. E.] 

EVADNE(Eildln|.) 1. Adanghteiof Powiidon 
and Pitaoe. Immedlatel]r aflei her birth, ihe waa 
carried to the Arcadian king Acpylns who braaght 
her up. She eftfrwarda became by Apollo the mo- 
ther of Jamot {Pind. Ot. Ti. 30; Hygin. Fab. 175.) 

2. Adnughurof Iphii,orPhilai. (Eurip.jbp^. 
985 : Apollod. iii. 7. § 1 i Hygin. Fab. 256. See 
Capanbus.) Then are diree other mythical per- 
aonagei of the mme name. (ApoUod. ii. 1. $ 2 ; Ov. 
Aniar. iiL B. 41 ; Diod. iT.S3.) [L. 8.] 

EVAECHME (Eiaixni), the name of two my- 
thical peminagea. {Pans. if. 2. g 1 i comp. Alca- 
TBOUK.) [L.S.] 

EVAEHON (EJaSmr), the name of two my- 
thical pcnoiugea. (Ham. A. IL 736 ; Apollod. liL 
8.§1.) [L.S,] 



EVAOORAS. 

EVAE'NBTUS (Edafraroi), the name et t-o 
commentalora on the Fhaenomena of Antui, who 
are mentioned in the introdactary ccnmientaiy itill 
extant {p. 1 1 7, ed. Victor.), bat conceniing whom 
nothing ia known. [L. S.) 

EVAE'NETUS, of Syracoae and Catana. wu 
one of tbe chief makera of Ihe Sidlian coina. (Uill- 
ler, AnkiirJ. d. Kwul, p. 423.) [P. S.] 

EVADES {Eikh^r), of Hydrea, waa, aceopdirg 
to Dionyaini (r^. Sltpb. Bjx. t. e. IS^ia), an 
illiterate and qnita onedocated diepheni, but yet 
a good conic pcet. Heiueka thinki thia atatement 
inaufficient to gire him a place among tbe Qn^ 
comediana.(//itf.CW1.0>M.6nHB.p,S2B.) [P.^] 

EVA'QORAS {tArfifia), the name of two 
mythical penonagea. (Apollod. i. 9. $ 9, iiL 12. 
g fi ; Sdlol. ad Apilim. lOod. i. 156.) [L. S.) 

EVA'OORAS {ZArrifxa). \. King of Salamia 
in Cypraa. He ma apmng from a £unily which 
claimed deacent from Teooer, the repaled fiinnder 
of Salamia ; and hi* aneetton appear la hare been 
during a long period the hereditary mlm of that 
city under the aupmnacy of Peraia, They bad, 
howem, been eipelled (at what period we an net 
loldj by a Phoam<aan exile, who obtained tbe to- 
lereignty tor himaelf, and tnumnitled it to hia 
deacendanta: ooa of theaa held it at the time of 
the Inrth of ETagoiaa, the date of which ibeR ■• no 
meana of fixing with any degree of accuiaey ; but 
he appean to haTe been grown np, though Mill a 
yoimg man, when one Abdymon, a Batife of Cil- 
tinm, conapired againat the tyrant, pot bim to 
death, and eatahliued himaelf in hia j^oce. After 
thia the uiuiper aought to appnfaend Evagotaa, 
probably from jeakmay of hia heteditaiy tUm to 
the government, bat tlie latter made hi* eac^ie to 
Cilicia, and, haiing then aaaembled a amall band 
of ibllowera, returned iHiclly to Salamia, attacked 
^e tyrant in hii palace, OTeipowetcd Ida naida. 
and put him to death. (laocr. &<^. I¥. ISl-lSS; 
Diod. DT. 93; Theopmip. i^ Pk*. p. 120, a. ; 
Pana. ii. 29. i 4.) AStrr thia Etagoaa tatabHabed 
hia aulhoiity at Salamia witliaDt &Mher oppodtiiHi. 
If we may truat hi* pan^ynat, laocralea, hia rule 
waa diatinguiahed for ita mildneaa and e<inity, and 
he pnmoted the jnvaperity of hia aabjecta in ereiy 
vay, while he particularly aonght to extend hii 
relationa with Oreece, and to nalon the influence 
of Hellenic cuatama and cinlitation, which bad 
been in aome degree oblitenled daring the period 
of barlBrian rule. (laoci. Beag. pp. 197— I9B.) 
He at the aame time greatly incnaaed the power of 
hia inbject city, and atrengthened hia own reeourees, 
■pecially by the formation of a powetfdl fleet. 
Such waa hia podtion in b. c 40£, when, after the 
defeat at Aegoapotami, the Athenian geneiBl Conon 
took refuge at Salamia with hii few ronaining gal- 



Ilea. Evagora. 


had alnady ineiTed, in ntu^ (or 
Athena, t&e riftbta of an Ath«>i»i 






with Conon (la 


ocr. EMff. p. 199, e.; Diod. xiii. 


106): hence he 


»>landy eapooKd the Athvninn 



It ia Bi 



at hia in 



that the king of Penia determined to allow Canon 
the anpport of the Phocmcian fleet, and he com- 
manded in peraon Ihe aqoadron with which 1m 
joined the fleet of Conon and Pharaabaina at the 
balila of Cnidni, b. c 3S4. (Xen. ^^ ij. I. 
i 29 ; Iwcr. Bnag. pp. 199, 200 ; Pana. L 3. S 2 ; 
Cteuat, ap. Pint. p. 44, b.) For thia diitingniahed 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EVAG0BA3. 



1. by the adeof thU of 
Cim. (PuLi. 3. S2; Iwcr. £^. p.200, C.J 
We ban nr; imperiect mfonnaliiai concerning 
^* Rktim in vhkb Enganii itood to the king 
U Penii in the (uij put of hi> nign ; hnt it 
HBi pnb^ile tlut he w&i r^;in]«d from the fint 
feiih n^iicion : the tjranti wham ha hsd buc- 
wded Ire puticukrly ipokcn of u ftiemlly to 
Poiii (t>io>i. lir. S8 j, and we Inm from Cteuu 
'^if. PiaL p, 44, b.) that hit quureli with one of 
tW Dths petty itatei of Cjpnu had alnulj coiled 
hr the interierence of the great king befon tha 
aide cf Ciiidiu. The chniiKila)^ of the •occeed- 
JK mnti ii alao tcij ohacnie ; but the moat con- 
iHnt Tww of the mattec ^^lean to be that 
dcnnd fruni Tbeoprmpui (op. PM. p. 120, >.), 
tJu Artarerxn bad prerioualy dctennined to majce 
■37 Dpon EvagDnA^ and bad ti*ea commenced hi 



nablel 






10 tlie ntopiiie until after the peace of Antalcidu 
Inc. 187), (See CiiutoD. F. H. toL ii. p. 2B0 ; and 
ai^ I«cr. Pam^yr. p. 70, a. ; Xcn. HrU. n. 8. § 
!!!. f. 1. § 10.) HantimE Eragoraa bad not onlj 
oVnled ha domituon orer the greater part of 
Cj^niv but had nTaged the coait of Phoenicia 
nh hii Beet, pnrailed on the Cilidaiu to ktdIi 
ha Pftsa, and eTcu (if w« ma; belwTe luerMe* 
md Diodoru) nade biniwlf maalei of t-jn itielf. 
([>»LiiT. 9S, 110, IT. 2;lKKnt.£'Rijr. p.201.) 
Kk Injnh, howcTFT, a great fleet and army were 
aablcd DDder the command of Tiribuna and 
Oinm, and ETagorai baring rentnred to oppoK 
lies with icrr inferiDt fonea waa totally defeated ; 
>ll the nat oT C]i>rua fell into the hands of the 
■aCnpa, and Bngoraa bimaelf vaa ifant np within 
Ue nDa of Sabmia. But the Penjan genenia 
■Rft to hare been unable to follow up their advan- 
ap. md Dotwithitandii^ thia blow the wBI waa 
•Iknd to linger for amne yean. Tho diueniioni 
iMwem bit two ■dicraarica at length proTed the 
■^ of ETigDiaa : Tinhaina vaa recalled in con- 
■SMm of iIh: intriguet of Orontet, and tha latter 
Witened to eoibclude a peace with the Cyprian 
■oanh, by which b* waa allowed to Rtain nn- 
oamllni pnaitaajnii of Salamia, with the title of 
kuj, (Dioi TY. 3—4, 8, S i Theopomp. ap. 
Pia. p. I3Q, a. ; ItoQ. Stag. p. 2DI, Pnigyr. 
F> in.) Thia war, wbtch ia aaid to haie kited leu 
joa ia all, waa bnoght to a dote in b. c. 38S. 
IDioin. 9) CIiDlon,.F./r.vaLn. pp. 276-281.) 
Enpna lamrcd it abore ten yean. Ht ma 
■■■JuatFd to 374, together with hia eldeal eon 
^jtignaa, by an eunuch named Tbiaajdaeaa ; 
bat the mmder waa cansed by nTcnge for a pii- 
■•ir iiJBry, and he leenu U ha<e been tncoeeded 
"iihtoi appontian by hia eon Nieoelea. (Theo- 
r-af.^ /■fat p. 120, a, b.; Ariit-PoL t. 10; 
I>ad.iT. 47. and Weaaeling. ibf Ak.) Our knov- 
Uge of the efaanctcr and adminiinacion of Era- 
V>>ai>dcriTed niaiaiy &Dni the oration of I tnciate* 
n hit piaiae, addreurd to hit aon Nicodca; but 
1^ ii viitteQ in a alyle of nndittingmahing pane* 
Crtic, ahich moat lead na to recOTe ita alalementa 
■ilh gntt CBDtiad. 

2. AppRntly a am of tha preceding, ia men- 
tmd by DiodDcna a* joined with Phocion in tha 

Cjpu tat the king ol Penia, from wfai^n it had 
Rnilcd. (b. c 351.) They aocceeded in reducing 
•S the iilnd with the eueplion of Salamit, which 
■>■ held by Pnytagona, ptntoUy a hnttiei of 



EVAORIUS. 6S 

thia ETagoiaa. The latter had obtained finm the 
Fenian king a promite of hit bther'a gorernment 
in CBie he coold effect itt conquett ( but the aiege 
beinR protracted, Eyagotat by tome meant incurred 
the diapleatnre of Anaienea, who became recon- 
ciled to Pnylagoiaa, and left bin in the poiaeaaion 
of Sabmit, while he appointed Eragont to a 
gDvemmont in the interior of Aaia. Here, how- 
oTer, he again gave ditaatiabction, and vu accuaed 
of maladminiatratioD, in coniequence of which he 
fied to Cypnu, when be vat leiied and put to 
death. (Diod. itL 42, 4G.) The annexed coin 
belonga to diia Engona. 



3. Of Lacedaemon, remarkable for haTing gained 
threo Tictorica in tho chaiiot-nce at the Oljm|^ 
gamei with the tame bonet, in conaequence of 
which he emcted the itatne of a quadriga at 
Olympia, and taonound hii bortet vith a magni- 
ficent Funeral (Herod. tI 103; Aelian, HiiL 
Amim.iii.*l); Pane. tL 10. S B.) 

4. An Achaean of Aeginm, occiued by Critolaoa 
of betnyiog the cooDtela of hit countrymen to the 
Romant, B. c 1 46. (Foljb. xxitIU. ■'•.) [E. H. B.] 

EVA'ORIUS (EJiwioO. 1. Of AtmocH, 
waa a natiTe of Antioch, the aon of a citizen of that 
place, named Pompeiannt, and a pretbyter appa- 
rently of tha church of Antioch, Ha traTelled 
into tha weat of Ennpe, and waa anjsainted with 



patriarch Paulinna, in oppoaition to FlaTianua, the 
patriarch of the otter party. According to Theo- 
doret, the manner of hit election and ordinatioa 
wai altogether contrary to eccletiaitiot rule. The 
hiatotiana Socratea and Soiomen ttate ibBt Evsgriua 

eipneiion rnnat not be too attictly interpreted, aa 
it appear* from Jerome that he «at living in a. d. 
392. He iraa perhapa the GTagriut who inttiucted 
Chryaoatom in moiuttic diicipline, though it ia 
to be obaerred that Cbrytoetom waa ordained a 
preabyter by Flaiianut, the rival of Eragrini in 
the aee of Antioch. Evagritii had no aticcewar in 
hia lee, and ultimately Flaviantu ancceeded in 
healing the diviiion. 

Eragriua wrote treatioea on fariona anhjecta 
{dhtnanta kypoAeaeon ^roctofw). Jerome aaya 
the antlior had read them to him, but had not yet 
publiahed them. They are not extant Eiagrini 
alto tiantlated the life of SL Anthony by Atho- 
natioa frotn Greek into l^tin. The rery free 
Tereion printed in the Benedictine edition of 
Alhanaaiua (>ol. L pan ii. p. 785, &c) and in 
the Acta SancUrmm (Januar. Tol. ii. p. 107), pn>- 
feiee* to be that of ETogiina, and ia addreiaed to 
bit ton Innocentina, who ia perhape the Innocen- 
tina whoae death, t- n. 369 or 370, ia mentioned 
by Jemne. (EfuH\ ad Rt^iam.) TiUemont 
receiTea it, and Bollandut (jfcfa Simct. t. c) 
and the Benediclina editon of Athanoaini (I. c.) 
bnt Care affirm* that 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



£S EVAORICJS. 

" tbcn It man thin dub jmum for doabtiog It* ' 

genuuiencu i" uid Oudm decidedly deuica the 

rnineiwH both of (he Gnek teit and tha renion. 
tha Ubnrr of WoimUi Cathednl it a MS. 
d«Mribed u coolsming llie life of St. AntaDy, 
vritten by Engriiu and tiinilitcd by Jeroina : 
then u probably an error, either in Ifaa MS. iUe]£, 
ot in Ibe deKriptioa of iL (,Calal. MS& Am^iae 
•I /^A. vol. iL p. 17.) 

TiUemont bat collected TuioiH particnlua of 
the life of ETngiioi of Antiech. Tnthemioa con- 
fbonda him with ETBgrini of Pontu. (Sociato, 
HuLEaia.i.\h; SosHDen, AiiL£a^. nL lA; 
Theodoretut, HitL Eaia. t. 23 ; Hisronfmot (Je- 
rome) dt Vini Ilint 25; TiUemotil, Ulowira, 



Eaia. Tol. i. coL 832 ; Trithamiiu, da Ser^or. 
Eocba. c. ai ; Fabric BibL Qraac roL TiL p. 431, 
voL I. p. 137.) 

2. The AiczTic, initnutcd Chryaoitom in 
Tnonulic diauplme. (Fabric. BibL Grate. toL Tiii. 
p. 155.) He it perhapa the aame aa Eragiina of 
Antioch. [No. 1.] 

3. Of EpiFBANiu, known i^ao a* EvjaRtug 
ScHOLAETicm and EK-PsAiracTua. He vai a 
rntiTg of Epiphanaia on the Orontea, in the prorinco 
of Syria Seconda, a* m gather from the title of 
hit EcdaiBatical Hiilory, when he ii called *£■!- 
^tit. (Camp, alio hii HiiL Eaia. ai. SA.) 
Photioi nya {BaHoOi. Cod. 29), according to the 
pment text, that he vaa of a celebrated city 
\wi\nHU Iri^woEi) of Coele-Syria 1 but the text 
u pnbably compt. Nicephonu Calliiti (//iff. 
Eoda. L 1, xn. 31} twin cite* him a* i foi^anjf, 
"the illiutriovi ;" but thi> i> probably an error, 
•ither in tha Cnuucription of Nicephonu or m that 
of hi* anthoritiei. The birth of Eragriai it fiied 
by data fumiihed in hi* own wntingi in or about 
A. D. £36. (ETagr. HUt. Eaia. iy. S9, W. 2i.) 
H« waa aeDt to k£ooI bafon or when be waa four 
yean old, for be va* a acboolboy when be wa* 
taken by bii parent* to the neighbouring city of 
Apamaa to aee the eihibiiion of "the life-f(iviDg 
wood of the CioaB," during the alarm caiued by 
the cqiton of Aniioch by Chouoe* or Kbotru I., 
king m Penia, a. o- 640. Two jeon afterward* 
(a. n. 542), he wa* tmr dying &om a peitilenlial 
dixilder which then lint Tinted tha Bjiantine 
ampin, and which continned at inlenal* foe above 
baU a centuly, if not more, to cau*e a (eartbl mor- 
tality. EFigrin* givti a melancholy catahigiia of 
hi* own *iib*equent louei thningh it. It took cS, 
at different tioiea, hia Gnl wile, aeTend of hi* chil- 
dnn (eipeciallj a matried daughter, who, with 
her child, died when the peitilence vuited Antioch 
ibr the fourth time, *. D, 591 or 592, two year* 
befon Evagiiu* wrote hi* hiatory), and many of 
' ■ . En^ui wa* a "-->- 



hi* kindred ai 

laaticua" (advoi 

imled fnin hii pmfeuion. It ii probable thai be 

pnctiacd at Anttoch, which, a* the capital of the 

rvince of Syria, would offer an important field 
hi* forenilc exertion*, and with which dty hii 
writing! abew that he wa* &railiar. (Comp. Uiil. 
Etda. i. 18, iii. 28.) He appsan to bate been 
the legal adviaer of Oregory, patrianh of Antioch ; 
and Bome of hi* memorial*, drawn up in the name 
of the patiiaith, oblained the notice and approval 
of the rinptror Tiberiui, who gave Evagrio*. not aa 
ioDie bare uodenlood. the qoaetlonhip, but the 



tank of a qnantotiao i 
Eedtt, vi. '24, where 
On the birth of Theodouu*, eon oC the emperor 
Maurice (a.d. £84 or £85), Engriu* cmipoaed ■ 
pece, uiparently a congntulatory addma, which 
oMained a hrther manifeolation of imperial bfonr 
in the rank of ex-prefect {dwi MfX'"')' which 
dengnatioD he bean in the title of hi* own work, 
and in Nicephonu. (//h(.S«^kL1.) He accom- 
panied the Patriarch Oi^ory to a lyuod at Con- 
atanlinopla (A.D. £89), to the judgment of which 
the patriarch bad appoled when accnied of incrat 
and adalteiT. On fai* return to Antioch, after 
the acquittal of Ongoiy, Eragriu* (in October or 
NoTemlMr of the taina year) married a lecond 
wile, a young maiden. Hi* reputation and inflo- 
enn an evidenrad by the fitct that hia raarriago 
wai celebntad by a general fettival at tha poblie 
eapcnia; but tha njoicing wa* intempted by a 
dreadful earthqnaiie, in which, a* •ome oaaputed, 
60,000 of tha inhabilanta peiiahed. Thi* i* the 
la*t incident in the Hb of Eragrin* of which any- 
thing i* known, except the deUh of hia daughter, 
already noticed, and tha completian of hi* history, 
in A. D. £93 or 594. 

Evigriua wTOta (I) An EcclaiaitKal Hiilory, 
which extendi, beiidea aome pnlinunaiy matter, 
from the third genenl onracil, that of Ephcma, 
A.D. 431, to the twelfth ycu of the rngn of tha 
Emperor Maurice, A.n. £93-4. He modeally 
profeHC* that he waa not properly qoalified fir 
inch a work (/i4 Sfwdi tn^ ii mdTra), bat •ay* 
be wa* induced to undertake it, aa no one had yet 
attempted to continne the hiatory of the Chord] 
regularly (■«-' tlpfiir) Etom the time at which tho 
hiitorie* of Soionien and Theodont doae. He 
ha* the reputatioD of being toleiabty aecnnle. Hia 
endulity and lore of the marvellou* an dianc 

teriatic of the period rather than of the in 

Photiu* de*cribe* hi* at;^ aa not un, 
though DccauionallT ndnndant ; and (a* we nnoer- 
*tand the paaBage) pni*e* him a* being mon exact 
than the other eccleuartical hiatoriao* in the itate- 
ment of opiniona ; fa W rp tm itryiAirtir IfSS i lyi i 
(Upij9i4f Twp d\fkMr fAWor Impurwr. Sotoe 
howenr interpret tha paaaage a* a commendatioa 
of the bifltoriaa^ orthodoxy. Nicephorua CalliHti 
[Hi^. Eaia. L 1) noticca, that Engtiu* dwell* 



wrilen from whom be derived hia tDateriala, 
namely Euatathiu* the Syrian, Zoiimna, Priacna 
and Joanne^ Prucopiu* of Caeiaiva, Agathlaa, 
" and other writera of no mean chancter." Ilia 
hiatory hai been r^tatedly pnbliihed. The edi- 
tion rf Valeiin* (Henri de Valoii) which compre- 
hend* the other early Greek Ecdauaatinl Hiito- 
riani, ha* a valuable biogr^bical pn&ee, a I«tiii 
tranalation, and uaeful natea It wa* rrpiinted 
with lome additional " Tariorum" note* by Read- 
ing, 3 vota foL Camb. 1720. (S) A raiimw of 
Memorialt, LtOirt, Diena, OrolaBU, anif Di^pit- 
latiomtt including the Memorial* and the addroas 
which promied for Eyagnni hi* rank of Qn*eaIor- 
ian and Ex-praetct Thi* volame ia mentioned irt 
the Ecclenaatical Hiatory, but appean to be now 
loat. Some piece* of little moment have been 
aicribed to Evagnu*, but moat or all of them incor- 
rectly. (EvBgriui, JUmL Balti. iv. 26, 29, vL 7, 
8, 23, 24 1 PholiD*, Ba/tiaO. Cod. 29 ; Nicepho- 
nu Calliad, Hiil. Eaia. I I, xvi. 3! ; Fabric. 
BibL Grate. voL viL p. 432.) 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EVAOSIUS. 



S7 



1 OfPDKTD^maaiiwnt aoticaDd ecdcaiu- 
bal niter. Tbi plan of bia Inrth wu pnUblj 
Bat, 1 bmU tDwii IB Pontiu, on ths ihcia of the 
Eaim ntar ibe dbiRIi of tin Hilji ; but tlu u- 
jnainof Kkcphonu CalliiU mnilil nther imply 
Ikl be vu rf tbe nic« of the Iberiaiu. who in- 
UiBd ttK maitrv Grorgis, on the Hnihcm (ids 
of ihr (kniaui. PiUadiiu, hii diiciple, Myt be 
mifPoDRUiDrihecilf (oi ntheca cilf) of the 
Ilniui (niUan 1(4pw, or u one H3., ucording 
U liUnsnl, bu it, It^Mv), wbidi u unbigutiai. 
Jaiae alb luB " UypobgritB," an eipmnon 
wlkk UulMUj, the BeMdknns editiK of Jerome'i 
niki, alien to ** Iberita," and which hu p^ea oo> 
oakn la other canjectanl emendationi. (Coteleriiu, 
Eaia.Ontc Momamnla, toL iU. p. G4S.) Hi> 
iBia ni a pmbyter, or periwpi ■ chonpiKOpaa. 
(HadilEi, tfmd TVUrnal.) He waa placed in 
Bilj hit mia tha inatmctiDn of Oregoij NuiaD- 
loL Tlisa i) eitBDt a letter of Ongorj to an 
EagnB, to whom he expfCHe* hia picaiinm ■( the 
imiiig Rpolatiati of one whom be tenna "our 
«B.~ lad 1^ whma be bRd been the initmctoi both 
ii liloBinre and religion. It, aa im coajactmed, 
ila letter nfen to onr EragiiDa, hii &ther and he 
nn (f the mane name. Oiegvy abo in bil will 
Ibth a \tfficf, with ilreng eqieowto n a of ngaid, 
u Et^u the deacoo ; bnt it ia not eotaio that 



„ « Soorateih bo wai oidnDad at Con- 
Muliao^ b; Ongtrj Nanraeni and Soxomeo 
■71. that wboi Gr^ry aeenpied the na of Con- 
■nrimple, ha made Eragriu hii aicbdeacon. If 
ftae •tataneiita are Rcei*«d, the Temoral of En- 
pat to CoDNantiiupta miut be placed dnriag or 
brfm the ibort tutie (a. d. SIS to 3S1} of 
Hn^rj't epiKopate at ConataotiDople. " 



if the text of hia l^oriac Uiatorr 
wirfittigj Mate), Eragriiia waa 01 
h; Gufijcj NTaMU, and tahao bj him to the firM 
nmdl rf CantiantiDopla (the lecuid geneial cous- 
cilX ud kfi by fain in that city, under tbe pa- 
"mipi of Nectaiini, whe nuoeeded Qregsiy 
NiriaiiMa. The age and intellectual charactei a 
Ei^Bi iligH*tf4 hmi to polemical diica«iion ; ao^ 
'heabta^u high npBtationina)i]ln>TeTa]r,''Miyi 
hDadJu, ** in the gnat dty. exalting with ttu 
vdoar of yootfa in i^ipwi^ every form of hereay.* 
liii popi^iaritj waa probably zDoeaaed by the 
kaatf J hia peraon, whidi be Ht off by great 
■Hi iiUuu to hia dreu. The haodaome deacon woi 
•ad Ktomed the aSectioa of a manied lad; of rank ^ 
Iwl Engria^ ihaa^ rain, waa nut {Oofligale, and 
anggled hard againat the ainfol paaaion. It ia 
Mufnl, hovenr, if he wonU haia broken away 
ha the Ban, but for an eEtiMfdinary d»m 
uluch he dieamed that he took a lolemn oati 
ban ConataotiiKrpla. Deeming himaelf boond 
bii <ath, he al once left tha city ; and by thia atep, 
-™Mi«g to Soaanen, pCMsned not only bia Tir- 
tae, tut hia lifr, which waa in immtoent danger 
fa^ the jnloaay ef the lady*! hnibaod. Hi* fint 
Hjmn after laaTiog Conatantinople, ita* at Jem- 
i^OL Hen, l ee u r eiiu g ffom tbe alaim into which 
ba diaan had thrown him, he p>e way apin 
miily and the lore of dreaa ; bnt a hins and 
•tR flhwa, and th* cihoctation of Mejiuia Bo- 



, a Udy who had devoted lienelf to a religiona 
lib, and had become very eminent, induced him 
omice tbe world, and giro himieltupto an 

; life. He receifed the monaitic garb from 
the handa of Melania, and departed lor EgjpC, 
the cradle of monaaticiam, where he ipent the re- 

er of hia life. Some copiea of FHlladina are 
thoagbl to apeak of a viiit made by him to Con- 
■tantinDplB,bii.D. 394; battbepsuege ia obtcure, 
and Tillemont and the Greek tsit of Palladiae, La 

iiliBlitta fatnat, refer the incident to Am' 

L Socrataa atatea that be accompanied 
On^ry Nazianien into Egypt; bnt there ia no 
- - I to think that Gregory liaited ^ypt at that 
£<Bgnua'i nmoial into E^pt waa pto- 
faablylatein A.D. 38-2, orinSeS. The remainder - 
of hia life waa apent on the hilli of Nilria, in one 
of thehennitagea or monaateriea of Scetia or Scitia, 
or in the deaert " of tbe Cella," to which, after ■ 
time, be withdrew. He wu acquainted with ae- 
Tenl of the more eminent aolitarie* of the coon- 
tiy, the two Macarii, Ammonini, and othen, 
whoae reputatiDn for aaaterity of life, aanctitj and 
minclea (egpecially healing the aiek and casting 
oat daemoni) ha emnlated. He learned here, aava 
Socniea, to be a philoeopher in action, ai he 
had before Uamed to be one in wordi. He bad 
many diadplea ia the monaatic life, of wham PaJ- 
ladiaa «a* one. Hia approval of the snawer 
which one of the aalilarKt ga*a to the peraon 
who informed hjra of tbe death of hia fotiiei : 
** Ceaae to blaipheme ; for my Father (meaning 
Qod) ia immortal,'' ihewa that Jemme'i aanaitic 
remark, that be teconmended an apathy which 
would abew that a man waa " either a atone or 
God," wBi not nndeaerred. Theephilaa, patriarch 
of Aienndria, would hare ordained him a biahop ; 
bat he ded from him to aroid an eleration which 
he did not coret. Palladina haa recorded manT 
aingular inataocea of hia temptationa and aoaten- 
tie> ; and, beaidea a Hparite memoir of bim, haa 
mentioned him in hia notice* of MTeral other lead- 
ing monks. Eragriaa died apparently about A. u. 
S99, at the age of 6Itj-toar. 

There is conaider^le diffically in aacertaining 
what were tha vritinga of Eiagiiiis. Some are 
known to ua only tram tbe notice of them in an- 
deat writera, others are extant only in a l^tia 
Ttnion, and of otbera we hare only diajointed 
fragmenti. Ai neatly aa we can ascertain, he is 
the aathor of the fallowing vorka;— I. Mowixdi 
(perii^H we ahonld read Momx"^*) 4 'apl Upax- 
rurljt. Fragizienta of thia work, but apparently 
much inteipoUted, are given in the lUammtiila 
EaUi. Orate, of Colelenui. vat. iiL pp. 68—102, 
and in the edition of the DiiAigm Vita SL 
JaoMiui CkryKutimd, errmteonaly aacribed to Pal- 
ladina, pabliahed by Emmer. Bigotins (4to., Paris, 
1630) pp. 3i9— 3£5. PwiUy the whole woric 
i* extant in these fragment* (which are all given 
in the SiWciaeoa Polrsia of Qsllaudiaa, voL viL); 
althoogh a quotation given by Socrate* (HM, 
Ecda. iiL 7) as ftoffl thi* woA (bnt which Cote- 
lerin* connder* wa* probably taken from the next- 
mentioned work) is notincladed in it. An intio- 
dnctoiy iddnaa to AnatidiDa, given by Cotelerina, 
wa* evidently deiigiKid >• a prebce both to this 
woric and the next. A Latin translation of the 



i by G 



lived 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



S8 



EVAORIUS. 



mna^mBiiTiit) ynUtitt, in fiftj cbaplen, «d ' 
'E(u«ia apr/maTuii TlpaPXifiuera. Thoe two 
piece*, whicli vs by mcirat ud modern writ- 
cn noticed st diitinet voika, are by the writer 
hinuel^ in tbe ftddna to Anatoliu juit men- 
^ned, regarded u out vork, in dx handled And 
fifty chapters. Pcrbap* tbe complete worii eoniti- 
loted the 'IipJ, one of the three work* of Eva- 
griui mentioned by Pkilwlini. The fifty chapter* 
of tbe Trmmnis were fint tranilated into Latin 
by Oiniudiiu. It ia poenbla that the " [aucai 
•entenliolaa ralde obfcuiu," alio tiauilated by 
Oennadim, were a ftagment of the II|M^^iaTa; 
Fabriciiu think* that Ihe tm^ entitled O^Ha 
Giattiaa nubliabed in Greek and Latin by Suaie- 
■in*. in hii edition of tbe work* of Sl Niloi, ii 
the TnKnaiis of Engriui. 3. 'Amfp^ait (or 
'Arri^^unl) did rir eifis ■rpafM', ipdt radt 
wiifiiarTat iaiiunnu. Thi* work wat tnniUted 
by GetmadiuL It wat divided into eight eectioni 
coimpondtng (o the ei^t evil thought!. Fabri- 
dui and Gallandioa eoniider that the fr^ment 
given by Bif^lini (ai already noticed) ii a portion 
or Goinpendiiini of thi* woA, the icriptanl pa*- 
■age* being omitted. Bat although that fragment, 
a L*tin renioD of vkich, with ■ome additional 
•enleDce* not ibond in the Greek, appear* in the 
BiUiia. Pamm(yol. i. p. 90-2, ed.PariB, tfilO.riiL 
IT. p. S25, ed. Cokgn. ISIS, toL t. p. 6ge,ed.Paiu, 
1654, and ToL uyU. p. 97, ed. Lyon, 1677) tteaU 
of tbe eight enl thooghta, it belong*, we thiok, to 
the Hartixij rather than tlie 'Arri^^uc^i. 4. 
XrlxilpB No, two (cUeetian* of aeDteDce*, po*- 
dbly ID Terae, one addretted to Coenobite* or 
monk*, the other to a Tiivin, or to women deToted 
to a life of virginity. A Latin Tenion of theie 
appear* in the Appendix to the Oode^ Regidantm 
at HoLiteniOH 4ta, Rome, 1661, and reprinted in 
TOl. L pp. 465 — <63 of the Angtbutg ediUnt of 
1759, and in the aitUaH. Pairm, rol. xxTii. pp. 
469, 470, ed. Lyon, 1G77, and (oL TiL af the edi- 
tion of Gallandiu*. Jerome, who mention! the 
two pari* of the!e Irrlx^pa, appean to refer to ■ 
third part addreiaed '*tobec whoee nuneof blail. 
nei* attnta the darkneu of her perfidy," i. e. to 
Melania Romaaa ; but thii work, if Jecome i* eor- 
Tect in hi* mention of it, it now kMU Oenitadin* 
mentioti* the two part*, not the third : and it ii 
pooible that, aa Cave *nppo*e*, tfaeae, not the 
rtwoTiKdl, may cDnititute the 'lifiil of Palladiua. 
6. TSr inrd Henxcir wpirf/iitiii' rd atrn, extant 
in Coteleriiu, Eaela. Orate Mom. toL iii., and 
Oallandiai, BiU. Palrwn, vol. vii., are noticed in 
the Vilae Pairam of Roaweid, and are pcrfaap* 
referred to by Jetmne, who lay* that Evagiiu! wrote 
B book and •entencei Utji 'Avaftlof ; in which 
void* he may detcribe the Hnnx^i and thii work 
Tiiv mn-d Moraxv>, both which are contained in 
one MS. used by Cotelerini. 6. A.fragment Eli 
TinlnHrn.T).orlheletragrai ' ' 

name* of Ood oied in tbe H 

rbliahed by Coteieriu* and Gallandii 
Kt^dXaia K-f nca' ixotumtlai " " 
yrSioi nrrd dA^Cqroi'. 9. crtpoi yimiuu, 
Theia three piece* are pabliihed by Galiandin* aa 
the wrak* of Engrini, whoee claim to Ihe anther- 
■hip of them he lindicale^ They have been cea- 
monly eonfonnded with tbe wnki of St. Nilo*. 
10.11. Tlu life ^IJu monk Padirvm or Paim- 
miut ; and A Samuf a« Us TVni^. both pnUuhad 
by Sumaiu* among the mnka rf St. Nilw, bat 



EVALCES. 

aninled by bim, coi the aatborily c^ liii M9., 
to Evagriiu. QallandJu* poitively aacribe* the 
!ermon to Baail of CaoMreuu 12. Tratiri/actA lii 
nopgifJu ToS laXoimrTBi, mentkmed by Ssidu 
(*. e. EjJdxptof). Some nndentand Snide* to mean 
not "Note* on the Proierba," but a "work oa 
the model of the Praverb* of Sokmum," and 
luppow that the S/Tlxnpn an leiemd to. Fabrt- 
cio!, however, ii inclined to i^ard it a* a com- 
menlBiy. 13. Htpl Arjiriiar, and 14. 'Aira^T- 
lioja npl rit itrfiJiiir fipimir, both mentioned 
by Cottlarina {Ecdti. Orate Mom. vnL iii. pp.547, 
5fi2) H extant in MS. IG. Tritfaamiiu aiaibea 
to Evagiia* " a work on the life of the Holy Fa- 
ther* ;" bat he either refen to one of hi* work* on 
*^ the monaatic life," or haa been mitled by paaaage* 
in Otnnadio* and Jerome. It iadonbllnl, however, 
whether theta and levusl etheti of fai* writing! 
extant in HS. and Tarionaly entitled, are di*lincl 
work*, or lim^Jy compilation* oi eitnet* &<m 
•ome of the above. The genuiaenei* of eevtnl of 
the above work* mait be regarded u danbtfoL 
There are many citation* from Engrini in diSemt 
writer*, in the Scholia lo the work* of other*, and 
in the Cbtemae on diSerent book* of SeriptDte. 
Jerome attmla that hi* wo^ van genefally i^ 
in the Eaat in their ori^ud Greek, and in tbe Wcet 
in a I^tin venion made "t^ hi* diiciple EtofiBU." 

Jerome appear* to have been tbe fint to laue 
tbe cry of heieiy agaiiut Evagtina. Tbe editor* of 
tbe BibiiBliiiBa Palnaa (except Oallandiua) prefix 
to the portion* of hi* work* which they piibli*h a 
pn&toiy cBvat. He i* charged with peipetoating 
the error* of Origen, and anticipating thooa of Pe- 
bgitu- Tillemonl vindicate* him from these 
charge*. Soma of hi* opinion*.** coincident with 
tbooe of Origen, were condemned, according to 
Nicephonu Calliati, at tbe fifth geneiat (accood 
Conitantinopolitui) cooncil, A. D. 553. (Soamtn, 
Hilt. Eada. iv. S3 \ Soiomen, HiiL Ecdtt. vi. 30; 
Palladioa, /A*. Xouue. c S6, in the BSi. Pa- 
fnn, vol. liii., ed Paiia, 1G54 : Hieronymna, arf 
G^ifkoidem adv. Ptiagtamat^ OptttL, vol. iv. p. 
47G, ed. Martianiiy, Pari*. 1693 ( Greg. Naiiaiu. 
Opera, pp. 870-71, ed. Pari*, 1630 ; Gennadiiu, 
dt Virii lUtatr. ell; Suidas, >. o. EwYput and 
Mwdfui ; Nicephonu Calliiti, Aotor. Eedf. n. 
37, 42, 43 ; Trithemina, dt Ser^ilar. Ealf. e. 85 i 
Cotelerioi, £(Efn. Grate Momum. voL iii. p. 
6S, Ac, and note* ; Tillemont, Mlmoint, voL x. 
p. 368, Ac 1 Fabric £161. Orate vol viL p. 434, 
voLviiu pp. 661,679,695, vol ix. p. 3e4,dLc voL 
X. p. 10; Galiandin*, BitiioA Patrwrn, voL vii. ; 
Ondin. dammtrnt. dt Scriplor, Eaia. vol i. p. 883, 
«c. ; Cave, Hii^ U. v<d.L p. 275.ed. Oion.1 740-43.) 

5. An Evagrini, expceaaly diitingaiahed by Oen- 
nadiui from E>agrini of Pontni, viote a work 
celebrated in ita day, called AlttroaHa Mtr Tkeo- 
pialmm C^nHuaim et Siimtomcai Jwiaaan. It ia 
publiabed by Gallandinfi, (Gennadina, dt Virim 
lUmitnlnt, c. 50 ; Galiandin*, BlUiadL. Patrmm^ 
voL ix. Pmbg. p. iviL and p. 250, d«.) 

6. An Evagriiu, tDppnKd by mmie to be 
Evagriu! of Pontna, but not m if we may judge 
fiom tbe mbject, vrote s treatiie deacribfd a* Va- 



the Hbniy of the EacotiaL (Fabric. BUI. Grate. 
vol. vi. pp. 338, 967.) [J. C. H.] 

EVALCES (EiUAKiit), ij Rtend to by Athe- 
naas* (liiL p. 573) a* the author of a voA on 



4,i,.=.otGoOQ[c 



EVANDEB. 
Efbtm CEfwrwiiI). Then are ■ liw other prr- 

ncia rf tbe bor name, cooeeniing whom nothing 
if nlcrat V known. (Xen. H^ n. 1. { 40; 
JHW. GVivT. tL 3G-2.) (L. S.] 

EVANDEH (E&utpoi). 1. A uo of Hennet 
br m AiradBn Djm]^ ■ daughter of Liidon, vho 
ii oUtd Tliemi) « Nkoatnta, and in Roman t»- 
iitna Cumenta or T^nirtM. {Pan«. TiiL *3. g 2i 
Pfn. <jtaaL MotL B3; Dionja. A. R. \. 31 1 
SiTT. a^ Abl TiiL S36.) Ennder u aln called a 
BO of Ecbemns and Timandn. (Serr. ad Ae*. 
ni I3D.) Abmit nitj yean {nerioDi to the 
Tr^ nr, Erander it aid to hare led a Pdat- 
tvt coloof Eroin PallaDtinm in Ai^ulia into Ttaly. 
IV amK of thii emignitiiia wai, accoldiog to 
Uvjiiii, a cinl fend among the people, in which 
lir jntj of ETander wai defeated, and thenfore 
kft deii caontrf of their own aeeord. Seirini, 
n lb odier hand, relatei thai Ennder had killed 
lit bha at the inatigatim of hit mother, and 
l!al Ik wai obfa'ged to qnit Anadia oa that »e- 
<niK. (Srrr. oiAat. Tiii. 51 ) comp. Oe. Fati. i. 
4lg.) He lauded in Italy od tha banki of the 
TBaT, It Ae fi>at of the Palatine Hill, and wai 
l«pilaU; reeeired by king Tonnu. Aecotding 
■>> limiis (ad Aat. riiL S62), howeier, Evauder 
M jamamao of the conntry by fiirco of annt, 
Bi titw Heiilna, kinj of Pnenette, who hid 
■Mipltd to expel him. He built a town Pallan- 
tm, whid waa atibieqvmtly incorpoiated with 
RoBc, and ftera which the namei of Palatiom and 
■"itunai were beliered to hare ariien. (Vam, 
^U^ lot T. B3.) Ennder i* nid to hare 
tu^l kit iKi^bmiii milder law> and the arta of 
poa od HKial life, and e^ieeially tbe art of 
naif, with which he himself had been made 
ejoiniFd by Henda (Pint. Qfiaal. Rem. 56), 
od wmic ; he alao intrDdnced among them the 
inhtp of the Lvcaean Pan, of Demeter, Poleidon, 
HcDdo, and Nice. (Lir. i. 5; Dionyl. i. SI, Ac; 
Or. Fad. L 171, T. 91 ; Pani. L e.) Virgil (Aai. 
'&i\) Rjmenti Ennder a* Mill altTe at the 
i" ^ieti Aeneiaa aniTrd in Italy, and ai fbnning 
uiIliiKe with him agoinit the IdtinL (Comp. 
!W. md Arw. TiiL 157.) ETBider had a nn Pal- 
hi, Bd two dangfatera, Rome and Djoa. (Virg. 
■<>a.nLE7«; Serr. ad Am. i. W7 ; DionyL i. 
il) Hr wH wonhipped at Pallantiuin in Aradia, 
■ I btre, md that toa^ wai HibKiiaently bon- 
■and by the emperor Aaloninoi with lOTeial pri- 
■ir^n. Eiander'* itatne at PaflaDlium atood by 
tk tide of that of hit am Pallai. At Rome he 
hi inaliar attbe bat oftbe ATentine, (Pana. 
■iillgSj Diaiiyt.i:&) 

1 A HO ot PrUla. (ApoUod. iiL 12. § J; DicL 
Cm. in. u.) 

3- & mi of the Lycian king Sarpedon, who 
l« pait b the Tnjan war. (Diod.T.79.) [L.S.] 

EVANDER (E&u<|>Dt), a Phadan, waa the 
Pfi lod mtattK* of L«^d(a at the bead of the 
Aad(aicScboalstAtheni,iboittB.c31fi. Eran- 
m bmidf waa anceeeded by bii pnpil Hegeiinna. 
Cvoniag the oniaiimi and writingi of thii philo- 
wjta nothing ii known. (Kov. LaerL if. 60; 
(Tit Jgaf. iL 6.) ecrerat Pythagorouu of the 
"He of Erander, who were natirei of Croton, 
iltipaitiim, and Leontini, are mentioned by 
■uliliikiii {FSl Pgtk. 36), and a Cntan Erander 
Wm o Plnlareb. {Z^mA 93.) (L S.] 

E^ANDBB, AVIA-NIUS, or, a« we rend Ln 
•» Ua&s, AVIATfUS EVANDER, lived at 



EVANTHE3. S9 

Rome in B. c. £0, in a part of tbe honw of Haro- 
mioi, and w»i on fiiendly termi with Cicero, from 
whoae letten we learn that be wai a imlptor. He 
■eenii la hare been a (nedman of AL Aeinihul 
Ananini. {Ad Fam. jil 2i, xiii. 2.) [L. S.] 

EVANDER, AULA'NIUS, a aeulptor andiil- 
Ter cbaier, bom at Atheni, whence he waa taken 
by M. Antoniui to Alexandria. At the orer- 
thnw of Antony be fell inloihe power of Octaiian, 
and wai carried among the CBptivei to Roma, whara 
ha executed many admirable wo^l Pliny men- 
tiona a itatae of Diana at Rome by Timotbeni, 
tbe bead of which wai mtored by Erander. ( Plin. 
UTTi. 5. a. 1. g 10 ; Thiencb, Epodm, pp. 30S, 
304.) Some writera anppoae that Horaoe refen to 
his work! (Sal. i. 3. 90), but tbe paiaige Memi to 
bo rather a ntirical aflnrimt to Taaet priied for 
their utiqnity— aa oM aa king ETander. [P. 8.] 

EVA'NEMIJS (BUr^Mi), the girer of GiTOQr- 
ahte wind, waa a lumanke of Zeaa, onder whidi 
tha god had a anctoaiy at Sparta. (Paul. iiL 13. 
g 5 ; comp. TheoeriL xirilL 5.) [L. S.] 

EVA'NOELUS (EiUntAof}, tha beinr of 
good newL Under thii name the ibapherd Piio- 
dana had a lanctnary at Epheiiu, where ha eik- 
joyed heroic hononra, became be had found a 
qnarry of beaatifal marble, of which tbe Efdienaiu 
bunt a temple. (VilruT. z. 7.) [L. S.] 

EVANO'RIDAS (EAonpfflai) an Elcan, war 
one of the priaonen taken by Lycna of Phaiae, 
the lieutenant'geneiBl of the Adiarana, in B.C 
217, when he defeated EuupiDm tbe Aetolian, 
who had been lent, at the tequeat of the Eleani, 
to luperKde the former commander Pyrriiiai. (Po- 
lyb. T. 94.) PauMniaa (n. B) moDtioni ETanoridai 
ai baring won the boyi' piiie fbr wrettling at the 
Olympic and Nemean garnet, and aa baling drawn 
np a lilt of the Olympic Tict<«t, when he afte^ 
ward! held the office of "EAAonlMinrr. (Sea DiaL 
ifAmt. pp. 863, 864.) [E. E.] 

EVANTHB3 (EiWViii). I. Of Cyiicni, it 
quoted by Hientnymui {adv. Joan. ii. 14) aa an 
authority tor tha opinion, that at tbe time of Pyg- 
malion people were not yet in the batnt of eating 
m«t. Whether he ia tbe nme at the Eianthea 
of Cyiieiu who, according to Pautaniai (rt. 4. 
i 10) gained ■ prize at the Olymiuui garnet, it 

8. Of MtlelDt, ii meu^oned at an author by 
Diogenea LaerUai (L 29), and wemt to hare been 
an biitorian, but it otherwiie unknown. 

3. Of Samoa, a Qreek hiitorian, who ii men- 
tioned only by Plntaich. (&JL II.) There are 
tereral paiiagea iu which aulhon of the name of 
ETsntbei an referred to ; bat, their natiie coun- 
triet not being elated, it it tmcertain whether tho« 
pauwei refer to any of the threr ETanthei here 
ipeciried, or to other pertont of the lame name. 
Thni Pliny [H. N. Tiii. 2?) quolei one Eianlhea 
wbom be cull itttr a m elon a Grataaa jtoa tpniu$, 
and &om whoie work be giTes a ilalement mapeet- 
ing lonw religioui rite obHrred in Arcadia. One 
might therefore be inelined to think bim the nme 
ai the Erantbei who i* qnolad by die Scboliut on 
ApoUonini Rhodiut (i. 1063, 106.^} aa the author 
of iiaeuii. Albenaeui (ril p. 296) iprnki of an 
epic poet Eranthei. of whoie productioni he men- 
tion! a hymn la Ohiueus. [L. S.} 

EVANTHKS (YMr»>it), a painter of unknown 
date, two of wboae pietum, in the temple of Zona 
Ca£ui at Pehuinm, an deacribad very minutely 

D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



eo BUBiira. 

■ad with gamt mflbctatioii, hj AchSt* Tadni (iiL 
e— SX Tb* wa^tett of them wen, tha nioH of 
Andivoeda b; PelHiu, ud Iha nitaia of Prone- 
tkou by Haw:W. (Comp. Lodui, de Doma, 22 ; 
Philmlr. Imag. L 29.) Botb iab)«cta ■» repn- 
■ented on eiiitiog woriu of art in ■ miiniMr umilar 
la tbmt of the pietnm of Ennthei. (MiiUer, ^roi 
■t JT-Mt §39e, n. 3, {414, n. 3; PM. En. ir. 
7,61( Af*i.BoTt, T. 83, Ti SO, ix. S9; G«U, 
Pomp. pL f2.} [P. M 

EVA'NTHIUS, > ABtocicUn and gnmmuiBa, 
hi^r oologiied in tha chronicle of Sl Jetooui, 
died about a. o. 359, ii unmbend among the an- 
cient commentnton on Tettnce, and ii beUetad bj 
Ijiadenbrogini to be the ujtbor of the Brteit ifir- 
mrialia de Truffoidia et Comoedia, commonlj pre- 
fixed to the la^er edition! of the drunaliit. He 
haa •ometimei been conlonnded with Eugraphiiu, 
who belong! to ■ ranch later period. (Schofen, De 
Temtio ilDaialii fjaa ntoTnte, Bid., Bonn. 182], 
n, 37 ; Rofinna, JM Jtfatn TtmU. p. 3705, ed. 
Pntadi.) [W.R.] 

EVARCHUS (EfivXBi), lynnt of the Acuna- 
nian town of Aecacna in the fitit ^eai of the 
PtJc^mmenan war, B. c 4S1, waa ejected b; the 
Alhenuni in the nunmer and teinetated in the 
winter b; &e CorintlitaDt. (Thuc i. 30, 33.) 
Nothing ia mentioned further either of him or of 
AMbcui, bnt it it prohable that the Athenian in- 
tecnt wa« moo reatncd. (Comp. L 103.) [A.H.C.} 

EVATHLUS (E&iUm). 1. An Athenian 
(jcophaot and HOtj oialoT, mentioned by Aiiato- 
phaua. {AdanuJlO, Fap. £90, and Schol.) He 
«•■ iikewiae attacked b; Plato and Cratinua. 

3. A wealthy yonng Athenian, who placed him- 
nlf noder the tuition of Pnlagom, (or the puipow 
of learning the art of 0101017, promitiag him a 
large mm for hia inalmcliona. (Aomtding to 
Quintilian, iiL 1. g 10, he paid him 10,000 drach- 
mae.) Ad amnoog ttoiy ii told by A. Gelliua 
(*. 10; comp. Didg. LtiiU ix. 66) of the wa; in 
which be etaded paying half the money be had 
piomieed. IC. P. H.] 

BVAX, aud to have been a king of Aiatna, 
who ia mentioned in K>me editioni of Plinj {H.N, 
xiT. i) aa having written a work ** Da Simplidnm 
EITeetibiu,'' addRated to Nno, that ia, the erapenr 
Tiberiui, x. D. \i — 37. Thia pangraph, howeni, 
b wanting in the beat MSS., and haa aeooidingi}' 
been nmitled in moat modem edition! of Pliny. 
(See Salmaa. Prolegani. ad Homim. Hyla latr. p. 
15 ; Hatdoin'a Notei to Pliny, L c) He ii nid 1^ 
Maibodaa (or Harbodaena), in the prologue Id hu 
poem on PiMJOBa Slonet, to bare written a work 
OB thia nbjecl addnaicd to Tiberina, bom which 
liii own it partlj laken. A Lutin prote work, 
pro(Mtin| to belong to Em, entitled " Da Nomi- 
DJbut et Virtntjbni Lapidum qui in Aitem Medi- 

Bodlelan libiary' at Oilbid (Hatton, 100), and 
probably in other Euopean Ubiariea. The woik 
of Harbodui hat been pnbliahed and quoted under 
the name of Erax. (See Chonlant, /fuadiaiei ikr 
Siiabntwde ftir dia Aeltm Madicm, 2nd ed, 
■n. lUariaduM.) [W. A. Q.] 

EU'BIUS (EWw)- '• A Stoic pbiloaopher of 
AMaton, who 11 mentiinied only by Suphuna of 
Bynolinm. (1. e. 'Ao'intAiff.) 

3. An author of obscene erotic ttotici (ingim' 
euUUoT hilnHar, O*. TWtf. iL 416.) [L. 8.] 

EU'BIUS, Kulptor. (.Xbhocbitvi.] 



EUBULIDES. 
.EMoM),Bdtnghl<i< 
whom the itland of Enboea wat h 
derived ita name. (Bnitath. ad Htm. p.37B.) 
There ara three other mythical penonagH of ihe 
lame name. (Paua. ii. 17. g 3; Apolled. ii. l-i B; 
Alhen. lii. jil 2116.] [L.g.] 

EUBOEUS (EHeutJ of Pana. a let; cele- 
hiated writor 01 pamdiet, who lived abayt tba 
time of Philip of Macedonia. In bit poemt. whidi 
aeem to have been written in the atyle of Homer, 
ha ridiculed chiefly the Athenian!. Euboena and 
Boeotnt are !aid to bare exoelled all other piro- 
di!tt. In the time of Athenaent a oollectiao of hit 
Pamdiet in fbni book! waa atill extant, Imt all of 
them an lott with the exception of a few ihott 
frtgmenta, (Athen, it. pp. 69S, 699; coop. We- 
lai^ Dinat, di Parodur. /foaHne. &r^<iirita^ 
p. 41. *«.)_ [L. 3.1 

EUBCrrAS (Edfitnv), ■ Cyranaean, who 
gained a nctory in the fool-iBce in OL xcm. (b, c 
408), and in the chariot-race in OL civ. (a. c 
set). ThenitcanndenUadoDbtaalothename. 
DiodoRit callt him CMaroi, Xenophm tMna ; 
nor i! it qnite dear whether p^ --•■-■• - ' 



different Olympiad!, or of a doable victory gained 
on the Kcond oocaiion. (Pani. vL a. g 3, 4. g 2 1 
Diad.xiii. 68; Xen. tfeZfaa. i. 3. $ 1.) [C.P.M.1 
EUBU'LE (£MufAi|), a welt-infuaed Pytha- 
gorean lady, to whom one of the letten of Tfaeam 
ia addreated. (See J. H. WoITi MJienm Qrv 



324.) [L.S.] 

EUBITLEUS (EdfoiAa^). 1. According Is 
an Aigiva tradition, a ton of Trocbilut by an EHen- 
■inian wonun, and brother of Triptolennu ; wheroaa, 
Bceordina lo the Orphid, Enbuleui and TriptilemuB 
wen aon! of Dyaaulei. (Paua. i. 14. g 3.) 

2. One of the Tritopatoret at Athena. (Cib da 
NaL DeoT. iiL 21.) 

Eubuleot occoia alaa aa a lumame of aereial 
divinitiet, and dcwribet them at gndi of good coan- 
ael, inch a! Hade* and Diooyma. (SchoL mf A'i- 
iamd.jHa. 14; Orph, H^ms. 71. 3; Haerob^ Sit. 
i. 18; PluL^poa viL 9.) [L. S] 

EUBU'LEUS, a aculplor, whoae name ia in- 
aeribed on a headleai Heimei, The inacription 
ETBOTAETi: nPAflTEAOTi: (aic in Winckel- 
mBnn)n>aket him a aon of Pniilelet; and, accord- 
ing to Meyer, there it ne doubt that the grmt 
acniptor of that name it meant The alatne tiill 
exiHt, but in private baada. (Winckelmann, Caa- 
oUoUe d. K<mit, ix. 8, f 20 ; Viaconti, Jlfaa. 
Fio-Otm. vi. tab. 32, p. 142.) [P. S.J 

EUBU'LIDES, (EdfmrfJS^i). I. An Athe,- 
nian, who, having loat ■ caoM, in which he waa 



by getting a verdict paaaed in a very irregular 
manner by the memben of hii deme, dial h« was 
not an Athenian dliten. Euiithei! appealed to 
the dicaaU of the Heliaoi (lee Did. i/Ami, j^ v. 
AppdlaHe, Ortdc), and aocoMded in eatabliabing 
bit d ti ienihip. A apeech compcaed in hia d^eiica 
haa come down to bi among thoae of Demoatfaenes, 
bnt it, by tome critic*, perhapa vrilhoDI mAiidciit 
T<aiOQ,attribnt«d to Lytiaa. (Dem. e. BdmHA. c &.) 
3. An Athenian, ion of Sotithant and Phjlf>. 
mache, but adopted by hit maternal graudbther, 
Enbdidet. On hii behalf a auit waa oomawnDrd 
igaiiut a leialin of the it 



4,i,.=.otCioOQ[c 



'cS'^ 



■ ftaptnj, H« being atiH a 
b«T, hit h^gr, SosthnUk Appeand for hiiiL Dv- 
' ~ ' ' 'ra defeon the ^eech vpji 



Ikbi^eftka 
nrfumtlierKUialida^amrfBweliu. (Dem. b. 
Jfowt a. 1-8.) 

1 4. Tan isdiTidoiIi of tba Dams of Eobnlidaa 
■n BsatiaMd M aowiig the Ticdnu of the npoeilj 
d VHiea. One rarnuMil OnMplmi, a naliis of 
OmnriiM. the other a natln of Hertiita. (Cic e. 
r». in. 31, T. 42. 43.> [C. P.M.J 

EUBITLIDES (EMnAOvi). of Miletiu, a phi- 
iMfter wbo bsloDged to lh« Hugaric lehixJ. It 
a Ht Hated wbetbcr be wai the immediate or a 
hat mm IT of Euetrida (Diog. L^art. iL 1081; 
Mr ii it aud whether be waa an tliet or yoruigtr 
rialniipaaty of Aiiitnlle, a^mt whom be wrote 
■itk gnat bittenwaa. (Diog. Laeitii. 109; Atheo. 
™ pk 3S4 ; AiiMnt. i^ Euieh. Pnep. Ev. it. 2. 
t'in.) The etatement that Demoethenen arailld 
biKlf d hie dialectic initraction (Plat. Vit. X 
0^f.Hi; Apol. Onildg^ajl. p.lB,ed.Bip.i 
FiN.AU.ail. 265, p. 193, ed. BeVk.) i> allnded 
a ifag in a fragment of an anonjmooi comic poet, 
(u. Diog. I^rt ii. lOB.) Then it no mentioii 
■( liii hanng written anj- worki, hat he ii »id to 
hitiiicDied the tbrnu ^Kren] of the motlcele- 
bud Ur and otptioo* tjUogiimi (Diog. l^itt. 
1 f.). Hoe of wbicfa, boweTei, Hich aa the ttiAaw- 
mvad ibe nfurrfnii, were aiciibed b; athen 
It Ike htet Diodoma dona* (Diog. Lant. L 111), 
ui KTcnl of tbem an allDded to b; Amtotle 
ud em bf Phto. Thiu the t,*uia\uiiMm, 
Imtm Hi tir er 'HAJrrpa, wkuh an difierent 
usa fur one and the lame fonn of ijlloginu, ae 
■d ■• the ^liSitiMnt and itpKtlnit, Dccor in 
Aiubtle {EL Sopk. 21. 25, S2), and pvtiBlJj a)u 
iiPlMii{£k%i£.p. 276, Gomp. TleoetK. pp. IGfi, 
i:i.} We lannot indeed aecertain what molirca 
EiWidi* and ether Mmumi had in fbrmtng tneh 
?Digkai, DOT ia what Mnn thej wan dreved up, 
M mnmt at tb* eaatineai of our inlbtmattOD 
V lUt panian of the hiiloij of Oie^ philoto- 
P^r; ^ *e maj anppoM, with the higheit degno 
■f intiabili^, that Uwy w«n dinclad eipceiallj 
fma Ae icnnaliitie and hTpothetkal proteed- 
i<«> of the Suiea, and MTtly dM agaiuM tbe defi- 
uina of Aiiatolla and the Plaloniita, and thai 
t^ avn intended to eitabliib the Hegaric doc- 
B^ of the unplieitj of eiiotcnce, which could be 
mind at ool; b; diitct thoDght. (H. fUtUr, 
€4tr iit Mtgar. Stt^ ia NiAArnd anadif 
BUm. i/aa. iL p. -J85, &e. ; Bnndii, GoaL dtr 
'>«! RSm. PkOot. L p. 122, &c) Apolloniua 
tram, the teaeba of Diodonu Cnaiu, and the 
kiouraa Eophautiu, an msntioiud aa pnpili of 
EdnUdaa. [CH.A.B.] 

KUBITLIDES (BM«AA«t), a itatBai;, who 
"it a p<Bt Totin oSering, wodMiDg of a paof 
d Ikiitcca atetaea, iiameir, Athena, Paeonia, Zeua, 
id Apollo, which he de- 
«e temple of DioDjnu, in 
L3.$l.) Plinj meuligoa 

a of ens coontiug on hii fingen (xziIt. H, 

29, (ccuriing to Hardmn** 



KUBULU8. 61 

In the year 1837 the great group of Enhnlidea 
in the Cenmeicaa waa diacoTered. Near it wai a 
fragment of an ioicription ...XEIPO^I KPIIIIIAHX 
EnOIH^EN. Another inacriptiou wu found near 
the Enchtheam, ...JXEIP KAI ETBOTA1AH3 
KPmnAAI EnOlHSAN. (Bikkh. Cofp. Imcr. 
I p. Mi, No. 666, tuxDf. Add. p. 916.) Fran 
a corapariaon of tbeie inimptiona with each 
other and with Puuaniaa (viii. 14. § 4), 
it ma; be inferred that the firat inacriptiou 
■bould be thuB completed : ~- ETBOYAIAfia 
nXElPOl KPnniAHS EHOIHZEN, and that 
there waa a bmil j of eitiata of the Cropeian demoi, 
of which three geneiatioua an known, nimelj, 
Snbalidea, Eucheii, Eobolidei. The anhilectual 
charadei of the monument and the forme of the 
letten, alike ahew that theto ioacriptiona mtut be 
lefemd to the time of the .Roman dnninion in 
Oreece. (Roaa, inthe A'aaKUaa,aS37,N&S3,&c.) 
Tbieracb Mm« to a like eoaclouon on other gronnda, 
iS^»dim,n. l^.) [P. 8.] 

EUBITLUS (EitfaiAof}, ■ ton of Ormanot 
and father of Canne. (Pant. iL 30. g S.) Thia 
name likewiio ocenia at a aurriraw of aarual diri- 
niliea who were regarded ai the anthDrt of good 
eoonael, or aa weltdiapoaed i ^oDgh when applied 
lo Hadea, it ii, like Eubuleiu, a mere eopbemiHu. 
(Orph. Hymn. 17. 12, 29. 6, &S. 3.) [U S.] 

EUBUXUS, AURE'LIUS of EmcB, chief 
anditor of the eiehequer (Todi iaiBi\e» Xiyaut 
twirrrpaiititroi) under Elagabalua, leudeied him- 
■elf ao odiont bj hia r^iadty and eilortion, that 
upon the death of hii patmn the tyrant, he waa 
torn Id piecet bj tba loldien and people, who had 
long clamoroDal]- demanded hia deatiuction. (Dion 
Can. liiii. 21.) [W. H.] 

EUBU'LUS, one of the eommiaaian of Nine 
qipointed b; Theodoaiiu in a. d. 429 to compile a 
code apon a plan which wai aflerwarda abandened. 
He bad before that dale filled the office of magiiter 

couunijiiDu of Sixteen, which cooipiied the eiiit- 
ing Theodonan code upon an altered plan. He 
then fignrea u comea and quaealor, with the title* 
illnatiii and lugDifieue, The emperor, howerer, 
in mentianing thoae who diitingniahed thenuelTea 
in the eoinpoaitioa of hia code, doea not iignaliie 
Bnbnlua. [Duidohub, n>L i. p. lOlB.j (J- TO] 

EUBUXUS (EMoiAh), an Athenian, the ion 
of Enphianor, of the Cettian demui, waa a lerj 
diatingiuahed eomie poet of the middle comedy, 
Sonriued, accord lug to Snidai (as.), in Uie lOlat 
Olympiad, b. c 37|. It thia date be correet (and 
it ia conflimed b; the atalemeul that Philip, the 
aon of Ariatophanei, wa* one of hit rivala), Eubuln* 
mnat hare eihibited comediea for a long aetiea of 
yeaiij for he ridiculed CollimedDn, the contempo- 
rary of Demoalhenea. (Athen. riii p, 340, d.} It 
ia clear, theiefote, that Suida* ia wrong in placing 
Eubulni on the confinea at the Old and the Middle 
Comedy. He ia eipfcialy aiaigned b; the author 
af the Etymoiagmm Magiam (p. 451. 80) and by 
Aromaniiu [i. n. Mar) lo the Middle Comedy, the 
duration of which begint toit Utile belbie him, and 
extendi lo a period veiy liltk^ if at alt, after bim. 

Hie playi were chiefly on nythdogical inbject*. 
SeTeral of tbem contained pandiea of paaaeget 
from the tngic poela, and eipedally btm Euri- 
pidei. There are a lew inatancea of hii attacking 
eminent indiridualt by nana, aa Philocratei, Cy- 
diat, Callimedcoi, IMonjain* the Qiant of Sjrncna^ 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



e3 EUCHEIR. 

and CallUtntui. Kb Miartimc* ridienlr* flnnet 
of penoni, bm the Theban* in hu 'Arrufrii, 

Hlb language a ftimpln, eleguit, and generally 
pure, cDUtoinini; few wwdi which are not fniuid id 
wiiten of the beai period. Like Antiphanett, he 
waa flxtenuvely pillaged b^ later poeta, aa, for 
example, b^ Alexii, OfJielion, and Ephippui. 

Suidaa gives lbs nomber of the playi of Eubulna 
at lot, ofwhicb then an extant mon than SO titlei, 
nameljt ^A-yttuAitery 'ATxInjr, ^AtiAA.&tta, *Arant^i- 

ranuintiTa, rtiaSim, AaJk^st, AajuAlot it a 
eoiTupt tide (Snid. m. t. 'Aaiat\iJ{iw), (or which 
Meintke would read Aa/iair(ai, AtuiaAJw, Aiani- 
tnat, in which he appear* to hare ridicnled the 
confuiion which prerailed in all the oirangementi 
of the palace of Dionj-aiiu (Schol. ad Arab^ 
TioBi. 136), ^lirvaoi, or, according la the fbller 
tilte (Athen. li. p. (60, e.), Zt^j^q 4 Aiinaai, 
&6>Mr, Eipiti^, Zapifrn, 'Hxi), 'l(Uiy, '!<•', KoAo- 
Sni^DfMt, Ki^inAliH (doabtfnl), KuTiucaXAiJfKvui 
(doubtful), Ktpimni, lU>i)alJ;>ii, KnpLiaXils, Kv 
ttuTol, Aifmm 4 A^a, M^a, Mu\ti9plt, Kuaoi, 
Mryar, Namrutio, Sirrrh, SoSBot, 'OJi«<»vt, 

4 narrfrTai, OSiimrt. Oltdfuui 4 nfAoifi, X>A(fa, 
*OfUrjjj, lUji^iAat, nuTVx'i, IIiwurloiEoi, nAar- 
■fdr, TltfintivKis, npHpit, UposaLiala 4 Kiimi, 
STt^oKiic^Ed, Z^^y7sl^lpIl■r, Tirflal, Tirant, 
*o(fi{, Xi^T.i, X/HwlAAo, »i{AT(iui, {Meinelce, 
/^ai^ On* Grow. *ol. i. pp. MS— 367, to!, ill. 
pp. -^03—272 ( Clinton, FbMl. Hell. lub ann. 
B. c. 37B ; Fabric BiU. Gnuc tdL ir. pp. 44-2— 
4«.) . [P. 8,] 

EUCADMUS (EinS^Mt). an Athenian aculp- 
lor. the teacher of ANDaosTuiNKa. (Pani. i. 19. 

5 3.) [P. S.1 

EUCA'MPIDAS (EdmiM'Itcu), lea pnperly 
EUCA'LPIDAS (EibmAvUaf), an Ansdian of 
Msenalui, it mentjoned bjr DemMthene* aa one of 
thoie who, for the take of prinite gain, became 
the inatnuDcnta of Philip of Macedon in aapping 
tba independeoce of Ifaeit Ganntiy. Polvbiui cen- 









igingi 



■weeping n chaige againit a nimber of 
guiihed men, and defenda Uie Anaidian* and Mea- 
■eniani in particniar for their connexion with Phi- 
lip. At the wont, he layi, they ore chajgeable 
only with an enorof judgment^ in not teeing what 
waa belt fiir their country ; and he thinlu that, 
eren in thit point, they were jnitified by the re- 
■ult,— ai if the reinit might not have been diBer- 
ent, had they taken a diSetent oooih. (Dem. dt 
Cjt. pp. 2tj, 334 i Polyb. irii. 14.) [C1NU8.] 
Eucatnpidai it mentioiied by Pautaniaa Ivili. 27) 
u one of thoae who led the Maenalian Htden to 
Megalopolia^ to (bnn part of the population of the 
new city, B.C. 371. [E.E.] 

EUCHEIR (Efx><l>). It one of theta namea of 
Onciao artitla, which are fint nied in the my- 
thological period, on aeconnt of their tignificancy, 
but which wen aflerwuldi given to real penona. 
[CHUIU80PHUS.] 1. Eocheir, aralation of Dae- 
daloa, and the inTenun of painting in Oreeco, ao- 
oording to Ariatotle, ii no doubt only a mylhical 
pencnaga. (Plin. nL 66.) 

S. Eucheir, of Corinth, who, with Bugtamnnu, 
followed Demuattu into Italy (b. c 664), and 
introduced the pbatie art into Italy, ihanld probft- 
bli be conudered alao ■ mythical penonage, deaig- 
natlng the period of Etroacan art to which the 
aoriiMt painted naei bdong. (Plin. ixir, 12. a. 



EUCHERIUS. 
. XXXI. S ; Thiencb, £^ 
iUer, AnA. d. KmmM, § 

orinth and at All 



75.) 



I all 



waa beredilary. The following an known. 

3. Eucheirua ( EJx<>«>o<i for to Pauianiu gicet 
the name) of Corinth, a itatnary, waa the pupil of 
Syadraa and Chartoi, of Sparta, and the teacher of 
Clesiihut of RhcgiuiD. (Pant. vi. 4. i 2.) Jle 
mut thenfore have flouriihed abont the 65th or 
66th Olympiad, s. c 520 or 5l(i. [CuiaTia. 
PrTHAnaiiaH or Rheoiuh.] Thia ■ pnbably 
the Eochir whom Pliny mentiont among ihote 
who made*tanieiofathletea,&c. {H.N.xxni.K. 
i. !9, 1 S4.) 

4. Eucheir, the aon of Eubulidea, of Atfaeni, a 
iculptor, made the marbte atatne of Henoca, in hia 
temple at Pbeneua in Arcadia. (Paai. Tiii. U. 
§ 7. ) Something man it known of him thnngh 
inKriptioni diieovered at Athene, in reference to 
which tee EDBL-Ltnai. [P.S.] 

EUCHEIRUS, ilatuaiy. [Ei'chur, No. 3.) 
EUCHE'NOR (E>Jxi|»>p). a ton of CMtaaut 
and grandion of Polyidui of Megara. He took 
part in the Trajan war, and waa killed. (Paua. i. 
43. § 5.) In Homer (//. iti. G6S) he it called ■ 
ton of the aeer Polyidui of 'CJorinlh. Then an two 
other mythical penonaget of Ihil namb (Apollod. 
ii. I. § 5 ; Euttath. ad Horn. p. 1839.) [L, S.] 

EUCHE'RIA, the authoreai of liiteen elegiac 
coupleta, in which the givei Tent to the indignation 
excited by the propotole of an unworthy initor — 
ttijnging together a long tenet of the meat abwrd 
and nnnatural combinationt, all of which are to bo 
coniidered at filtJng and appropriate in compariaon 
with inch an union. The id« of the pieca waa 
evidently mggeited by the Virgilian linet 
Mopio Nita datur; quid non apenmot amantee ? 
JnngenOujam grypei eqnii) aeioqne aequenti 
Cum omibni timidi Tenient ad pocnla damae, 
while in Cone and tpirit it b«n tome na e mfalance 
to the Ibit aacribed to Old, and to the Dine of 
Valeiiui CaXa. The pnnunpluoul wooer it tslled 
a rmitiau ttrtrnt, by which we muit clearly nndrr- 
itand, not a tlave in the Roman acceptatian of the 
leim, hut one of thoae villam or leifi who, accord- 
ing to the ancient [nctice in Gamany and Oaal, 
wen conudered at part of the lire ttock indiaaolo- 
bty bound to the toil which they cultirated. From 
thia drcnmatance, from the introduction here and 
then of a barbaroui word, from the &ct that moat 
of the original MSS. of ttaeae vertet were fonnd in 
Fnuice, and that the name of Encherim waa com- 
mon In thai country in the 6fUi and lixth centit- 
riea, we may form a gueaa aa to the period when 
thia poeteat flouriahed, and Ba to the land of ber 
natifity ; but we poaieii no evidenee which am 
entitle ut to tpeak with any degree of conlideDce. 
(Wemidorf; Foil. Lai. Mi*. toL iii. p. Iit. and 
p. 97, ToL ir. pt. ii. p. 627, toL t. pt. iiL p. 145B ; 
Oonunn, Anllial. Lot. t. 133, or n. 365, ed. 
Meyer.) [W. R.] 

EUCHE'RIUS, hithop of hyimt, wai bom, 
during the latter half of the (bnnh century, of an 
illuitiiona family. Hit father Valerianut ii by 
many believed'to be the Valeiianut who abeat thia 
period held the office of Pnefecraa Galliae, and 
waa a near relation of the emperor ATitni. En- 
cherim married Qallia, a lady not inferior to bim- 
■elf in ttation, by whom he had two aona, Saloniua 
and Veranini^ tod two daughleri, Corautia and 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EtICHERIUS. 

ToUii. Abaot t>v jnr J. ■>. 410, wUle M 



EUCLEIDES. 



es 



li»Tifcud frmilj, fiin to LcRD*(LaiiHi(n).aDd 
(■■n thorn to the BcighbaoRDg itland of Lc» or 
" "" ' ' a be lind the life of ■ bsinit, 
ID rrf* hii chddm, 
tin* of religion. 
in thic ndoded apot, he «e- 
■ npatatkNi for louning and luo- 
ctf, thai hs «u ehnwn Eriihop of Ljou about 
A, B. 431, A digoitj onjojod bj lum anlil bii 
doth, wkkfa it belimd to )uto happened in 450, 
uidtf the •npemrn VmlnitiniBniii III- and Muct- 
uiu. Vcmiia* vu appcinted hia niecefwr in 
lir cpBeDpt] chair, while Salonini bcauno the hod 
<f ihechudi M Oawrt. 

The foOowiBft vsika bear the name of thii [ae- 
Jtt: I. Di laadt Enaii, wnttai nboDt the jfZ 
i. n. 428, in the fom of an e|riitla to Hilaiiiu of 
Arti. It maid appear that Eocheriu, in hii 
pwga ht a aalitiuy life, bad at one tim* fotmad 
M ;n^ of Tuiting Egypt, thai h< nught profit 
in tha li^t examplt of the aacboreu who 
llvno(nt the deierU near the Nile. " 



11 [ClB 






pMbjiddteanng 

ia diich an paiiolcd in nth litaty coloiin tho 
bbio and nle* ponntd I7 the monka and tn- 
Klnaf theThehud. The enthuiasn eidied by 
ciHi d«taib oUsd forth the letter faeaiii^ the 




■ajUiBK, or, a* the title aoiDetimea appcan, 
i^fima tpiribJit imb&nlia, divided into eleven 
'iaftaa, tentaiBiiig an eipeaition of man; phiaan 
•xtf teita in Seriptnn npon allegwial, tjpiea], 
ud ayitical principleh 

4. ImmcHmmm Libri II. ai SabmiKm jUtuL 
Thr fa« book tnata ■* Do QsaertionibiiJ diffldlio- 
nk" Vetera et Noti Teataroenti." the aeeoDd 
ceatnua ^ Ezpli^tionea nofninnm Hfbiakonun." 




^••^nBtw; bat, with the emptjon of tbev nen- 

Bonnl ihnt (S), thebaic hcfieied to have periahed. 

NegBa|buedl>etionorth<woi1iaof Eiuberint 

MfvUnprifiihad. The nioiB editiou of 



the •apaiBte . tracta aie careftdl; enmneiated by 
SohommanD, and the greater namber of them will 
be (bimd in the " Chronologia S. intnlae Lerinen- 
lia," by Vincentiua Bairalia, Lngdun. 4to. 1613 ; 
in ** D. Encberii Lag. Epiac. doctiaa. Lucnbrntione* 
cDia Joannii Aleiaudri fiiaaaicanl,^ Buil. foL 
1531; in the SOUoOeai Palnm, Colon, fol. 1616, 
ToL T. p. 1 ; and in the Bi6L foL Man. Lngdun. 
fcL 16?:, ToU Ti. p. 8-22. (Qennad. d« VirU. lU. 
c 63; Schoenemaiui, AiU. Poima. Zdt. ii. § 36.) 

Thii Encberioa ma>t not be confounded with 
another Oanliah prelate of the aame name wbo 
flonriihed during the early part of the aiith cen- 
tury, and vai a member of eccleaiaatical couucilt 
hekl in Oaul daring the ycura A, D. £24, £27, 529, 
The latter, althongh a biihop, waa certainly not 
biahop of LyonL See Joe. Antelmiui, JaMrftopro 
■ncv S, EadKrio Utgivtan tpiaosHtOf Pana, 4to, 
1726. 

There ia yet another Encherina who waa bitbop 
of Oriean* in tha eighth century. [W. It.] 

EUCLEIA (Eilvi^da), a divinity who waa woi> 
•hipped at Athena, and to whom a aanctnary wu 
dedicated then out of the apoiLa which the Athe- 
nian) had taken in the battle of Marathon. (Pana. 
i. 14. § 4.) Tbe goddeaa waa only a penonifiotion 
of the ^oFy which the Alheniani had reaped in 
the day of that memomUo battle. (Comp. Biickh, 
Carp. IncrifL n. 268.) Eucleia wai alio uaed at 
Athena aa a Bumame of Artnuia, and her aanctoaiy 
waa of an eariier datA, (or Eocbidaa died in it. 
(Pint. Aria. 30 ; Eucuinia.) PIntarch remarka, 
that many took Eucleia for Artemio, and tbna 
made her the Hme oa Artemia Eucleia, bnt that 
othen detctibed her aa a daughter of Heiaclea and 
Myito, a danriilar of Menoetina; and he adda that 
tliu Eodeia died aa a '"""'i and wai worabipped 
in Boeolia and Ldcim, where abe had an allar and 
aatatne in every market-place, on which penonaon 
the ptrint of manying uaed to ofler aacrifitet to her. 
Whether and what connexion there eiialed be- 
tween the Attic and Boeotian Eucleia ia unknown^ 
though it ia pnlsble that the Attic dinnity waa, 
aa ia remarked above, a mere pereooificatian, and 
conaequently quite independent of Endeia, the 
daughter of Heiaclea. Artsmii Eucleia bad aleo a 
■ nple at Thebea. (Pana. ix. 17. § 1.) [L. 8.] 

EUCLEIDES (EniAtUqi) of Alixahohru. 
The length of thii article wUl not be blamed by 
any one who conaidera that, the eacred wrttera 
excepted, no Greek baa been 10 mock read cr eo 

-' loily tmntlated u EncUd. To thii it may be 

d, that there ii hardly any book in our Ion- 

gttue in which the young acfaolar or the young 

lanie which ila celebrity wonld make him 

did haa dmoat peen hia own name to the 
« of geoiDetiy, in orery oonntry in which hia 
tga are atndied ; and yet all we know of hia 
« hiitory amounta to very little. He lived, 
according to Pndua (Cbian. M £aio<. iL 4), in the 
time of the fim Plolemy, a. c. 323— SB3. The 
forty year* of Plolemy'i reign are probably Ihoae 
of Enclid^a age, not of hia youth ; for had he been 
d in Ue echoed of Alexandria formed by 
Plideny, who invited thither men ti neU, Proctni 
wonld pnbaUy have given na the name of hia 
teacher : but taditim rather make* EncUd the 



than ila pnph Thia point ia vary material to lb* 

D,4,i,.=.otCoc>^[c 



S4 EUCLEIDES. 

fonudoDttajmtofanhin of Eaclid*> wtiting* ; be 
mu, ws tM, a younger cantcmpoiary of ArutsUc 
(u. c tS4— 8^2) if we mppoK him la hiTe been of 
maton age when Ptofemj begta to pationite liuia- 
K likely -' 



if Bl iiU. Td ue it ieen» slmael 

■troettire of Euclid*! vritingi, that he had 

nad Ariitotle! on thii luppoiition, we paia o 

!• perfectly natnial, thingi which, on the conn 

ODti, wonld haTc leeniad to ihew gnat wmt at 

jodgmnit, 

Euclid, my* Proctm, wu yonngei than Plato, 
and older than EntMtbenei aud Archimei' 
btler of whom mantioni him. Ha wai 
Platonie aecL, and well read in ita doctrini 
coUerled the Element!, put into ordel D 
what EudoTU! had done, complcled many thingi 
oF Theaeteloi, and wu the fatt wha reduced 
to unohjeclionable demonttration the imperfect 
attampta of hit predeceaaorL It vai hii an- 
!vrr to Ptoteroy, who aiked if gsometry could 
not be made oaier, thai there waa no ro;nl road 

Thit piece of wit ha* had niiny imilatan ; ** Qne 
liable" nid a Fiench Dobleman la Rahault, hii 
taacber of geometry, ** pannail entendre celaP* 
la which the aniwer waa " Ce aeiail nn diable qai 
aniaJt do la patience." A itoiy luuilar to that ol 
Euclid ia ralaled by Senea (Ep. 91, cited by An- 
gait) of Alexander. 

Pappu! (lib. viL n pn^.) !tatei that Euclid wu 
diitingniihed by the binieii and kindneia of hii 
diipoiitioD, particularly towaidi thou who could 
do anything la adTiooe the mathematieal teiencea 
bat u he ii hen eridently making a contiait t 
ApoUoniui, of whom ha more than inunnatei i 
diieetly coDtcaiy chanteter, and u be liTed mor 
than bur centorie* afW both, it ii diffienU to gii 
u of knoving lo much abou 






either. At the ■ 
that he had ni((M 

leal. On the tami 

of Nuir-eddla and other Eaatomi ia not to be 
entirely rejected, who atate that Euclid wu apnmg 
orflnek paimli, aellled at Tyn ; thalbalifod, ' 
one time, at DaniaKU ; that hia EiUher'a name w ._ 
Nancratei, aod giand&Iher'a Zenarchna. (Angut, 
wbo (ilea Oarti, At /ateryir. £W. ^nii.) " - 
againit thii aoooant that Eulodai of Aiolon 
hmtaat It. 

At one time Eadid wa* 
with Euclid of Megan, wt 
belon him, and beard Sooulei. Valerioi Maximu* 
hu a itoiy (Tiii. 12) that thoae who came to Plato 
abonl the conitmction of the celebrated Dclian 
allar wcra referred by him to Euclid the geometer. 
Tbi! itory, which muit needi be blae, lince Euclid 
of Megan, the Gontempoiary of Plato, wai not a 
geometer, ii probably the 



of the 



* Thii celebrated anecdote bnaki off in the 
middle of the aentence in the Baale edition of 
Produa. Berociua, who had better manuacript^ 
anppliei the Idtin of it ; and Sir Henry Sanle, 
who had manaacripli of all kmdi in hit awn li- 
bniy, quolea it u above, with only i*i for wpii. 
Aoguit, in hia edition of Euclid, baa giren thii 
eh^Mr aC Pndui in Oreek, but without ayiog 



Haileti Ikinka that Emieiau ahonU be md for 

£WU in the f^Magc of Vileriua. 

In the Enmtiipiece to Whiilon'i Inulation of 
Tacquet*! Euclid there it a buit, whtdi ii aid to 
be taken from a bnu* coin In ' 
Cfariitina of Sweden ; but no n 



the qneen of Sweden. Sidoniui ApoUinaiia eayi 
(Epiik n. 9) that it wu the cnitom to paini Eodid 
with the Gngen eiteaded (AhoIv), u if in the 

The hiatory of geometry beton the time ef 
Euclid ia giren by Pnclua, in a manner which 
ihewi that he ia manly making a iummuy tl well 
known or at leaat generally receifed facli. He 
bcgini with the abiurd iloriea to often repealed, 
that the Aegyptiant were obligrd to invent gro- 
metry in orfet to reeoier the landmarka which 
the Nile deatnyed year by year, and that the 
Phoeniciani woe equally obliged to iUTent aiilh- 
metic for the want* of their cemmeRe. Thales he 
goet DO to lay, bnnight thJi knowledge into Greece, 
and added many thing*, attempting aome in a 
general manner (mtfaXiacirepor) and aome in a 
percepIiTe or aenaiUa manner (■lahrrinwr^iar}. 
Pioclu clearly nfan to piymal diaeoTery in geo- 
metry, by meamemeut of inttanoea. Next i> 
mentioned AmcritMa, the brother of Stniehonia 
the poet. Then Pythagomi changed it into tho 
(onn of a liberal teienee (nuMoi iKtMpm), took 
higher TJewa of the aubject, and intealigated hia 
theonma immaterially and intdleetmlly (dtAn 
ml ntpvr) : he alto wnta on incommenanrable 
qnantiliea [i^iyii], and on tho mnndane figures 
(the five regohu miida). 

BaradDa, whoae I^n edition of Proclua baa 
been generally followed, aingulariy enough tnn*- 
latea i\oya by faoe mm ejjjticari poMmmtt and 
Taylor followi him with " mch thii^ aa cannot 
be eifJained." It it ttiange that two really loiined 
tdilora of Eoclid't oonmentalor aboiild Iwre btFO 
ignorant of one of Euclid*! technical temu Then 
come Anaxagoru of Claaomenae, and a little after 
him Oenapidei of Chioi ; then Hippocratf* of 
Cbioi, who iquand the lunnle, and then Theodonia 
of Cyienb Hippocialea ia the fint writer of ele- 
mtoti who it recoidcd. Plato then did much Inr 
geometry by the mathematical character af hia 
writing! ; Uen Leodamoa of Thaaua. Aichytaa of 
Tarentum, and Theaetelut of Athena, gaie a more 
•eienti6cbaiia(jTi(mijioruwrJpBi'eA7T«™)to t»- 
riona theorem! ; Neodeidea and hia diaciple Leon 
cameafter the preceding, the latter of whom inereaa- 
edboih the extent and utility of the •dence.in pir- 
licuhit by finding a leit (Siopuiiir) of whether tha 
thinH prapoied be pouible'orimpoiaiUe. Eudoxus 
of CniduK, a little younger than X^on, and the 
companion of thoae about Plata [Eirnoxtrs], in- 
cmied the nnmber of general theoremi. added 
thne proportionB to the three alnttdy eiiating, and 
in the thingi which eoncem the tection (of the 
cone, no doubt) which wu atarted by Plato him- 
■elf. much increaaed their number, aud employed 
analyaea upon them. Amyclai Heracleotea, tho 
companion of Plato, Menuchmui, the diadple of 
Eodoiu and of Plato, and hit brother DeinoatratDa, 
made geometry man perfect. Tbtudina of Magn e aia 

* We cannot well nnderitaod whether by Sima- 
rir Produa mtana geometrically aoluble, or poaaible 
in tlw commmi aeiue of the woid. 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EVCLEimS. 
fatfdbid ^mj pniealat prapoiitlaiu. Cjrid- 
■D of Atfccni WM bit MMcmponrr ; tbej look 

Tim at Cakpboa ad^d la wlut lud been done 
bfSidBxvndThcaMMai, iiaamctd elemoiUrT 
pi f w li iiii^ ad «iMe mwtliiiu on lod. Philip 
[< HfiMB, otboi nod Hri^Hiuif, Bmoiu mdi 
Ho^wX th* fbUomr of Pkto, nade rau; dw- 
titauJBl iDquiriM coDDftcMd (rilli hig msMn't 
|Uw|>tf. TloM vbo wriU on tha hiitoij of 

rtiy tring the camplstinn of thii leiaice Ibni 
fla« Preciai emtmij idum to •nittoi hi*- 
Uy, ai ID ■mthfr jSta bajaitiailiilj menlioni 
fli kuncT of EndoMiii th* Paipuetic 
Tkii UiMj of Pradu hu been mndi lupt ' 

■' ■ ■ hMld ahDMt m 1 

U wbk it dMBld 



OBibiilMd aod mmnikMo ijitem nruig at 
«B fim tba bnin iif Endid ; «iuaMdHiDwn 
haOthMdafaJaplcT. But PtdcIdh ai nnch 
I nr^ippcT u anr of tlttm, nnut hati had the 
■w baa, and ii UMnfbn pankolail j worth; of 

mMn a «kei bo citH initial hif 

■te wai iH< done 1^ Enidid. Uaka tl 



Pn^ «f Newton. Bat niU, bi Iving the 

rf 9K ipnioa of thia u co gi eia down to •omslhiiig 
Ant <f prinltal woDOCT, wa an told that denon- 
■naa W been ^Tes. that aoBMthing had bean 

■aUn, naauiag « loo, ■imethina on nlidi ; 
<t>aMlr«^ bean mlied, ttet the coDic no- 
m hd been ikmgfat < that the Hamanta Ind 
iat dhthigHiihail fion tha raat and writtan on. 
fnwwkat HipfotiBlw had dane,** know that 
^ i^Manl iNvjotlj of tha rigfatangjed tnangle 
*■• kaawn ; we rdj nnch noia en tha Innnla 
<t>a n Oe Mn abont PrthagoiwL The diipata 
■' ■■ '- ' ■ "»,">d 



id 1 Ibr to keeping 

, tf of thii poblam dei~~ ' 

It vll b* aaOTenient to nak lepaately i 
BnataT Aatti,M lo lha& eontenta; and 
*><• to acDtioD tham UbliogiwhkaU;, a „ 
ti> «kr wiitb^i, Tbe book whuh paiiaa nndcr 
tia Mae, ai gjnn by Rabat Sinnoo, mwuop- 
■JaaMan ffln wu^y OJaMft^UBOtakalMed 
^pnHanMar ■ py idea of the ilmmti ^ 
^■'i' ; bat it ia adaiinuil; adapted to confbaa, in 
>>• ^ad if tha Toang etodont, lO tfcoM Dotiona of 
■Bl (ritiBs iriti^ hb other inrtrnctan are 
a^BNatiag to metO. Tha idea that BucUd nrnet 
^pofact W got pnawwian of the geoawtikal 
*7U; HBatdiBglr **^ editor, whan ha made 
**B ha leak to ba an aUention for the better, 
■■■vad that ha WM nriorw, mt umdw, the 
"VmL If tha beeka of Ut* wen to i» n- 
^^ apt* the hue of Niebohi, and tha roalt 
Wwd la be tbe nal tan, then Ijij would no 
y*» ikara tha fate of Eodid ; the onl; dif- 
™" ^*^ ^I^ t^ Ibnaer would nndergo a 
—P* ^aMtnj of BbandMi than edilan hare Han 
* ■• iMBct apea the iMtar. Thk i* no caikatDn ; 
'■t' Udid, »* Robert Snm, laTa, wHhoat 
^■dffiuiiearfMnporaid t«» at tbebe- 



EUCLEIDES, S5 

Mtipt luppoitt him : hov, then, did he know t 
He aaw that then cmgU to hara been mch a defi- 
nition, and he oondnded that, therefore, then Wai 
be* one. Now we \ij no meaiu uphold Enelid 
a* an all-nUBdent guide lo gcometi;, tfaongb wa 
fuel that it ii to himMlf that wa owe the power of 
amending hii writing! ; and we hope wa majr pr^ 
tait againit the aenunption that he could not uTa 

Soma of tha oharactatiatica of the fbnuab ate 
briefly ai foUowi:^ 

Fint. Then ii a total abnnni of diitinetioa 
between the taiitaia ways in which we know tha 
mtaning of tenm : csttainlj, and nothing DUn, ia 
the thing aonght. The definitiDn of ttnightiiH^ 
an idM whidi it ii impoanUa to put intn umplei 
worda, asd wUch ii tSenfam dennbed b; a man 
difficolt ciiaindoctition, cODei nnder the nme 
beading a* the mlaaation of the word " panUeL" 
HoDoa diapotaa about tha coireetseia or incomet- 
neia of man j of the definitiani. 

Sacondlf. Then ia no diitinction belwaen pn»- 
■nd tSoaa 



dtiona an identicallj the nme. Thui, 
•hewn that OTeiy point of & aula which ia not the 
cantn ii not one fmn which thne equal itiaight 
linea can be drawn, be eanoot in(« that anj point 
from which Ihraa equal Hiaight liitaa an diawn ia 
the oentra, bat hu itead of a new demouMntlon. 
Thna, long befiae he waota to uaa book L prop. 6, 
ha hai proTod it again, and independeatl; . 

Thiidly. He hai wt the OHdleal notion of 
admittitaanygiinefaliwidnnofa woid,oroffrt- 
ing with aOT ozdinazj notion attached to it» 
Setting out with tha eoaeeption of an angle nthel 
01 the ahaip comai made by the nxaling of twa 
line* than ai the magnitude which he afterwatda 
ihewa how to meaaun, he Derei gela rid of that 
oomar, nam admita two right onglee to mika 
one angle, and Mill laat ii aUa lo aiiira at the 
idea of an angle gieatet than two right anglaa. 
And when, in the laat propodtion « Ihe eixth 
book, hia definition of proportioD abeolotely nqnina 
lliat ha ihould naion on anglae of areu mon than 
bar right an^aa, he lakea no notice of Ihia necea- 

■igfat, whether Euclid tbonghl the eiteniion one 
whicb the itudent oould make lor bimielf. ol 
whether (which baa aomatinua itmek n* aa not 
'*' 1I7) the eUmanta wen hia laat worit, and he 



ie lolilaTj can, Euclid ae 



la to hare made 



_ _ br whidi naii* ia 

xaeai7 to Mippl; tbe OBiaaion (aae hia book 1. 
^p. A), and Iwa ihewn hiraielf more Eudid than 
Endid upon the pinnt of all othen in whicb 
EucUd'i phikiaophj ia defeetiTe. 

Poorthlj. Then ia none of that attentian la 
the bnni of accnnc; with which (nnalatora hara 
andeannued to innlt the Elementa, tbetabT gir- 
ing Ibem that i^paanuee wUdi hai made many 



TlNMna 



„,.,.., G?>oglc 



te EUCLEtDES. 

tioni u* vmia which u< Dot fbmitly Mt down 
MBong Ibo potlnhttEi Thinga wbicb mli; oogbl 
to bxn beao pcored tn Mmetimst puied dtbt, 
■nd whether thia ii b^ miitckt, or by inifDliou of 
mppoBDH them lelf-a^eiit, cBimot no v be known : 
fi>r Ladid nevei refen to pierioni propoutioiu bj 
name or nimiber, bat aalj bj nmple re-ueeiliDD 
without nferencej eiDtpt ttut occauomlly, utd 
ehiefljr when * negative propoBtiaD i> nfeired to, 
nch wordi u "it haa baui demanitiMed ~ tie 
employed, witbont fortber ipecificatioD. 

FifUdj. Euclid neTer condeicendi to hint at 
the RUon wh; he fiada himielf obliged U adapt 
■uj particalu ooone. Be the difficulty evar » 
great, he lemoie* it withtml mention of iM eiiil- 
ence. Aceordinglj, in tnui; fkttt, the unsMiited 
atudent can only aee that much tnable i» taken, 
withoDt being able to gueu why. 

What, then, it ma; be aiked, it ibe peculiar 
merit of the Element! which hot oniKd tbem to 
TClain tbeic groand to thia daj ? The uuwer ia, 
that the prMeding objection* nfer [o matten 
which can be eaaily mended, wilhont any alter- 
ation of the main paiU of the woik, and that no 
one haa erer giien eo eaay and natmal a chain of 
geomaltieal craaaqueiicet. Then ia a naiei tiling 
tnith in Iba multa; and, thongl] then may M 
hen and than a eatPcridanl iwrniptiim naed in 
demmatntion, bat itot bimally noted, then ia 
iwrer any the Knalleil depaitate from the limit' 
ationa of conatiuclion wbidi geomelen tiad, from 
tha time of Plato, impoMd upon thenuelvea. Tb« 
alrong indiiiation of editan, alTculy mentioned, to 
Gcnaider Euclid ai perfect, and all negligencea aa 
tha wDik of nnikiUiil commenlalon or interpo- 
laton, ia in itaelf a proof of the approiimate tnith 
of the chaiactet tbey giro the walk ; to which it 
may be added that editon in general pnier Endid 
at be itanda to the altentiona of other editon. 

The SemenU conaiit of tbiiteen booka written 
by Euclid, and two of which it ia nippoaed that 



general ; Iho aeTentfa, eighth, and 
arilhmelic; the tenth ii on tbe arilhmeticsl cba- 
racterialica of the diriuani of a ttnight Une j the 
dcTenth and twelfth are on the elementa of loiid 
geometry; the thirteenth (and alao the foorteenth 
and fifteenth) am on the tegnlar aolidt, which 
were eo mud itudied among uie Plataniita at to 
bear the name of Platonic, and which, Botscdiiig ta 
Produi, wen the objecta on which the HemanU 
were ivlly meant to be written. 

At the commencement of the Gral book, nnder 
the luune of dejioitiaui (Ipoi), an contuned the 
aatumptioD of luch notiont at the point, line, Ac, 
and a number of lerbal eiplanationa. Then fol- 
low, under the aama of poatulatea or demand 
(aiT^^un), all that it ia thanght neccaanty t 
itata at atnmied in geometry. Then an u. 
poatolatet, three of which rettiid the amaont ( 
conatruction granted to the joining two potnl 
by a itnigbt fine, the indefinite lengthening of 
termiuatad ttiaigbt line, and tha drawing of 
circle with a given centra, and a given ditlaiu 
meaaumd from that centre aa a radiui ; the other 
three atanme tbe equality of all right anglaa, the 
much ditpuled property of two liiwa, which meet 
a third al aogtet leu than two right anglet (we 
tu•I^ of eourte, much ditpuled at lo ita propnetj 



two alraigbt linet caoi 
nnder tbe name of earn 
an giTen, either aa a 

la an equal to one another — the i 
than iti part — be Modem editon have put the 
last thme poatolilea at the end of the conunon 
notiona, and applied the term ariom (which wu 
not uaed till after Endid) to than all. The in- 
tention of Euclid leemt to hate been, lo diilia- 
gniih between that which bit reader matt grant, 
01 aeek another ayatem, whatever may be hit opi- 
nion at to the proprie^ of the aiaamption, ud 
that which there ia no qaeatioQ every one vill 
grant. Tbe modem editor manly ditlinguiihei 
tbe aianmed pnblem (or coDaCmctiaai) fcam tbe 
aanrmed Uiarni. Now then ii do auch diitinc- 
tioQ in Euclid at that of pmblon and thecrea ; 
the common term vfufroirit, tnnalaled fnpaBtni, 
indndei both, and ia the only one naed. An ioi- 
merue prepoudeiance of mannicripta, the tetti- 
mony of Pmdai, tbe Arabic tiantlationt, lh> 
tummary of Bofthiut, place tha aaaumptioaa ahonl 
right anglet and paraUela (and moal of Ibem, that 
about two atraight linea) among the pottulateti 
and thia aeemi moat rmacmable, tat it ii errtais 
that the firat two atramptiont (an have no daim 

the tame Utl with " tbe whole ia grealer than ilt 
part." 

WitboDi ducribing minutely the oontoitt of 
the fint book of the Elenxoita, we aij obarre 
that then it an anaogement of the pnpoutiona, 
which will enable any teacher lo divide it mto 
aecliona. Thna piopp. 1 — 3 ejctend the powet of 
conttmction to the drawing of a ciide with any 
centre and oay ladioa ; 4—6 an tha ban* of llu 
theory of equal triai^ei ; !l— 12 inenaae tbe 
power of conitraction ) IS— IS are adely on rda- 
Ijoni of angiea; 16—21 examine tbe tdatjuu ai 
parte of otM triangle ; 22 — 23 an addilioDal coa- 
ttructionai 23— 26 augment the dcctrioe of eqnil 
triBn^et',27 — 31 contain tha theory of parallelt-,' 
32 aland* alaue, and givet the ndation between 
tbe anglea of a triangle ; 33—31 give tbe £itt 
properOe* of a parallelogram ; 35—4 1 eouudei 
parallelognm* arid trinnglet of equal area*, but 
dJBennt forma) 42 — 16 apply what precede* to 
augmenting power of coiutnietian ; 47—48 give 
the celebmted property of a right an^ed triangle 
and ita couvene. The other booka an all capi^ 
of a umilar qiecie* of (ubdiviuDD. 

The eecond book thowt thote propeitiea of the 
rectang^ contained by tbe puta of diiided 
itraigbl linei, which an to doady connected with 
tbe common aritbmetial operatioot of multipli- 
cation and diviaion, that a atadent or a teochft 
who ia not fully alive to the enatanoo and diffi- 
culty of incommauurablea ia apt to think thai 
common arithmetic would be aa rigmoua aa geo- 
metry. Euclid knew beller. 

The third book i* devoted lo the eonaidenliM 
of the pnpfTtiea of the drcle,and i* much cnDpe^ 
in aeveral placea by tbe imperfect idea already at 
luded to, which Endid toi^ of an angle. Then 
are aome place* in which he deariy drew upoi 
eiperimenlal knowledge cf Ibe fbnn of a dide 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EUCLEIDS. 
■id imii luit ^iiiniliiiin <£ > kind which ue 
n^Betwilh niUi wiitiiigi. 

rii faorth hMfe Bnii of iqotv figaic^ En- 
tUi nqpaal i—rtitl*^ dC couHiuethio fin bim, 
b; Ihk tint, tB> gnna of dmaring tham of 3, i, S, 
•id 15 alt*, (t tf douUe, qotdnple, Ac^ any of 
tkw nskn, v 6, 13, 24, &e^ B, 16, &c Ac 

TW £Ak Ink >■ OD tk« theory of prvpoition. 
Il nfcn 10 iD kindi <rf aagninidB, tod ii wholly 
iiiil>piii4iBt of ibcM whidi pncade. Hw oxiit- 



•obloi 



loUigH 



MnJKO > definitiin of anpordon wUA Monu 
■ int an oolj diBeyt, im uaalli ind inele- 

E&Mo who hw« maiiiwd othor deSmtiDu 
that an wUdi we mt dcfcctiTO an hnt 
nrpu nadisgi of thai of Eodid. Tfaa nannu 
b tliii diffioilt definition an Dot alluded la, ae- 
oidbig IS hit ciMom ; ttw ttodenU tfaenfore nn- 
dRncd Ae fifth bank at fint, lud many lachen 
iKiMly ohica to mks it a put of the 
•xmnt, A dittineliaii ihoold be drawn betwe«i 
liiWt defioitisa and hi* nuiuwT of aj^ljing iL 
boy ow who nnderitBiHU il moit tee that it it 
■rithmetk, and Ihal the detectJTe 



d fiixD Oieek toence, 
■fd sot be the ntoeary aonniipBaimeiit* of the 
■ifc ni Bie of the fifUi book. For oondTea, we 
n Widcd that Ibe oaly agoniiu mad to ptopor- 
an it ajibei thiaogh ths fifth book, or elte 
■inigh '"■^'■'-g noch inon difficult than the 
miukBoedbe. 

Ib( Bitb book qipliea the tbaoiy of pnipor- 
1>i^ mxi adds to the fint ibnr booka the pmpoii- 
■H whi^ fat want of it, they oonld net coalain. 
li ilhfaiiM the theory of figure* of the Hona turns, 
IKhnoIly eilkd mmaar. To giro in Idn of the 
■dnan which it make*:, we may ilata that the 
ta bask hHfcr ill higbeat punt of coHtnetiTe 
fnw the UniBtion i^ a nclaogle Dpon a giren 
ha, Eqnl to a given ndilincai fignn ; that the 
■Bad baidt eni£la n* to tnin thi* nelaii^ into 
t i^HR ; but the iixlfa book empowen n* to 
ak> 1 igan of any giial netiUiuac ihape equal 
R ( iRtSiBeaT figon of giien die, or bnefly, to 
— ' — ' " ' re of the mm of one pnm figiue. 



■dcf dnn 



1 ef the BolntiiBi of a qmdntir 



Tht vranh, eighth, and ninth booht can 
kn ikw aabJFcU uoMy lepanted. They ti 



. ja whid the rolea of arithmetic mutt 

W faoaded. Bn Euclid gnei fuither than it ne- 
"^rj BRdy to ooutnicl a lyatan of compnta- 
lua, tboat whK^ the Oreeki had little iniiety. 



ikl m id^ peifeet nnmben. When the 
^ ^Mama be^D to ^enit, ibeie book* of Ed- 
cbd BB> abandDsed to the antiquary : our elenwD' 
<n haeki of aritlawtic wUd tiU tately 

tdBw^wonldhai 

arilB baofc* had ihand the ome &te. 

The toth book i* the derelopraenl of all the 
T*aei of the pmsding one*, g»metrical and arith- 
"ranL ItitoDBDfihemoatcnnaiuDtlheQRek 
nate wiD find a (yaaptical ae- 



EUCLEIDES. 67 

r it in the /'any Qtjcnudb, uticle, " Ir^ 
Quan^tiea." Euclid bat endently in hit 
_ .:__. uf clisBfying ineommentuiable 



mind the 



been an object of inqn 
waa eniperted of being iiKiRmneaHimble with 
diameter ; and faopei wen perhapa e 
that a aearching attempt to amnge the incomraen- 
Kimblet which ordinary geometry preientt night 
enable the geometer to lay finally to which of thno, 
if any, the ditle bdoDgt. Howerer thii may be, 
Eudid invettigato, by ieoUted methodi, and in a 
manner which, unloa he had a concealed algebia, 
il more aitomihing to ni than anything in the 
Elemenlt, eT<eTy poHible tariety of linei which ca2t 
be npreeented by \/{v'ii±V')r o and b repie- 
tentiag two conuneniunble linei. He diridei llnei 
which can be nproaented by tMi (ormtila into 25 
ipeciea, and he mcceedi in detecting erery patiible 
ipedea. He ihewi that ereiy indindnal 01 erery 
ipcdei it inconuBenninble with all the indiiiduala 
irf erary other apeeiei ; and alio that no line of any 
ipede* can belong la that ipociei in two different 
wayt, or for two diSerent leli of ralnea of a and t. 
He ihewi how to Ibnn other cL 



ennirahle with ai 



Lndirida^ line which i> coot- 
idiTidual of any other daat ^ 
and he demanitratn liie incomtneniiuHbility of a 
iquare and itt diagonal. Tbii book bu a com- 
pleleneu which none of the othen (not eien the 
fifth) can boaat of: and we could ^m«l lutpect 
that Euclid, bating ananged bii maleriali in hii 
own mind, and haring completely elaborated the 
tenth book, wrote the preceding bookt after it, and 
did not live to reviae them thoroughly. 

The eleventh and twelfth booki contain the 
elementa of lolid geometry, aa to priimt, pynmidt, 
&C, The duplicate ratio of ^e diazneten i* 
ihewn to be that of two cirdei, the triplitata ratio 
Chat of two iphere*. Initance* occur oE the mettod 
if aiamUoiu, m it hat been called, which in the 
handi of Archimedea became an initrnment of di^ 
eoTery, producing reanha which ara now umally 
refetnd to the ^fferential calculni ; whik in thoaa 
of Endid it wbi od^ the mode of proving pt«Km- 
tiODi whkb mnit ba*v been aeen and behcTod be- 
Ibn they were pmved. The method of theie hooka 
ij clear and elegant, with aome itriking impeileo. 
tioni, which have caowd many to abandon them, 
even among theee who allow no lobitilate for the 
fint ni booki. The thirteenth, fbnrteenth, and 
fifteenth booki aie on the fire irgular lolidi : and 
eren had they all been written by Euclid (tbe lait 
two are attritmled to Hypiiclet), they woidd hot 
ill bear ont the anertion of Proclui, that the re^ 



Blidi < 



a the objecta with a 



whkb 



plote bit intended itntctnre. Prodna wu an eo- 
thuuailic Platoniit : Euclid waa of that achool g 
and the former Bccoidingly attribute! to the latter 
a particular regard for wfaai were lonietiniei oiled 
the Platonic bodie*. But we thlnl: that the author 
bimadf of the Elements could hardly have coniidered 
them Ba a mere introduction to a &Tourite ipcicnla- 
tion : if be wen to blind, we have eiiry teaion to 
nppoM that hi) own contemporariei conld hare eel 
him right. From Tarioui indicatiana, it can be col- 
lected that the iimie of the Elementi waa almoat 
coenl with their pnUication j and by the time of 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



mu called xipai trTotxtw^'^ 

The Data of Endid ihimld b« mentioned in con- 
DKtion with the ElemenU. Thii i> a book contain- 
ing a hundred piapoiilion* of s pecuUai and limited 
inlenL Some wiilen hare profeued to lee in it a 
ke; to Ihe gMmeliical analjiit of the ancienti, in 
which thej hare greatly the adnuitage o[ bk 
When there i> n problem to aolTe. it i> nndonbtedly 
■dvantagiKiDi tg hare a rapid perception of the itepi 
which will reach the icaalt, if the; can be locwi- 
liielj made. Oi«n A, B, and C, to find D ; one 
penon ma j be completely at a losa how to proceed ; 
another ma; Ke almoit iutoi^vel; that when A, 
B, and C are given, E can be baai ; from which 
it maj be that the firti penon, had he perceiTed it, 
would hare immediately found D. The fc 



of fhta oovKQHfRitaZ, aa our 

hcpi hare called them, thinn n( 

' " ■' '" * " ' ' mplied in, and aeceaiaiilj 



3t atwolutely girei 



followi from, that which it giren, ii the ohjcct of 
the htindred propoiitioni aboTe mentioned. Thna, 
when a gtraight line of giien length it intercepted 
between two pven parallela, one of theoe propoii- 
tioni ihewi that the angle it malie* with the fKr 
nlleLl 1* giren in magnttade. There ii not much 
more in thil book of Data than an intelligent un- 
dent picka np from the Elenientt themielreaj on 
which account we cannot conaider it ai a great »lcp 
in geOD^etiical analyiii. The operationa of thonght 
wluch it nqiurel an indiipenaable, but they are 
cantabed eltewhent. At the uune time we cannot 
deny that the Data might have fixed in the mind 
of a Onek, with giealei atrength than the Ele- 
mente themielTea, notjoni apon conaeqnential data 
which the modemt acquire hum the application of 
arithmetic and algebra : perhapa it waa the penep- 
tion of thil which dictated the opinion about the 
nlue of the book of Data in anslytii. 

While on thil lobject, it may be aieful to re- 
mind the reader hg* difficult it ii to judge of Uie 
cliancter of Euclid*! writingi, ai br aa hii own 
merita are concerned, ignorant ai we are of the 
pTEciBe pDrpoie with which any one waa written. 
For initanco : wai he merely ^wing hia cantem- 
porariH that a connected lyilem of demonitntion 
might be made withonl taking more than a certain 
nnmber of poitnlatei out of a collection, the necea- 
•it; of each of which had been advocated by aoiDe 
and denied by ollleri ? We then nndentand why 
he placed hi* lii poelulate* in the prominent poai- 
tion which they occupy, and we can End no fault 
with hii tacit admiaaion of many othera, the necea- 
aity of which had perhapa never been questioned. 

what hii commentator! haye taken him to be, a 
model of the moit icrupuloui formal rigour, we can 
then deny that he hai altogether aucceeded, though 
we may admit that he hai made the neaieit ap- 

The Utenfy hiatory of the vritingi of Euclid 
vonld contain that of the riie and progreu of geo- 
metry in ereqr Chriitian and Mohammedan na- 
tion : onr notice, therefore, mnat be bol alight, and 
varioua pointi of it will be confirmed by the biblio- 

Minor, A>iandria, 

■od the iMliaa coloniet, the Elemanti mod became 
the univenal ilody of geometen. Commentaton 
were not wanting ; PnKlui mentioDa Heron and 
Pappni, and Aeneaa of Htenpobi, who made an 



EUCLE1DE8. 

epitome of the whole. Theoo tha jobmct (of 
AleTandiia) lived a little before Prodiu (who died 
about A. D. i85). The latter haa made hii feeble 
commentary on the fint book valuable by iti hii- 
torical infotmation, and wai lomething of a lumi- 
narj in agei more dark than hia own. But Theon 
wai a light of another urt, and hia name baa 
pUyed a conipicuooi and lingular part in the hii- 
toiy of Eoctid'i writing!. He gave a Dew sWtn 
of Euclid, with lome ^ighc admtioni and ilterai- 
tioni ; he telli ui lo hinuelf, and naei the word 
titoris, ai applied (o hi* own edition, in hit com- 
menCary on Ptolemy. He alao infbtmj oa that the 
part which idatei to the aectoia in the lait propo- 
•ition of the aiilh book ia hia own addition -. and 
it ii liiand in all the manniccipta following the 
trip (Sti tii^ with which Endid alwaji <nda- 
Aleiander Apbndiiienui ( Comaial. n priom 
Am^p. Atiilot.) meulioni aa the fourth of the 
tenth book that which ii the fifth in all mana- 
acripl*. Again, in leToral manuicript* the whi^ 
work ii headed ai i* tm> Siaroi nnunbr. We 
ahall preiently Ke to what thia led : but now we 
mutt remark that Proclui doci not mentiDn Tbeoa 
at alt ; from which, lince both were Platoniata le- 
nding at Alexandria, and Proclni had probably 
•een Theon in hia younger dayi, ws mnit either 
infer lome quanet between the two, or, whidi ia 
perhapa more likely, preiume that Theon'a alteia- 
tiona were Tery tlight. 

The two book* of Cleometry left by BoiTBiua 
contain nothing but enuDcialiona and ditgnma 
from the fint four hooka of Eadid. The aaaettion 
of Boethiua that Euclid only arranged, and that 
the diicovery and demonitiation wen the wotlc of 
othera, probably conliiboted to the notiona about 
Theon prcKnlly deKribed. Until the natoratian 
of the ElemenCi by tranalation from the AialnCk 
thil woric of Boethiua waa the only Ennpekn 
treatiie on geometry, ai lar ai ii known. 

The Anbie tnuulationi of Euclid began to be 
made tinder the caltpha Harann al Riadiid and 
AI Mamun ; by their time, the very name of Eu- 
clid had ahnoit diaappeared &om the Weit Bat 
nearly one handred and finy yean followed the 
capture of Egypt by the Mohammodana before the 
latter began to protit by the knowledge of the 
Oreeki. After thia time, the worki of the geomp- 
len were atdnlonaly tnmilated, and a gi«it im- 
puln wai given by them. CoDunentariea, and 
even original wiitinga, fijUowed ; but » few €>f 
thew are known among na, that it ii only bum 
the Saracen wrilingi on aitnmomy (a Kience which 
alwayi cairiei iti own hiilary along with it) IhM 
we can (arm a good idot of the very atriking pR>- 
greai which the Mohammedani made under tbeir 
Greek teachen. Some wrilem apeak ilightinglj oT 
thil progTeai, the reiulta of whicli they are too apt 
to compare with thoae of 001 own time : they 
ought rather to phux the Saracena by the nde of 






under which the fim ilarted, they ihonld t 
the aecond lyatematically diapening the temain 
Oreek civiliiatiaii, whik the finrt were eoDcent 
ing the grometry of Alexandria, the arithmetic 
and algetia of India, and the aatconooiy of both, 
to form a nndena for the prvaeot itate of icience. 

The Elemenu of Euclid were natoied to Eunpe 
by tnnalation fiom the ArBbic In eonnection 
with (hi* reitoiation four Eaiteni edilon may bo 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EUCLEIDES. 

pnUiibcd id «djtiim vhkh vu Hfterwardi cgt- 
nled br Thtbfl bea Crnnli, * weU-knowD utro- 
DniT. AfiB him, ■ccoiding to D'Hcrbelat, 
Oibmi of Dbdbiciii (of oDajtiin date, bat befbrfi 
iu itLirtMStll tenXaij) hit at Roma a Omk ma- 
naip( coDDuiiiiig muiy mote prapouliooi than 
k tad btoi acautiiraHl to find : he had been uiod 
tt IM iTiyjfM^ mj the manrueript contained 10 
me. If tbn* Dinnben be comet, Honeiu could 
•It ion had the fint nz booki ; and tfaa new 

hiit broi aftawaidi aagmmtod. A little ift«r 
A- D. 1360, ike utraiomer NaunddiD gare an- 
lAir aditisn, whidi la DDir ■ccwriMe, haling been 
jnMtd m Anlnc Bt Bama ill 1694. It i* toleta- 



aPrjiard finnd bj 

T^ fint European who fomkd £adid in Aiat^c, 
sd tzuibted the Element* into I^tiu, mu Athe- 
M or Addard, of Bath, irho wa* ceitunlf aliTo 
i>)l». (See ■'Adelard," intheffii^r. iXilaf 
iW Sot. D. U. K.) Thit writer piohablj obcuned 

■f »Jnei hsmie euirent in Enrope, and ii 
ht whid mm printed, thoogb noder the Dsmo of 
f^ajnaa "miteiytatdy.CainfmmiwmiippoKBd 
B )vt beoi the tmutator. Tiiabnchi Uket it to 
tnclmn Adehid, ai a matter of conne ; Libri 
pneUKe* the ■me opinion after 
MMtJ Matei that in hie copy of I 
■iWdip of AdeUrd wai aiKrted in ft band- 
liiii^ la old •* the work itwlC (a. d. 1162.) 
^t of ibe mannHoipti which bear the name of 
Urhri haie that c^ Cwnpuiiu attached to the 
*" e tenen] of thi 



EUCLEIDKS, fi9 

had get "ai br u the 32nd pnpsdtiDn of the fint 
book " before be wu detccled, the eiaggeiBtoia 
(for much euggented thii reiy drcnnutance shevi 
the Imth mint have been) not haring the ilighteM 
idea that a new inveoled lyrtem conld proceed in 
aoy other etder than tbct nf Euclid. 

The Temaeular tnnilaciDii* of the ElenieDt* date 
from the middle of the niteenlhcentnry,&wn which 
time the hiitoij of mathemacica] acience diTidea 
itself into that of the aevcral eonntriei where it 
SDuriabed. By (low itepi, the continent of Europe 
itirelj abandoned the ancient Ele- 



■oijO m eiiiienoe [ and a comniiion of 

'un whb th« printed book which wu attribated 

a CHfaan* woold tettle the queation. 

Tk Bed thn* bnoght by Addaid into Enrope 
"• iDwn with good efieet. In Ihi 
"inBlcoo qootea Eodid, and whe 
" '' ' at (or hi* geometry. Up to the time of 
re wai >I leait aa mnch diipernon of the 
^niati at of any other book : t£ta Ihii period, 
'"^ na, aa we ahall aea, an eaii; and freqoenl 
pndgci of the preM. Where Kteoce flonriahed, 
T~x.i — ».. _ J __ ■ ^],g,,j,j, ^ „^ fomwi, 
» leu accordii^ M more 
II paid to kii Element!. At to 
* on gMOMtiy, the middle tget 
a hkTe thnight of compoiing aiwtlicr 
^"7 leMmoit : not ctlj did Eodid pceMtre hii 
■Vt M the title of ibiput «Toi;iCMvnf( down to the 
^^ the KTcntOTDlh etntory, and that in ao ab- 
■ne a Banner, that then, aa lomelimea now, the 
J^^t ^yinnct xmagined the name of the man to 
^ njaanjina tar the adenn; bal hii order of 
■■■••natiai VH thought to he neceawiy, and 
■■Bdid in the nalnre it our nuDda, TartagUa, 
^w !■* we ai^t aiqipoM woold have been 
■■^ hj hii lmiiwledj(e of Indian arilhme^ and 
•"(rtoi. Ob Eadid »fa 



ow wh> had been Ibnned on the Greek nudal ; 
■rtnngJMt*- wia ita dengnatiou. The atory 
« Fiial'i diaconry of geonetry in hii boy- 
'••■(A.Bb ItU) contaiM tbeatUoDant that he 



algebra haa 

introduced : bnt in England, down to the peaent 
time, Endid hai held hit gmnnd. Them ia not in 
oor coontry any lyatem of geometry twenty yeara 
old, which haa ptetenaiani to anything like cur- 
rency, but it it either Eodid, or aomethiug aa 
biiuoned npon Enciid that the resemblance ii aa 
doae aa that of lome of hii profeaaed editora. We 
cannot hen go into the rcawni of our opinion; hot 
we ha*e no dmbt that the lo<e of acctitBcy in ma- 
thematical reaaoning haa declined wherever Enelid 
haa been ahandoned. We are not ao much of the 
old opinion aa to lay that thia mnit neceiaarily haTO 
happened ; bat, feeling quite aore that all the al- 
terationi have bad their origia in the detire for 
more bcility than could be obtained by rigoiou 
dednetion from poitulatei both tme and evident, 
we He what haa hqipened, and why, without be- 
ing at all inclined to diapate that a diapoailion ta 
depart from the letter, carrying OS the Bpirit, would 
have beta attended with very different reanlta. Of 
the two beat foreign boaki of geometry which WB 
know, and which an not Euclidean, one demandi 
a right to *^iniagine^ a thing which the writer 
himaelf knew perfectlv well wai not tn» ; and tia 



ither 






Dfarly Ine that their error, if any, ia imperceptible 
lotheieniea. J t mnat be admitted thai both thcae 
abauiditiei are mmmitted to avoid the lifth book, 
and that Engliah teachen have, of lale yean, been 
much incUned to do aomethiug of the lame aort, 
leaa openly. But here, at leut, writer) have left 
it to teachert to ^lirk* truth, if tbey like, without 
being wilfnl accomplicea befon the bet. In an 
Englith tianilation of one of the preceding worka, 
the meaua of correding the error were given : and 
the original work of moat note, uot EncUdean, 
whidi haa appeared of late yean, doe* not attempt 
to get over tat difficulty by any &lae aianmption. 
At the time of the invmlion of prinlii^ two 
emn were cnneni with leipecl to Euclid penon- 
ally. The fint waa that he waa Eodid of Mton, 
totally difiERUt perton. Thia confiiaian baa been 
ud to take ita nae from a paaiage in Plotaivhi 
at we cannot find the reference. Boeibina pe^ 
petualed it. The Kcond wai that Theon wai the 
demoutrator of all the propoiitiana, and that Euclid 
inly lefl the definitiona, poatulatea, Ac., with the 



We muit not be undentood a) objecting to 

the leacher'i right to make hia papil aaaiune any^ 

thing be Uhet, pcDrided only that the latter 

know* what he la about. Our contemptnou* 

r mch we mean it to bej ia directed 

mit tnoH who ■nbttilote aatnmption lor de- 

iittatiiin, or the partknkr for the general, and 

t the itodent in ignoonc* of what baa been 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EUCLBIDES. 
loatiani ID tbcir pnmit ordeb S« cotoplttal j 
ihh Botioo racdTcd, tlMt edi^oM of Badii, 



eootumd dcBODMiUfamt w« nid to b> Euclid 
with IIm MWMBiTji cf Them, Cinipaiin*, Zun- 
bartn*. or Mmw olhar. AIm, whcD tlie enoDcklton* 
wen giTCD in Qnek ud Latiii, and the demon- 
Aatimu in I«tfii onlj, thii wu vid to inutinite 
■n edhioa ef Eodid in ihg origiul Onek. wHA 
hu oecuiinied > hoitaf bibliogn^iieml emm. Wa 
have ■Inadf teen that Theon did edit EocUd, ukd 
that numiueripte have deicribed lhi> editonhip 



only deKribe* Endid h rd 

Pd T<hfl titwpacitw tfr drt- 

d>w)nr]filr, *nd comnient* on 

which* 



bnt PncIlUi who I 



to tlMN of Endid, i* no ouniwEnbla wit 
theafdetoftbsFimation* ~ 
■* It it with the tude of dem 
ud fiialljr, TheMi himielf, in Matiiig, u be&ce 
aoted,tliM ■ puticnlar peit of > oaRain denonttn- 
lion ii hit own, MMet ai dJMiDct^ that the leM ii 
twt SirHeiii78aTae(thol>ond>rofthoSairilkn 
liabt at Oxfbtd), in the leetom* on EncUd with 
lAieh he i^ned hi> own chaii of geonalry befon 
be ndgned it to Biiggi (who ii Bid to baTg takni 
ap Ibo ooime when hi* icnuidaT left oS, 



•■ S),!* 



had t 



^an on tlie nbject, and girei thne o[a 
ThifirM,tliat offwfaiiiite/eiel perridicmH, aban 
diecuMod : tlie leeond, that or Patn Ranna, who 
held the wh<de lo be abeolDtsI; dne to Tlwoa, 
propuutiaiu a* well a* dmionitntioni, film, fnu 
n^l the third, that of Bnteo of Dai^inT, a 
nometei of netit, who attribnie* the wbob to 
Eoclidifaag opniD mil utra eri, ant ntrilali otrti 
praaBH. It it not nadeie to nsnind the *^rTT*Ttll 
atndent of theae thingi ; the middle ^ea mav be 
called the "agea of &ith " in their Tiewi of oitidflB. 
Whaterer waa wiitlan waa nceired without exa- 
mination ; and the endccienKst of an obecnn idio- 
UHt, which wBi peifa)^ the men whim of ■ tnu>- 
acrib«, WBi alkwed lo nnk with the cleareat aa- 
aertioni of the conmHiilatort and Kholan who had 
befue them more woiki, now bat, written b; the 
eontemporariea of the tvibor in qneaCion, than 
then wan letten in the itDfid eentOKC which 
waa allawed to oreibalana their t«*tinKnif. Fnm 
nicfa pnedcae we an now, it am well be hoped, 
finaS; delinced : Int the time la not jet eame 
when refnlation of " the tdioliaat " maf be M&lj 
abandoned. 

AU the woifci that hara bean att^nted to 
EucUd an w fbllowi : 

1. ZraixtSi, the Elenuidi, in IS hooka, witii a 
Uth and 1 Jth added by Htpuclis. 

3. AtttfUna, the Data, which baa a pn&ea bj 
Maiiunt of Naplea 



»(, lid Diaaon i^At SeaU : 
.je of then woikt, m«t likely the former, miut 
be njeeted. Piodni bjb that Enelid wrote vord 

B. «aW*inH, the Apptaraitcit (of the hcBTana). 
Pappni mentima them. 

6. 'Orrucd, oa Qitea; and 1. Kariwrfuid, a> 
OUoptrict. Prodiu meDtioni both. 



EUCLEIDES. 

The pnceding woriu an in eiialeDC* ; the fol- 
lowing an either hut, or do not nmain in the 
original Qmft. 

& n^ Aiaiflmm ftrAlor, On ZKanuu. Pm- 
dna {L e.) Tbeca ia a tianilation fna the Ainbic, 
with tha name of Mohammtd of Bagdad attained, 
which baa bean nupected of being a tranahlioQ of 
the bsok of Endid: of thii we ^wU lee mora. 

S. Kwviar {MXb f, Fimr booii oa Omk &o- 
tiami, F^ipoa (hli. liL pfnef.) affiimi tlat Endid 
wrote fboc hooka on oonica, which ^nllonioa en- 
larged, adding fonr olheia. Ardumadet R&n to 
tte element* of conic aectiona in a manner which 
•hewa that he ooold not be mandonina the new 
work of hii contemponij Apollonini (which it ia 
moM likelj he neTei law). Eudid may poeeiUy 
baTO written on conic aectioni ; bnt it ia impoaaihle 
that the Gnt fonr boi^B of Apolloniub (lee hia 
life) can haia iiaen thoee ef Endid. 

10. naptffulnofliCMay, TimboMo/ParumM. 
Theae an mentionad by Prodna and 1^ Pappaa 
(jL b.), ^ latter of whom givea a deaaipluo wiuch 
ii ao eoRsM aa to be nninteUigibl& 

11. T<[n» 'EvvMe* M)3a g, Tm faofa m 
Pbaa LoeL Pappni mantiona theae, but not Eu- 
lodna, aa Fahrieina afflnu. (Cwi — at ia ApoH. 
Ub-LbMa.) 

12. Tdaw *fiJi 'EnfdrtBV fiM^n P, mea- 
tiowd by Pappna. What tbeia Tim rpit 'Ewi- 
^iniar, or Lod ad S^xifidtwi, were, neither 
Pappni not Eatodoi infonn na ; tho latter aaya 
th^ derive ^Mur fame from their own Ittintt, 
which then ii no i«aaoa to donbt. Wa (oipect 
that the hooka and tha maaoing of the title were 
aa modi loet in tha tina of Eutodna aa mw. 

13. n*^ tntafliKi, Om PM 



which enaiilae na to ai 

nina aeomalrT in (ha detactiDn of Urn 

rae fpm ddnaian. And U 
givea na thii pnpantion ia o 



and to keep Iham 



I keapU 
whM gi 




tnith dde b; dda with Uiehood, and o 
the confutation of fiUiehood with experience." It 
thiu qipnn that Endid did not intend hia Ele- 
menta to be itndied withont any pnpantiou, bat 
that be had himidf pnpand a tnatiae ini tilladoaa 
reatmuDg, to precede, or at l«it to accompan;, the 
Elenwnta. The lota of thii book ia much to be 
regntted, paiticnhuiy od accoont of the aiplana- 
tjoni of the cnina adopted in the Elamenta which 



We now proceed to tome tahUogt^hial accoant 
of the writinga of Etidid. In eniy nie in which 
we do not mention the aonrce of inBiRnatkin, it ia 
to be pntnmed that wo take it fiom the edition 
ItaelC 

The £nt, or editio princepa, of the ElemimU ia 
that printed by Ethaid Hatddt u Veniea in 1482. 
black letter, folio. It ii the ImXjo of the fifteen 
booki at the Ekmantt, from Adelaid, with tha 
ennmentary of Campannt Ibllawing tile itaxB- 
ttrationi. It haa no titla, bnt, after a ihcft intro- 
dnetion by the printer, opena thua : " Predariaaimna 
liber elenentonim Eodidia petapjcadaaimi : in 
artem geometrie indpit qui foeticiuime : Pnnctni 
eat cujai pa nn eat," &c Raldolt atates in the 
that tha difficulty of pt 



EUCLEIDES- 



71 



kd fnTBrtfd hwki d' iHniwtij Enm gMng IhTOD^ 
Ar ftat, bat HaX be hid B eanplaleljr omcome 
ii, 1^ gnat faiu, that " qua facUitato lUtainmi 

jiikBBiti c." Thew dia);iuiii ue printed on the 
ampa, md Angfa mt fint n(ht the]' Mem to be 
tndcnii, }tI b doia isijiectiDn nakci it [robable 
Oil tbj m pndnced from nwCil Ihi«. The 
bbIv rf pnpoBtioiu in Euclid ( IS boeki) i( 485, 
rfvlnl IS in nntiiig heie, and SO appear which 
•n not k Eadid ; « thac (here are it)7 propou- 
lion. Ike pr^ia to the Uth hook, by iriiich it 
ii mde ilBBtt OBtein that Endid did not write it 
(b Ea£d't hooka han no pnEtcet) ii omitted. 
In Anik origin ia nuhle in the woida ktiaiiBafm 
^ ' ' ' ' ^ ' ^ are naed for a riKimbiu and 



a at lait fou copiea ttit 



£if<ud; m haTi ■ 
■li in tba hit ten yean. 

Tbc ifsBd editko !»(' 
HoaBi letter, Mia, and v 



aotinljr a reprint, with the 
amdacliMi nmtted (ndcM indeed it be toni oot 
it tht obIj- tafj we erer uir\ and ii but > poor 
ifuacB, hoA aa to )ettc^pn■ and di^rmi^ 
*hai l aa jiaml with Um fint edition, than which 
~ th tbett editknu call 




a Ifimmm VmeU,. it. 
o^ j*, M.D.r.Vm. Ktada, NmSbn — 
<ha is IMS, ofbu nad 150B by an obnooa 
■inke. Zanbotna haa |i*eD a long jncftce 
■^ilifcaf Entlid: ha pcofef to hare tiani- 
^ Am a Oicak tnt, and thii a Tcry little 
i^ i Lli i a win Aaw he nnut hiTe done ; but be 
diH Ht >i*e >nj infbtmatioB upon hii mun- 
■■^ He (late* that the prepotitioni have the 
a tt Tliean or H jpaidea, by which he pro- 
> that Tbeon or Hypwdn gsTe the 
The pncsding editota, whlleTer 
%j haTC been, da not axpneily atale 
Iba to hare been the anthor of the 
i: bnibylAOfi tiieQnekinaxiiii0ipti 
-•a mi ine iWBDe of Thon hid pmbably coma 
^%bt. ForZambectoitUiridaicitsiGDBti.mem. 
tALDrad. ii. p. 213: hie editioD ii batitiMj 
Fai^ and ii rm. He exwim the tnulatioDi 
&« the Aialne with imeetimg eereriiy. Fahri- 
aa BcBliafB {tiaa Sduibal) two nmll wniki, the 
Wbaokiof the EknmtU I7 Amhr. JodMr, i£06, 
■d HMhiBg called ■'OeoDwlria Eodidii," which 
■"■lauiia ID editiDB of Sacnhoaco, Peril, H. 
SMfhoa. 1507. Of tha» we know nothing. 

Tbi ima edition (I^tit^ Uadk letter, Abo, 
15H), cHtaiaiDg the ElemenU only, k the work 
^ the M fe h raiaii Locae Paeiohia (de Boigo 
^■cti SapnlAfi), better known ai Local di 
B«^ da Gnt who printed a work on algebra. 
TWiilk' " * 



priKtif i ii opera, ftc At the end, VtntHii vapranm 

Pirioliu adopt* the Luin of Adelard, and occa- 
uonally igintei the comment of Camponni. intro- 
ducing hu own additional commenta with the bead 

\chh(„ 

11, ISOe, giring the 
namea of thoie preient, and tame nibieqiient lau- 
datory eorreapondence. Thii edition ii leaa loaded 
with comment than either of tfaoie which precede. 
It ii extremely icarce, and ii beantiAiIly jvinted : 
the letter ii a cuiioui intermediate itep between 
the old th>4 black tetter and that of the Roman 
type, and make* the dcriration of the latter &om 
tne lunner Tery deer. 

Tba fifth edition (Elemenk, I«tin, Roman letter, 
fblio), edited by Jambni Faber, and printed by 
Henry Bt^heni at Parii in 1516, hat the titk 
Oomlaila biUowod by heada of the eontent*. 
There an the fifteen booka of BMcUd, by which 
are meant the E nuu iatiom (an the preening n- 
majka on thii rabjeclj; the Commad of Campanoa, 
meaning the deoaubation* in Adelard*! Latin ; 
-'- " - of Theon aa dren by Zambertni, 

demonitration in the Latin of Zam- 
bertn ; and the OmhkhI of HypiEdei a> giren by 
Zambertm npon the laM two hoolu, meaning the 
damonitratuHu of thoH two booki. Thii ediUon 
printed, and ia modentely lORe. Fnm 
Ue the time when a liat of enondationa 
merely wbi tmiramlly called the oomplate work of 
"ncKd. 

With lbe» editfami the ancient lariea, aa we 
may call it, terminatei, meaning the complete Ia- 
•hich preceded the ptiUkation of the 
Oiwk tut Thai we aee flie folio edition! of the 
Ekmenti produced in thirty-ibnr jeam 

The £m OrMk text wai puhliihed by Simon 
OryDe,aT Ocynoeni, Beile, 1533, folio:* contain- 
ing, i* TW Wwnii aununiit (the title-pege haa 
thu itatement), the fifteen bootu of the Elements, 
and the commentary of Pmclni added at the end, 
10 br aa it remaina ; aU Qmk, without Utin. 
On Qrynoeai and hii lereRndt an of nunnicripta, 
lee Anthony Wood. (^ttn. Ctiai. m eer&) The 
Oifiird editor ii itndtoailj nlenl abont thii Bule 
edition, which, though not obtained from many 

for a centniy and three-qnartera the only printed 
Greek teit of aU the booka. 

With regard to Oroek tezti, the itndent mut 
be m hii guard againit hiUiognpbeia. For in- 
ilaace, Harieai X givaii fi<nn good eatalognea, E^ 



* Fabriciui aeti down an edition of 1530, by 
the nme editor : thia ii a miqirint. 

f " San I am, that while he continued there 
(i. & at Orford), he viiited and Mudied in moit of 
the hbiariei, searched after nn booki of the Greek 
tongue, particnlariy ailer nme of the booki of 
commenlaiiei of Produ! Diodoch. Lydui, ind 
blTins fbond lereral, and the ownan to be ears- 
leaa of tbaot, he lodt lonie away, and conTeyed 
them with him beyond the aeai, aa in an epiitle 
by him written to John the ion of Tfaoa. More, he 

t Schweiger, in hii HaadlmA (Laipaig, 1830), 
girei thii lame edition ai a Greek oiw, and makea 
the tame miitake with regard to those of Ikaypo- 
dini, Scbenbd, «k. Wc have no douht that thi 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



73 EUCLEIDES. 

AtOn 2rMx*W iMAla i/, Rome, IS46, Sro^ 
jniiitcd bj AoMniiu Blidiu Aralurai, caDtuDing 
CDimcktioiu adj, viltuMIt dcmmutntioni or di>- 
gnnu, edilcd by Aogvliu Cnjuiiii, mnd dsdicMed 
to Antonin* AlloTiuu. Wa li^>p«a 



"Iqiundid libri ifadi elmnwitl di Endide, AOrm 
Im^tii m Ub^ tbatmnt.'' Htm i» uiatbn ' 
Uaua in which Ih* cditoi baliaisd ha had n< 

the whole of Eoctid id grring tbe ennndatio 

Fram thu editjon ■notbet Grnk text, Flonace, 
154£, wuinTented l^aiMlharmirtlka. All tbe 
Onak and l^Iin aditMDi whkb Fiihikiiu> Hnr- 
hard, iii, atciibnta to Daiypodiiu (Ctnmd Ranch- 
flut], onlj gJTO the anuseiatiani in Oieak. The 
nma majr be Mid i>f Sebenbel'e edidrm oT the dnt 
tax bwik* (Baale, folio, 15M), which DaTenhelen 
taabme* in the lille-page to gira Emliii, Oi. IM. 
Then ia an luoajmoua complsta Qzaeh and l^tin 
text, Leudoa, printed b; William Jonea, IGSO, 
which haa Ourieni booki in the citlfr-paga, but 
coDtaini onlf lii in all ao[uei that we haia iaen : 
it ia attribnted to the celebiated mathemalidaii 

Ths Oifoid sditioD, folio, 1703, pabiiihed b' 
Darid Qitgoiy, with the title EJkAiUoh tiI m[i 
fwro, took ila liu in the oollactioa of maDnacripta 
beqnsthed bj Sir Hem; Sarile to the ItniTeCHtf, 
and waa a part of Dt, Edwud Banuutf* pbio 
(b« biB life in tbe Pmay Cfclipatdia) for a huge 
lepubliotiou of the Qneh geomateta. Hii inten- 
tion wu, that the £nt faaz Tohimea ehoidd contain 
Endid,Apallaniiu,Anhiniede*,PqfitKiaiidHcn»i 
and, bj an nndeiigned coincidence, the Unirenit]' 
baa actually pobliuied the fiiS thiee Tolnmea in the 



laiioD* reading* ace not giien. It 
reputed woriu of Euclid, the Latin woifc of Mo- 
bammed of B^dad, abore mentioned M attributed 
by iome to Endid, and a Idtin fiagmeni D» Ltni 
*t Poudtnn, whidi ia *boU; imwertby of notiee, 
but iriiich ioma bad giren (o Eadid. The Uitin 
of ihi* editioB ia mMtlj ban Conunandina, with 
the help of Henry SaTile'i papeti,' which aeem to 

■n edition of the whole of Eodid'i wmfci, ^ii 
etanda alone, them being no other in Gnefc. 
Fejiard, who examined it with tnrj deain to 
£nd enon of the pceat, piodnced onlj at the rate 
of ten for each bodi of the ElemeDti. 

The Pitia edition wai produced undet nnndai 
nmmutancei. It ii Qre^ Utin, and Fiencb, in 
a Tolai 4ta. Paria, 1SI4-1G-1B, and it containa 
tfteen booka of the Elementa and the Data ; tor. 



daa^cal biblia||i^dwn ate tmiiwoithj aa to 
writan with whom a achdar ia mote tant cf at 



thni with Euclid. It it modi that a Fabndaa 
abonld entac tmon Eodid or AidniDedea at all, 
and be may wdl be excnaed tor dmplj- copying 
bum bibliognphical liiti. But the matbonati- 
oal bibliognphera, Heilbconner, Moriiacd, ftc, an 
ineienahle fcr copying from, a; ' 
alatoil nnBToi 



itikii of F^iicini. 



tentioD to pnbliih the text* of Endid, Apollonina, 
and Arohimedee ; end beginning to oomine the 
manntcHpta of Euclid in the Royal Lihraiy at 
Parii, 23 in niunbei, be fbiuid one, marked No. 190, 
which bad the appcuanoe of beiu written in the 
ninth eenlniy, m>d which leemed mora ecB]rieta 
and tmtwortby tlno an; nngla hmwa aianD. 
acript. Thk doemDent waa part of the pbader 

belengad to Ibe Vatican Litnr;. Whim leatitD. 
tion waa enfbnad b; the allied annie* in 1615, a 

tbia mannaetipt till be had fioiahed the edilioD on 
which he waa than engaged, and cf which one to~ 
Iddm had already appeared. Peyratd waa a woc- 
ahipper of thia mannacript. No. 190, and had a con- 
tempt for all pierioa* editiona of Eodid- Ht gina 
at the end of each Tolnme a compariaon of the 
Paria edition with the Oiioid, ipcd^ing what baa 
been derired from the Vation mannaciipt, and 
making a aelectioB fiom the nriooa itadiogi of tha 
other 22 iponmcripti which wen betoca him. Tbja 
edition ii therefore Tcr; Talnble ; but it ii rtrj 
incoirectl; printed ; and the editor^i ilnctnrea 
upon hil predeceieon teem to ni to nqnin tha 
•apport of better acholanhip than he coold bring- 
to bear upon the iahjcct. (3ee the DuUm BtnitK^ 
No. 22, Not. ]B<1, p. U\, 4e.) 

The Berlin editioo, Greek onTy, one Tolome in 
two parte, octaTo, Beriin, 1B26, ii the work of E. 
F. Aogmt, and containi the thirteen bcoki of the 
Element*, with tariooa nadinsi from Payiatd, and 
from three additional manutcnpti at Mimich (mak- 
ing allegethei about So mannacripti canmltM by 
the foDi editora). To the tchoiar who wanta ne 
edition of the Element*, we ihonld decidedly re- 
commend tbii, ae bringing together ell that haa 
been done dx the text A Eodid *■ gnatcat work. 

Wa mention beie, ont of it* plan, 71m BmuulM 
i/Btaat wta diaerlatioiH, by Jame* WiUiamaou, 
RD. 3 Tida. 4to. Oxford,lT8l, and LDndon,I7B8. 
Thie ie an En^iah trantlation of thirteen booka, 
made in tbe deeeat mumet boat the Oifiicd edi- 
tiim, bmBg Ewdhl wmd Ibr word, with tbe addi- 
tional woida lequind bj the En^&h idiom giien 
'~ Italica. Tint edition it TalnaUe, and not -ntj 



be trae that eqoal 
oppoaite erron dettroy one another. 

Camenr and Hanber paUiihed tbe Gnt dx 
booka in Onek and Latin, with good notea, Bei^ 
Ud, Std. 1624. 

We belicTe we haTe mentioiied all the Greek 
leiU of tbe Elemenle; the liberal anppl; with 
'hich the Inbliographera bafa fiimiabed the world, 
and which Fafancini and othen hare perpetnated, 
11 wa haTC DO doubt, a tetiea of miaukee arinng 
the moat part out of the bdirf about Endid tbs 
enimciatcr and Theon the daoMmttnlor, iriucii we 
baTo deacribed. Of I^tia adttioDi, which Butt bBTe 
a alight Doiiea, wehaietbeaiibcakatar Onotiua 
Fmoeaa, Paria, ISK, fblio (Fabr, MDclmrd) ; 
tha nma by Joachim CameranDi, Leiptic, lfi49, 
8to (Fabr^Muibard); tha fiAaen booka by Stcnb. 
Oianlih Paria. 1M7, 4to. (Fabr., who calji it Or. 
1^1., Unrhard); tbe fifteen booka of Franc, da Foil 
de CBndale(Flaiau Candalla), who addi auxteentb, 
Paria, lfi66, folio, and pnmiaea a leTenteenlh and 
eighteenth, which he gave in a aubeeqnent edition. 
Pari*, 1518, lUio (Fabr., Moriiatd] ; Fraderic 

,.=.otGoog[c 



of tl&a fiftMnbai>ki,witli 
. — — . l&7a,fol- (P>tir,Murhud); 

thtBnIwb <a Cbziatopfaer CbiTin., with om- 
MoT, ml CandaUaV nkt«eiitli book mimued, 
lM,lSTt,M.(FafaT-. ACorbaid); thiitom boolu, 
^iotnni EUio^oa, 'Witt^etg, 1609, S's. 
(Filt,lU.); OuTtoen books by the Junii Clmsde 
l i *rt , A ini m >.1645,foUotM:nrh.);twelTebooki 
t|B^,0iSDc4, Va02. "Wb hsTs not llinught 
iliBMnj U nnjl tkia article with iht Tahoai 
qnarflhoe «nd the old. LAtin ediLiom, dot 
•nk iditMU wUefa, ihoogh called Elemenu of 
Eidil, knt the deinoiutx»Uoiu giTen in itis edi- 
Irt swB Bumer, u Ihcwe of Manndjciu, Bomw, 
CUb, tc, Ac, nor with tha edition* cant*in«l in 
■BM onnea of —»»■-■— «i*« nch u IboH of 
HnpWM, DcdtUe^ Scbott, &.c^ As:., which m- 
mllT prc & tol^nUy oomplcte edition of Uie 
Ehnoiti. CosDmaikdiiw and Claviiu tn the pro- 
POBB of m Urge •chad of editon, unong whom 
BttatSimaDik dtandB cnu^cnoo*. 

Wc naw proceed to Engliah tmulBtJonL We 
tmi in Tumar (.BiU. Ari(. //il. p. U^ lbs Ibi- 
' ' - 11 Cudiih, Richardiu, 



b^a 



lXv. Clarait*j..D,MDLVi. 
Ridiud Cudiih ii mes- 
iMad d^vhcre u ■ tnnnlitTTj bat we an Gonfi- 
Jbu iliat hii Iniudatiin wu never publiihed. 
flitii 15T0, all tliat had been puhUihed in Eng- 
Ui waa Robert Recorda'i FidJuaxf to Kmtaltdge, 
lUl, contunina ennJkcialioni only of the fint fool 
hi lit I, Dot^Enclid'i order. Recoide eonuden 
iiawiiimiriii ta be the woik of Thcon. Id 1570 
1 Haii7 Billingiioj't tnmilation of the fit- 
> boiAa, inth CaodtliaV niuenlh, London, 
Thii book hjM a long pce&ce bj John Dee, 
■imii iaii. wboM picture i> at the beginning : 
M it ha* Bitot been taken lor Dee*! Innila- 
. Iiot he hinuel^ in a hit of hii lira worki. 
Ma it (a BiUingdmr. Tha latKT wu a rich 
jn, Mod wae major (with knighthood) in 1591. 
iVe alwsja had doubti whether he wat the real 

t laait. OiilooUiig into Anthani Wood'i 
It ot BiUingile; (Alk. On. •• wt.) we find 
ted (a^ abo how the iafcimalka wu ob- 
aed) that ha atadied Uuea nan at Oilbrd be- 
• ha «sa ^ifnoticed to a habaduiec, and there 



1 Aognatine &iaT. 



■ with a 



tka^" called Whjiehead, 

'^Wken the friar wu "pat to nii uuiu " d; tno 

AiaBBfaitiaB of ttit mouaMcriea, Kllingilej leceived 

Ub. **Wlien Whjtdiead died, he gare hi> icho- 
Jaa- aiQ hia aathemalical obaerratiaiu that he had 
^Hdre and cBllactad, toeethei with hia notei aa 
Eaelid'^ Ekmenla.'' "nit wu the fotrndation of 
cka tsasaluigD, oo which we hare onlj u> uy that 
ik vaa -*— *™'t oade bnn tha Onck, and not 
A^B aoy of tliB Aiabiea-I^tin Teniona, and ii, for 
Ska liwi , a 'ntj good ooa. It wu reprinted, Lou- 
dM. falM, 1661. BiUii«d^ died m 1606, at a 

EdwndSeBt)qi^(0if«d,fbIii>,17(U} tiana- 
lalad HZ book*, with cspiooi annotationa. We 
•udt danikd aentiaD of Whialmi'a tran^tion of 
Ta u|uet , of KuD, Cmiiii Stana, and other editon, 



EUCLEIDES. 73 

whoM edilimi haTa not moeli to do with tha {uv- 
gieii of opjnion about tba Elamoiti. 

Dr. Robert Suneon poUiihed the fint di, and 
eletendi and twdlth booki, in two inBiate qnaRo 
editions (Idtin, Oiaigow, 1 7fi6. Engliih, London, 
i;£6.} The tmulalian of tha iMa wu added to 
the fint odaTo edilioD (ailad 2i]d editjon), 01a>- 

Sir, 1762: olhet inalleia oDConnecled wHli Endid 
•e been added to the numeiDai aiecesding edi- 
tionii With tha ezoaptton of the adiuuial bae/ 
■boat the perfect mtonUion of Euclid, thoa ia ill- 
tie to object to in lhi« celebnted edition. It 
might indeed ban been expected that acme notice 
would haie been taken of Tariooa poiati on which 
Euclid hu avidratl; Allan ahort of that Eimialitjr 
of rigonr whi^ ii tadtly claimed tin him. We 
prefer thii edition TBiy much to many whidi have 
been bihioned upon it, particnlariy to thoae whidl 
have intiodnced algeluaical ajmlioli into the de- 



metrical damonMiation with algebraical openuon. 
Sunion wu fint tnnihted ialo Ocnoaa by J. A. 
Matthioa. Hagdebw^ 1799, Bra. 



Mff 



The 



1796, o( 

ireatment of the fifth 
book, in particular, ii much nnitliBed by the abaii- 
danmrat of Eodid't mUtioD, Ihoogh hu debutim 
and method are letained. 

BmJiiTi EttmaiU ^ Flam Otom^, by John 
Walker, Loudon, 1827, it a collection containing 
Tciy excellent material* and laloable thonf^ta, fant 
it ii hardly an edition of Eoclid. 

We ooghl perhape to mentian W. Hali&z, whou 
En^h Euchd Schweiger pate down u printed 
eight limei in London, between 16B5 and 17G3. 
Bnt we nerei met with it, and cannot find it in 
any nle* catalogue, noi in any Engliih eniuDeia- 
tion of editor*. ThiDii^ramn/BiiJkPtBUmeitU 
by the Rot. W. Tayloii Ycdt, 183B, Sro. *iie 
(put i. containing tha fint book ; we do not know 
of any more), ii a coUectitai <rf bttteied Ji«gi«m« 
atamptd in relief for the nw of the blind. 

The earliett German print of Endid i* an edition 
by Scheuliel or Scheybl, who pnhliihed the aennth, 
eighth, and ninth book*, Aogabir^ \hiS, 4to. 
(Fabi. from hi* own copy) ; IIm fint nx book) by 
W. Uoltimann, bettor known ai Xylander, were 
pnbUihed U BaaK 1S62, foUo (Fabr., Mnrhard, 
Kiiitner). In French we hare Emrd, nine book*. 
Pari*, 1596, 3to. (Fabr.) i fifleen booka b; Hen- 
rion. Fane, 1616 ((Fabr.), 1623 (Mtut.), abonl 
1G27 (aeceaaary inference from the prebce of the 
fifth edition, of 1(149, in oar poueiMon). It it 

ail booka by J. Peleru Don, Leyden, 1 606 (Fabr.), 
1608 (Morh.). Don wu tranalated into Oennan, 
Anulcrdam, 163i,6ni, Alio an anonyBMo* traaa- 
lation of Clariiu, 1663 (Modi.}. In Italian, Tai- 
t^lia'* edition, VenicB, 1543 and 1666. (Unrk, 
Fabr.) In Spaniah, by Joaeph Satagoia, Valanria 
1673, tlo. (Unrh.) In Swediah. the fint aix 
booka, by Martin SBiimef, Uput, 17U. (Morh.) 
The remaining writing! at Endid an of amall in- 
tenct compand with the Elramt*, and a thorter 
account of than will be aofficiant 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



74 EUCLBIDES. 

. The fim Qntk edldon of ths Data U HtxMou 
■flbvuH, ftiu, by Cludiiu Hsidy, Puit, IS^S, 
4ta., Or. L«t, witD the pmbca of Marinn* pnfixcd. 
Hnrlivd qMaki of ■ Mcond editian, Poru, 169A, 
4tD. DBf^podiiu l»d pnnDiuljr pobliihed them 
in lAtin, SttHbmg, 1270. (Pabi.) We hin h1- 
nady iiMkaii irf Zuabcrti'i Latin, uid of ths Oieck 
of OiHonr and Pnmd. Tben i* b1« EtidMit 



aaaitj, Oxford, 1803, Sto 



Tbe 

tuniog 25 gwmeUkal propoBtioni on thi doetriiw 
of tbg ipboB. "Pw/ifm (lib, TLproaf'.) nftn to 
the Hand ptopotiliDB it thii vofk of Euclid, 
and ths Mraad propoddoD of tbe bi»k iriiich bu 
com* down to <u connini the mattsr of tha nfcr- 
cn«. Ws biTs nfemd to the Latin of Zamtierti 



T{^ 



(Waidlci), aad aaotlur appeared {ImX.) bjJrrKph 
Aoria, with tbo sonnnatil of Hannljrcoi, Rome, 
1591, 4to. (Uland* asd Weidlor.} Tbe book 
ii ■]» in Herienne'i Sjnopdi, Puu, 16U, 4to. 
(Weidler.) \^iMiiii,waDmiK{^U.Aa«m.f.\m) 
■a pan of a mty ilUdcBribed wtnnaniieal collto- 
laaa, in 3 roli. Paria, lC2e, Iflnn, 

or the tvo woriu oa nnuie, tbe HanKmia and 
the Diirimit <f O* Omat (or acale), it ii unlikely 
that Euclid ihoDld hare been the anthor of both. 
The ionner ia a Tery dry deactiptian of the mto 
minable muiical Domenclature of the Gieelca, and 
of their modaa. It ii ailed AiiMonnfan [Aris- 
TOXKHDa] : it doea not contain any diiciuiian of 
tbe proper ultimate authority in muiical matlen, 
thongb it doea, in ita vearinme ennnienitiDn, 
adopt iccaa of thne interrali which Ariitoienoi 
ntuned, and the Pythagoranu rejected. The 
Btyla and mattet of tbii tnatiH, we ilrongly nii- 



i« an aritbmetiod dcBcription 
and denumitntion of the mode of diriding the 
•ale. Gregory ii inclined to think thii Ireatiie 
cannot be Eucjid'i, and one of bii reuoni ii that 
Ptolemy doea not mention it ; anotber, that tbe 
theory fallowed in it ii lucb ai ii nrely, if ever, 
tnentianed before the time of Ptolemy. If Euclid 
did writs either of these treatiaea, we are BBtii6ed 
it moat bars been the secocd. Both are contained 
in Oiegncy (Or. IM.) as already noted ; in the 
coUeetion of Oieek muncal aathon by Heibomiua 
(Or. Lat.), Amileidam, 16G9, 4to.; and in a sepi- 
late edition (aln Or, Ut) by J. Pens, Paris, 
1£37, tla.{FahT.),1557(Schweiger). PosseTinui 
ha* also a coneetad I^tin editioii of the ibit in his 
BiU-Sd. Colon. 1E£7. Potcadel ttansUted one 
tnalise into French, Pari*, \&66, 8io. (Schweiger.) 
The book on Optia treats, in 6 1 prapcntlons, on 
the simplnt geometrical cbanKteristici of vision 
Bad peiipective ; the Oatoflria haie 31 pnpon- 
tiou on tha law of reflexion as eierapltfied in 
plana and ^harical minon. We baTe referred to 
the Or. IaL of Qregory and the Latin of Zam- 
berti ; there is also the edition of J. Frna (Or, 
Lat), Paris, 1557, 4to. (Fabr.) ; that of Dasypo- 
diiu (I^tia rally, we mppose, with Greek ennnda- 
tiiKis), Stnuburg, 1£67, Ito. (Fabr.) ; a reprint of 
the Idtin of Pens, Leyden, 1599, 4to. (Fabr.) ; 
and some other reprinC Leipwc, 1607. (Fabr.) 
Than is a Fnnch tiandatioa 1^ RoL Ptmit Mana, 
IC6S, 4tai and an Itdian one by Egnotio Danti, 
FluoMx, 1573, 4tOL (Sofaweigsr.) 



(Prochuy Pqipns; Angoal tdoL; Fabric. £iV. 
Oraet. loL ir. p. 44, Ac. ; Gregory, Pra^. edU. 
eU.; Horhard, BiiL Mali.; Zambcrti, erf. csf.; 
SaTiie, FradtcL ta End.; Keilbionner, HuL 
Ma&a. Um. ; Bchwe^, HamBi. <kr Oamitek. 
BibL ; Feynid, sif . c^., Ac Ac : alt editions to 
which a reference is not added hsrin^r been ao- 
tqally conmlted.) [A. Di M.] 

EUCLBIDES (EJjcAtSqt), historical. 1. One 
of the leaders of tbe body of colonists from Zaitcle 
who fimnded Uimera. (Thucyd. tI S.) 

2. One of the son) of Hippoentes, tyrant of 
Gala. It was in svppresnng a leroh of the Oeloana 
gainst Bodeides and bis bntber, which broke out 
on tbe death of Bippooatea, that Oelon managed 
to get the toTenrignly into hi* osm hands, B.C. 4SI. 
(Herod. Tii. 15S.y 

3. One of the Thirty Tymti at Athena. (Xen. 
IM.ii.S.iZ) 

*. The archon eponynmi (br the year B. c 403. 
His archonihip is memotable for the restination, 
with some modilicatians, of tbe old laws of Solon 
and I>raco. Tbese were inscribed on the itoa |xiv- 
cib in the io-ealled Ionian alphabet, which waa 
then first bnnghE into nsa at Athena for pobtic 
dociunenla. {AMnc rit MyiL p. U ; Pint. ^riif. 1.) 
Atheuaeoi (L p. 3, a.) menlion* an Athenian of 
this name who was liunaai as a collector of books. 
Whether he was the nune person as tbe archiKi, or 
not, doea not appear. 

6. The brother of Cleomenea III. king of Sparta. 
He commanded a dirision of tha Eorcei of the ht- 
ter at the battle of Sellana, B. c. 22S, and by hia 
nnikilfitl tactics in a great degree bron^t about 
the defeat of the Lactdaemoniana. He fell with 
the whole of the wing which he o 



EUCLE!DES(EA[\(Uqi),a native of MaoARA, 
or, according to some IcM probable stuunta, of 
Gela. He wa* one of the chief of the di»dp1e» of 
Socrates, but beliire becoming sncfa, he had stodied 
tha doctrines, and eipecisliy the dialectic*, of tbe 
Bleotics. Socrates on one occasioD repnnd him 
for his fondness for subtle and captions dispntes. 
IDiog. laert. iL 30.) On the death of Soerale* 
(B.C. 399),Bucleidei,withmoit of tbe other pnpla 
of that pbiloaopber, took refuse in Hegaia, and 
then estabUihed a school which diatingnished it- 
self chiefly by the coltitation of dialectics. The 
doctrines of the Eleatic* farmed the basii of hi* 
philosophical system. With these he blended the 
ethical and di^ectical principles of Socntes. The 
Eleatic dogma, that there ia one uniTenal, an- 
changeable existencei, he tiawed in a moral aspect, 
calling this one existence tha Goad, but giTing it 
also other names (aa Reason, Intelligence, Ac), 
periupt for the purpose of explaining hew the real, 
thongb one, appeared to be many. He rejected 
demonstration, attacking not so mnch the pcemisea 
assnmed aa the coneluiisna drawn, and also reason- 
ing fmm analogy. He is said to hare been a man 
of a somewhat indolent and procrastinating diipo- 
dtion. He srai the anthor ot si dialogue*, norw 
of which, howerer, bsTO come down to ns. He 
baa frequently been errnneonsly confoDnded with 
the mathematidan of the same name. The schaol 
which be fbnnded was called sometimes the Heg»- 
ric, sometines the Dialectic or Eristic (Dug. 
Laert.iL 106— 108; Cic.Jauf.iL42: PhiU <<b 
n<s<r. Am. 18.) [C. P. M.] 

D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



BtTCRATES. 

BUCLIIDES (SfafktOti). I. A Gntk fkj- 
man, u >boB ii tAimmtiaaa of the Lellcn 
lurihded ta Tboaa {SatnL 1 /yhv SjfmL 
f. «l, id. OnlL), Bd wIm tbenfon m; b* top- 
pwd Id 1b** lind in the fifth ontnij ■. c 

2. TbeHlbor«f maitidote 



EUCLEIDBS. 1. OfAtlMii,>*nilpUr.BMla 
tk atOf irf Pnrtslic Biari^ in tb« Umfitt af 
barter, Apbndite, and DionjiUi and EiltiihiUB 
a Bbk im AcbuiL (PuK liL 25. g 5.) Thii 
to<i,aiaHl7Pn«iM, h>d been rebnilt kfMt 
ik i uBm lkn hr n nrthqaikc, is b. c 37^ 
(F)u£c,HiBp.§Z> Hw ntiri pnbablj fiDB- 
oiM, AmftK, noD aflw thn due. 

1 A iihtliil, whoM iMmn i* tm co iha euui 
d Sjaam. (K. BoAotle, I^Ora iM.UDm6da 
l^fm. IWl.) [P. S.] 

EUCLES (BdMqt). I. Of RbodH,kHnar Cat 
'imax nd CUKpalein, (fa* daSf^tat of DUgonu, 
Mapd H tlia family <rf tbs EbMu or Dkgraidu. 
Ht pbtd > Tktoiy in boxing M Olympa, thoiigli 



EUCRATIOBS. 



IS 



[tmi. li. 6. f 1, T. i 1.) Tlw Sdi^Ml m. PI 
^(tiLiii. 16) aU* hm BadoD, (nd doeril 
bn u 1 Biptww of CnOipnlaa. {BHckb^a 
•iPM. OLjiL p. 166, &£.; Dumut, 

1 A MD of Hippm of SrncittMru DIM 
tkn* new cMnaaindcn who wen moiul 
11^414. SabwqMDtlj bo WH no of tlu 
■adoiaf tba Ami whidi Oo SjiBBUBu i 



■n. {n>c«L10SiXaLAW. L2.$B.) A 
IM pan gfthii name ii Endct, who wu aroboa 
>AtlMBtiin.c. 127. (Thoe.iT. 104.) [L. &] 

BUCLOUS (ECu^Mt), in UMMnt Cjpfkn 
■Mfc^H; who, aixnding W Peuniu (x, 12. 
IB, It. I a, S4. i 3), liT«d before the tine of Jlo- 
^ who, u ha peedicted, wh to qiriiig fnm 
Cjfnt, "•——■— qoDte* eoBie line* pfufwing 
<• be Ifae bard^ pephMy of Ihi* etiat. The 
pm oOad IhetWn Petm b*> been eiretn- 
—ij Mianeud 10 hare been of hii compoutiaii. 
(Fihric aU. fhaic rel i. p. 35.) [C. P. H.] 

BVCRATES (Siufinp), the danuogae, K- 
nNiig le lb* Scfaidiut, lUnded to by AnalopbaiM 
[Gjdt IM), when ha tfttkt of ■ aw-teUer 
•Ib nbd nait bat me befoic Clean. (Camp. 
^iASS4.) Ho ni^t poadidy be tb* ime u 
AcfaOecof DiDdatu(lini&iiL41),wfaoi|iol<B 
ina Clan in the HytileiMwi ddnte, B. c. 437, 
W it ii Bat TOy pcMeUe. The Eocnlea meo- 

fsod ia Thae* i* ■ diSerest ptnao, and pro- 
UlytheaBe a* the bnthet of Nidx ^ofcen ef 
Un. [A. H. a] 

EirCKATES (Ui«a(n|>). 1. AnAtfamiut,* 
inthr of the noted gauol Nieiw The few 
■'«u» we bare ef bm m to be faimd in the 



■N taly with Md odkir. Aeeoriing to Ljtiu, 
be *it aide geDcol by the Athcnku, eppventlr 
^« Ibt het niml de«-t (rf Nicdu in the huboiir 
•f SpKan (anlw indeed by the fait « fyit 
Ltm hmm tlw tattle of Aem PoMni), and 
lined hieilleilMini to the pnadplei of liber^ 



by lefiuing to becOBK ana of the Thirty Tynnte, 
ud waa put to death by tlwm. Aeeonuiw to 
Andoeidw. Eocialee wm ooe of the ncliaia of tb* 
popBlacfuiaentdHat themalilatiaD ottheHennao- 
boila, hanog been pot to death on the infaimation 
of Diodeidei. We tant a (peeeh of Lyeiaa, tom- 
poeed in defcnco of the eon of Encntai on the 
oceeeion lA a ttial aa to whethai hii henditaty 
ftoparty ahnld be confiecalod ot not. (Lye. dt 
&MW A%HK/rat. c 3 1 Andoe. >& Mfrt. e. 11.) 

2. A writer menlioDed by Ueaychiu (i. e. 
lAarpsr) aa the anthor of a woik entitled 'PoIiaiBt. 
AthmaeuB (iiL p,lll, c) aljo mentieiu a writer 
ofthianama. [C P. M.J 

£UCIIA'TIDES(EAvbtA|i), king of BacUia, 
wia centoipoiaiy with tfithndatei I. (Atacei 
VI.), king of Pactbia, and appean to haTe beea 



IS of tbe moat powobl of tae fi 
id to have gnatly extoided hie d< 
1 the ercnti of oil leign an in 



hn^amiiu [DBMwruva] ; and, ii 
the wan that he eanied an a^unat that piiace, ha 
wai at one tieu beaieged by him with Tery tnpehot 
fioee* for a ipaca of near fire nuntlu, and with 
diCcnlly aeoiped. (Jnatia, ilL 6.) At a nhw- 
quent period, and ^bably after the death of 
DemetiiDB, he made gnat eemiaoite in Dortbein 
India, u that he waa Mid to bate been lord of a 
thoiuandciliei.(Stnb.XT.p.SSG.) Yetinlbe later 
yean of hie reign he appcsn to ban laSeied heary 
ioaeea in hii wan againit Mithridatei, king af 
Partbia, who wreated from him Brenl of hii pro- 
Tincet (8tnk iL pp. 515, 617), thoogh it eeems 
impoeuble to admit the itatemeDt of Joitln 
(iH. 6), that tho Parthian hii^ ciaiqiieRd 
" -'^ ilMnlniifn. of Enontidea, s 



Itq 






(Jnitin, ilL 6.) The Mittawnla of andent authcn 
eoneemiog the power and greatnaea of Eocntidra 
an omfiiTDed by the nomber of hii auni that hare 
been fmrad on both lidea of tiui Pafopamiioa : on 
the*ehabanthetitkiof>'thaQnat" (Wilwn'a 
Ariima, p. 235—237.) Tbe data n^atad for 
the commencement of bii nign by Beyer, and 
adapted by Wilaon, ii 181 n. c; but aathoritiea 



by 1 atarin in 160 b. c, while it i* extended by 
Bayer and Wikm to 147 a c (See Wilton'i 
Atiama, p. 234 — 238, when all the pnnu Rialiiig 
to Ewxuidei an dianuaed and the antboritiei 




re 



EUDEMUS. 



EUDEHUa. 



Bajtt (Bid. Ibgm. Ctmd. B<Ktriami,tt. 95, ftc) 
bu m&RBd tb* exutcoca <f ■ Mcood EoentidM, 
the lonaf the pmeding, to wlnai be ucribei (he 
mntdra of hit &dter, and Ail Tiew hM been 
■dnptod hj M. Rwnl RodwtU ( Jwnuf da Sm 
1835): bat it dm not Mem to be Mlabliihsd o 
any lufficisnt gmuitdL WiUort md Uioruiel gob 
niTe HelioclM to hate been the neceHar of Encni- 
tidcL (Wil»n'e^rua,p.237i Miannet, S^pL 
L 8, p. 170.) [HuioCLsa.] [E. U. E] 

EUCTE'UON (EAcnbiw), the utnmonwr. 
[HcroH.] 

EUCTBUON (EAtT^fw), > QitA riietoikuii 



J Seneca, who bia pre- 
■emd M, fe» {ngmaau of bit wori:^ {(bilno. iiL 
19, 20, ir. 25, i. SO, U.) [L. 8.] 

BUDAEMON (Eltalimi'). 1. The nune of two 
ricton in the Oljmpiu gwne*. One of thcon mu 
ui Egypliui, and won the priie in boxing, but tbi 
jeu it not known. [Philoatr. Hrr. IL 6.) The 
other su ■ natiTo of Alenuidcu, sod giiiied 
lictoij in the foat-noe in OL 337, or a. d. IG 
(A&icui. op. OuiA. Cinm. p.44, 2d.ediL Bcalig.) 

3. A Oreek gmmmuim, md ooutemponrjr of 
libaniu. He wu a natJTe of Pehiniim in Enpt, 
■od wtote a work oa orthogiwby, which u Mt, 
bat ie oftm nfeited to by SiddB, in the Etymo- 
ImcnD, and by Stephanni of Bjaulima. (t. or. 



me Bote, who, when the Chilcddiuu 
imploT* aid afpiuM Olynthiu in b. c S83, wae 
aent at tht h(*d of 2000 mea. Before hit do- 
pattnn he pnniled on the e^ioi* to conunit tlie 
next diriiion iriiich thonid be eeiit to tho command 
of hii brother PhoetHdaa, The latter, on hit 
maich. Mixed tlw Cadniea of Thebca ; aod in eon- 
•nqoaDce of the dcby of the main body of the 
tnopi thu ocouioned, Eudunidai (onU eflect hot 
little. He, howerer, garriKmed KTtfal of the 
Chaicidian town* ; and, making Potidaea hii head- 
qoaiten, cairied on the war without any deoiiie 
molt. Aeooiding to Diodimu, he waa wontod in 
Baren] engagement! ; and it wonid apptac &Dm 
Demorthenea (lU Fidia LigaL p. i2S), who ipeaki 
of Una oommandsn baring in thii war Men on 
the aide of the Cbolddiana and I^cedaemaniana, 
that in one of Iheae eneonntst* Eadamida* wai 
killed. (Xen. /Ml. t. S. I 2« ; IHod. xy. 20, 21.) 

% Two king! of'Spaita bore thii name. Eu- 
danddaa L waa tht yowver un of Archidamni III. 
and BDOoeeded hia hmther Agia III. in B. c S30. 
Tha aiMt length of hi* reign ii uncertain, bat it 
waa pnhablT aboat M jmtt. Plalaieh [ApopUi. 
p. 230, 221) MMCd* Mane laying* of EDdanudaa, 
which bemoak hii peaoefnl ehanctcr and policy, 
which ia dao attealad by Pauaniai (iii 10. $ 6). 

Eodamidaa II. waa the an of Aichidainai IV. 

!wbnn be nuceeded) and gnndaon ot Endamida* I. 
Fiat. Jgit, S.) Ho waa the bifaer of Agii IV. 
and Anhidamna T. [C. P. U.] 

EUDA'MUS (BAofiM), ia motUooed by Aria- 
t^ianea (/%■(. 884) aa a contenipaiaiy, and lived 
Ihenfare in tha fifth csotoly B. c The Schuliaat 
inlciima m that he waa by tiada nther a dnzggiat 
at ■ goldamith, and that be aold liugi aa aatidotea 
^Bnit pmama. IW. A. O.] 

EUDFHUS(El>iwat). l:OneoCAIex>Dder1 
gnmala, who waa amiDlad by Unt to Uw cob- 



u (Aniaa, A»at. 



mand of the troopi left in 

n.27. $5.) Alter Aleiaader^ dmn oe maoe nim- 
adf maatar of the terriloriaa of the Indian king 
Poru, and tnacheronaly p«t that nunaidi to 
death. He by Ihia meani became very powerfnl, 
brooght to ' "" 

■ ■ luai. 

[. U.) With the** 
ne renaerea mm active lervice ia tin tint llattle in 
OaUene, bat leemi nerertheleH to have beat jea- 
lona of bim, aid jnned in tht oonapiracy of Anti- 
genei and TealanuM againit him, thoogfa be wan 
afterwaidi induced to divulge their |dana. After 
ths (nnendar of Emnene*, Eudemni waa pat to 
death by ord» of Antigonui, to whom ho had 
alwaji diewo a maiked houili^. (Diod. lix. 15, 
27,44; PIut£WM.c 16.) 

2. Son of Ciatcvaa and brother of Pithen, waa 
^^ninted by hia brother aatiap of Parthia in ths 
itead of Philip, whom he di^Aaced. (Diod. xix. 
U.) [E.H.a] 

EUDEMUS (E«tuu)f). 1. An hiitorical 
writer, B Dative of either Naxoa or Pan*, who 
lived bflfore the time of the Peloponneaian war. 
(Dionyi. Jad. da 7%ae. c. 6 ; Clem. Alex. Shmn, 
vi. 2. 26, p. 267 i Voaaina, da Hid. Or. p. 440, 
ed. Weatennann.) 

S. A writer, apparanlly on nltiuil hiatmy, wfaa 
ia fraqoently quoted by Aelian, in hia Hiiory tf 
Ammda (iiL 21, iv. B, 43, 4S, £6, v. 1\ 

S. A writer on tho hiatory of aatnnomy and 
nanetry, mentioned by Clemen* AleiandriDO* 
(Strom, i. p. 130), Diogenea Uijrtini (L S3), and 



.a(» 



*)■ 



4. A rhetocician, who lived probably in tbo 

nth centDiy after Chiiab He waa the aatbnr 

a laacon, np) Aitw 'Ptrvapiniv, mamuciqita 

which an itill extant at Pari*, Viaraa, uvd 

lier placea. Hia worii (fipean to have been dili- 

atlj need by Saidaa, and ia mentioned with 

. lite tiy EBdMia.(SuidasaB.Ef>i|fist; Eudooa, 

p. I6S; Fabric OU Gtva. voL vL pp. 245, 

632.) [C. P. M.] 

EUDE'UUS (EM(v>«). 1. Of Cypn*. to 
whom Aiialotle dedicated the dialogne EMmioi 4 
in|>l 1fv3c», which ia loat, and known to na only 
by lome bagmenla preewved in Platareh {fJum- 
lotaL ad AfcHim. p. 115, b.), and a few other 
wrilen. (Falxic AfU. Oniae. vid. iiL pp. 39S, 
599 ; lonaioa, Da Ser^ Habriaa PUhmpk, i. 
15. 3; Wytlenbach,aiii>(al.l.c|k76£;BDdtfaa 
commenlatari on Cio. <fa Dkim. L 25.) 

2. Of Rhodea, a conlempoiary and dinple of 
Atialotle. We have no patticnian of hia tifc ; but 
he waiDM of the moat important of AriaUtle'a 
eront diedple* may be interred from the anec- 
dote of Oelliu (dii. 5, where £Wibu mnat ba 
reed initsd of Mmtdimo), aceoiding to which 
'iodemni and Theophnalaa wan the mtj diaciplea 
rhom the Pafipatetie acbool eataemad worthy to 
U the plnoa of Anatolia iftat hi* death. Siapli- 
iui makra maatioa of a biogiaphy tf Eadewiga, 
uppoaed to be the work of me Damaa or Paniaa 
iii*.(Simplie.aiJriiM.i^n.2l6.) Eodamua 
raa one ef thoaa immediata diadplaa of Arialatle 
'ho cloidy followed their maaler, and the piin- 
dpal object of whoae woifci waa to correct, amplify, 
and eomidate hia writinga and phiioaaphy. It waa 
owing to thia dreonutanea. aa we lean Irom the 
anoent mtica, that Aiiatode'a wrilinga were ao 
oAcn coofMiided with thoaa of other antkeca. 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



n«id 



BUDEUUS, 

u lud hii rantemponriM 



wtilla and 
BbjcOi •■ IbsH gf Ariitolta. Tbe woAi a[ En- 
lemi «r [hi! kind nn— 1. Ok Uu Cabgona. 

> wtA tt vindi SimplidDi in liii cobuikih 
Mj b* pnaanvd khim tagfaiaU, in vfauJi 
Etdona oAoi caotndicU liu muter* In thii 
tRUo^ K in loaK other, hs icnBi to htT« alio 
nuid M tb« lutan of the haman bodj. (AppnL 
Jfaly. p. 463L) Bm ill than wodu *n ket, and 
Skewm nutiher of (till mem irnpartBiice, in which 
k mtad of the luiti>7 (€ geometrj and aitro- 
Kaj (4 a^ Tvr 'Airrp«%JrTai«Univ 'lomiwi, 
Diig. La^rt. l S3 ; « 'AvrpaksTut^ lor^plo, 
Fittic. BiL Ontc tiJ. m. p. 432.) 



bile 



ediM of lod commentati'r upon the Ariito- 
WTTlii^ Bow cloedj he fbllcnred Atie- 
ta tat mA on Phjiici, ii ihemi bf the 

Uoiiii in matten of mtal oitidam. (Stihr, 
ini W i h . ii p. 82.) Indawl Endemni followed 
lie Afiitotdiwi ayate w ao doeriy, that modem 
kUbi, u Bondia foi ioalaiKe, do not hedlate to 
■aiba to Endemna rane wiitingt which en 
paollf attribated to Arialotle. (Bnudia, n 
Sim. Mianm, L 4. pp. 2B3, 284.) Ariatollo 
fad ii Ida 6Scd nai^ without iBTing pab- 
liiM ami half of hu wiiliBg* ; and the boaiiwu 

mind iqoB hia ueMaal raaoda and diaciplsi. 
S^iioaa kaa pnaamd a paaa^a of the woA of 
m Anatotla and hii writingi, 



e to Tbeophiaatai, aaking for an 
lit copj of ■ Bannaci^t of the fifth book of 
Ac AiiitMdian Phjaiet. (Simplic ad Arid. 
flfL U. 316, a., lis. 7.) In the aanie mann«r 
the AnatoUJvn Met^ifajaka in their preaent iwm 
•a la hare been eompaaed bj EDdemoi or bit 
•auaWH ; fat we leani fann Aadepina of TiaUaa 
[Aicuntii], wlio haa pnaarred maa; "iliiaUa 
•nina bam iba voriu of ths more andent omt. 
aenatan, that Ariatolle committed hia manDacript 
rf the Uetai^nica to Endemna, bj which ths 
^UsJan of Oa wotk waa dela^ ; that on the 
^Bk if Atiitotlo ansa paita li the maniucripl 
»n BiiBBg, and that thaaa had to be completed 
fnai th« other wiitingi of Aiialatls by the ani- 
■ ■ ■ ' • (Aide- 



^dnoa Kti hia foOoweia fa the ptaaerratioa of 
■te inaatiiaabla woik may alao be itrferted bm 
b fact, that Jowonea Pbiloponna alatea that 
Pwataa (or Paaidea) of Rbodoa, bntbar of Eo- 
'■■aa and likawiae a diaciple of Arialotls, waa, 
XBrtiag to the opinion of aonM anaent oilict, the 
•B^tf the aacond book of the Het^yaici (the 
^«k t). (Fabtie. BiU. Onn. toL iii. p. 2i6 ; 
Ijrm. ad AritUit. Mtiapi. B. p. 17 ; Aloiaod. 
A^badik, pp.&fi, 82, ad SifUil. Elcncb. iL p. 69, 
•*. VineL 1529.) 

Fit the ElhieaofAriatotle wean alao probably 
■'•lited mara tc ka to Endamiia. We hsTe, 
utn Aa OMM <f Ethka, time worka aacribed to 
^''■'•tlf of Twy uwqiial Tahia and quality. 
[^Mromn, pp. 330, 331.] One of theao 
hMamn the iBDeof Endeanal'Hhail E^eij^eJ, 






EUDiaua 77 

and waa in all pnbalrilily a receDaion of Aiiitotle'a 
lectnrei edited by Eademua. What ahare, how- 
OTcr, Eudemiia bad in tbe compoutiiHi of tho chief 
work (tbe 'HSucd Nuuiidx'u) remaina uncertain 
after the bUeit inTeatigaUan of the nbject. (Panach, 
da Moraliui augmt MMibino Arklolda libn, 
1B41.) [A. S.] 

EUDB'MUS (EJAvut), the name of lareial 
Gnek ptiyaidana, whom it la difficult to diatinguiah 
with certainty. rEi'DiHUB.1 

1. A dr ■ - 
fonrth 01 Ik 

phnatoa (AinL PlamLii. 17. 2), to bare been en 
nent in hta trade, and to baie pntfeaaed to be al 
to take hellebore withoat being ptuved. 

2. A celebmtad anatomiit, who lired proba] 
abaat the third centnir k. c, aa Galen caUa him a 
contamponry of Heraphilna and Enaiatiatnai {Com- 
!■«(. ■ /f ifiaer. ■'.d^tor." tL 1, ToL iriiL pt 1 . p. 7 .) 
Ha ^^eua to haTs giran ptrtjcnlat attention to 
the anatomy and phyaulosy of the narrooa ayatea. 
(Oabn, dt Lock. Afftct. lii. 14, ToL niL p. 212.) 
He (ociideied the metacarpna and malataiaua each 
to conaiat of fin bonea rG^en, d« tTm />ar«: iiL B, 
Td. iil p. 203), on whiidi paint Oalen differed fniB 
him, bat modem anatamiata agree with him. He, 
bowam, &I1 into the emr ti aoppoaing ths tatf- 
mion to he a diatinct and aepacata bone. (Ratu 
Ephea. dt Ajf^ Pari. Cbfji. Ham. p. 29.) 

3. A phyudan U Rome, who waa the paimMmr 
of Livia (or LiTilla), the wih of Dmaoa Caewr, 
the ecD of the empeiot Tiberiua, and who joined 
her and Sejaniu in their plot for poiaoning her 
hoiband, A.o. 23. (Plin. /f. A', ^jt , B) Ttc 
Aarn. ii. 3.) lie waa afterwatda put to the Va- 
tun. (TbcUeCcII.) He ia Bf^oaed to be the 
nme peiaon who ia nid by Caelina Aniclianna 
(«l> Mori. AtuL ii. SB, p. 171) to hlTe been one 
of the bUowen of Themiaon, and wboie mediial 
abaemtiinia on bydmpholua and aome other dia- 
(san are quoted by him. He appeaca to be the 
BUM phyaidan who ia mentioned by Galen (d» 
MtUL Mid. L 7. ToL I. p, 53) amoDg aeieial othen 
aa beloDging to the aect of the MelbodicL 



P.454J 

B. The name ia alaa fbnnd in Galen, de Cnmpai. 
Aftrfie. asb £(«it, ix. S, ToL liiL p. 291, dtAiUid. 
iL 14, ToLnr. p. 18S( Athen. iz. pp. 369, 871; 

[W. A. O.] 
EU'DICUS [EMuni), a Tbeaaalian of I^iaa, 
pTobaUy one of tbe family of the Alenadae. Like 
DMMt of hia home, he waa a deroted adherent of 
Philip of Macedon, and in & c 344 aided iam in 
eflwting the ditiiion of Tbeualy into four tetrar- 
chiea, at the bead of one of which he waa himaelf 
placed. Demoathenea atjgmaliia him aa a traitor 
to hia country. Tbe diiiaioD abote named had 
the efiect of ledodnB Thtaaaly entirety under the 
oontinil of Philip. (Dem. di Cortm. p. 241; Hai- 
pooat. (. e. EfBunu ; Bnttmann, MyBniogai, tdI. 
iL p. 268, Ac ; Bifckh, Etplie. ad Piad. Pgtk. x. 
p. 333.) [C. P. M.1 

EUDI'CIUS, ma^iiter aertnionun, oiu of the 
fiiat conmiiiaion of Nme, ^^ointed by Theodoaiua 
in Af n, 429 to compile a code upon a ^an which 
waa afterwatda abandoned fin another. [ DiODO- 
•iii,Tol.L p. 1018.] 1J.T.G.] 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



78 EUDOCTA. 

EUnycU (E«*Kh), the nu 



tin*, or haoa, or, u he it ailed in Die Pucfail 
Cliraiiicia, Hemciihiu of AthiD*, whtn ihe «u 
bora. Tbe Tear of hvr birth it doabtfnl. Niw- 
phocu Calljiti, 1^0 bu girai the fiiDait aonHmt 
of het, Malw (xit. GO) that ihe died in Ibe 
finutli ;«i of tlie ernpenr Leo, whi^ cwnipoodi 
to A. a. 46041, aged nxlj-HTen; and that 
•be mt is her twentietb year wbra ih* mar- 
ried Theodneiua. Aocording to thie itateiDent, 
■be nut hiTe been bom A. D. 393-t, and mattied 
A. D. 41S-U. But the age of Theodorini (bom 
A. D. 101) leadi D> to pnfer, fijr the maniage, the 
data giiea b; tbe Pucnal or Alenodrian Cbroiu- 
de and bTMane!liniu(Cftrai.),Tii.tbeeoiinilihip 
of Euitatliiiii and Agricok, A. D. 131. We miut 
then giro np tbe cajcolation of Nicepfaonii a* to 
the tmie of her death, or M to her age at thai tinie 
or at her marriage. PoieiblT ihe cmam to Con- 
atantliiDple in her twentietb fear, in 413-11, bnt 
WBi nut maiiied till 121. She *aa tailed origiaall; 
AthenBiii and having eicellant natnral aUliliea, 
vai edocated b; her latber and by tbe gramina- 
rieoe Hrpendiini end Orion in enij bnncb of 
odence nnd learning then enltinted. 9be was 
bniliar with Qnek and Latin lilentan, rhetoric, 
aiti«iomir.geoDeti7,aDd'the nsDee of aritbmetie. 
She WM alao enuDent lor ber bonty ; and in cod- 
udentkm of iheN adiBnteBeii natural and aeqaind, 
her btber at bia dath ItA her na >ba» in Ua 
pnpert;, all of i4ueh he bequeathed to her two 
bnthen Velerini and Aetiua, called Oeneahia bj 
Zonal**, or Geeioa in the Poacbal Chnmide, aaj- 
ing that her good fortnne and the fraita of Jier 
edocatioD wonld be a anfflcienl inheritance. 

Ftoin diuatidactioa either at thie urangemnit, 
at at ion» wrong ahe bad anilered, Atbeniia went 
to Conituitinople to appeal againat her bnthen ; 
and Polcbeiia, aiater of Theodoeiaa, who managed 
alike him and hii empire, fixed on hei a* a luilable 
wife (or him. Atbenaia wai a heathen ; bnt her 
haMhenian yielded to the ■rgnnwDt* or permaaioiia 
of Paldieria and of Atticda, fattiatcb of Conatanti- 
imple, by wbom aha waa bajitiied, recanng at bar 
baptism the name of Endoeia. and being adopted 
in that ordinance hj Pnloberia m - ' — '*— - 



Btinceaa for a qnuaer. The date of het matriage 
{A. D. 421), girai ij Hanellinn* and the pBMdial 
ChronicJe, ia probaUr CDrrect, Iboo^ Tbeophanae 

plaeea it one if not two yean cariier. 

Hoat biitoriana mention only one child cf thii 
tmioD, Endnda, vhD, icEording to Hareellinna, waa 
bom in the tbineenth eonanltbip ot Henorini. 
and the tenth of Theodouoa, i. t. A. B. 122, 
and betrothed, in the conmlahip of Victor and 
CastiniLi, A. D. 421, to her cDusn Valentinian. 
afCerwarda emperor of the WeaB aa Valentintan 
III. TiUemont tbinki then are notice* which 
•eem to ahew that there wa* a ton. Anadina, but 
he mutt hate died yoong. Manelliniu mentkm* 
another daughter of tbe empercr Theodcain*, and 
therefore (if legitmute) of Eudocia a1», Fladlla ; 
but Tillemonl luapecti that Mamllinnt ipeaki of a 
Mtler ofTheodoaiiu ao named. Fladlla died in the 
eonanlabip of Antiochna and Baaaue, A. D. 431. 
The mairiage of Valenlinian with Eudoiia waa 
celebt>t«d,nDt, aa at £nt i^poiDtediat TbMHioniia, 



EUDOCIA. 
but at Conatanlinople (csanp^ Socntet, UU Bcda. 
,; NiafjLCalL OM. nr. 23j Hainan. Cina. 
-' ~ ■ •• CbB),in tho3'eBr4S6orlS7, 



addieawd the people of that d^, and waa homoRd 
'~ them with a iMaa of la mi, at related br Eia- 
Atharpe - 



nina. Ath 
boindaiieaai 



other maiki of faTtmr on that dty. She had »- 
oaired the title of Anguta a. d. 12S. 

Hitherto it ia [Di>bable that Endoda bad inte^ 
feled bnt little with the influence ezerdaed bf 
Pnlcheria in pablic afhirt. Kicephoraa ny*. aba 
lired twenty-nioe ytara in the peloce, "mbouiting 
to {iri) Pdcheri* *• mother and Angnata." Aa 
Nicepboma place* Endoda'a moidage in 413-11, 
he makei 442-43 the period of the termination 
of Pnlcheria'a adminittiatian. He ttate*, thai 
Endoda'a odniiniatiMion huted tor aeren yeoii, 
which brii^uto44^fia a* the data of ber lart 
joniikey to Jamaalsn, a date which, from other 
drcDinatanoea, appean to be eorrsct. 

Daring Ihe aeran year* of her ad— -- 
A. D. Mil, accond^ to tbe Paschal uatomcu, Dni 
later aocording to TMophatiM, oceanad tbe inodent 
which waa the Snt stn to ho downUL An apple 
of ranaritabla ain and beaoty had been bnnght to 
Conatanlinople, whidi tbe empeinr pnTchased and 
pnaented to hia wife. Sfa« sent it to Panlinna, 
the m^atet offidomm, who waa then eonfiiied by 
a fit of the goat ; and Panlinnt, deeming it ■ anit- 
*b1e a%ring, sent it to the empenr. Tbeododot 
recogniied it ai the one which be had gireu le 
Eudocia | and, withont mentiomng the reason to 
her, enqnind what she had dona witb it. She, 
appieheniiTe of hia displeaanra at hating ported 
with hia gift, replied that abe had eaten it, and 
aeertion byaooath. Tbis Usehoud 



regarded Paolino* with i 
banidied him to Cappadoci^ wbtr* be « 
then or afterward* pnt to death. Hi 
places bia death in tile fifth oMiSDlahipaf Valenlinian 
A. D. llOi but VB prefer the statement tf Nice- 
pboma, that his banishmaBt wo* aftet 412-S, and 
are dimmed to place hi* death in a. c 419-50. 
Endoda, bowerer. aoolbed fiir a time tbe jealniay 
of her hosbaad, bst it was Dot eradicated, as lab- 
seqneot CTent* shewed. Gibbon rejects the whole 
alory of tbe uiple " as lit only for the AnUsn 
Nights ;" bnt luB aceptidsm appears anrauonible. 
The qusncls of the ecdeiiaslks were the inune- 
di*te oeouion of her downbll. Cbiyi^ihiaa, tba 
ennucb and head ^KfTntMrlain^ a sapporter of tbe 
monk Entychea, wi^ed to proeore the dqMmtiDn 
of Flaiisn, patriarch of Coattantinopla, who had 
juat lieeii elected, a. d. 447. ChiTHpfaiu, findii« 
that Flavian waa inpported by Pnlchcna, who, 
though nolongei directing the goTemment, retained 
conaidernble inflnetics, applied to Endoda. whom 
be reioinded af the gnoTance* ahe bad suatsined 
"on Pnlcheria'a •ceotrnt.'' Endoda, after a toig 
csntinned eSorl, at lait succeeded in slJeBating bet 
hnabsnd fnim his aister. Pulcheria waa (uludden 
the couit, and ntirtd Eran Constantino^i and in 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EUOOCIA. 
itmaJ truMJp-CTTOdl of Eph«wu (A.P.M81 
Ihhb n'tbfConHalijf nbbsn" {4 kvrifiuirf), 
FUnu «n dtfaKd, nd v na^j tnalvl fcjr 
Ike wiMfrl FRhtiia, llut ha diad of tbgif fle- 
km ■ In bji ■&■£. Bitf HModDnB* «u tooo 

Hi bnukad CbiyjiptiBi, uid itiippcd him of all 
ta f mwniniu ; lad tlwirai liii uger with EodDcii 
' ' I (lia qounl almit tba tpfla; wa that 



tJRtlTiiig (ka qi 
■kc bqiid aid ol 



muMd dunstba uoct lataiaia of die i«gs of 

Eudoeii njgltt piaBhIj Ihtb bam ncondled to 
W halHDdf bat &r aa arcat zacordad bj Mai^ 
aUmii, •faith lendeRd the bnach itnpanbla. 
Suanamu, irlui hdd ilka tSee •' 



n ibl aoaoiit k mt iMrf, bat pl^aUj tklDO^ 



a otJaba, 
c* •( fi^oda at JaraMkm. Sba, (ongad, 

' ~ iladaalk, and wu in Rtun UriKied 

id iBtiiiiH al empnai, which iha had 
. - > altowcd to retain. Mamliiinu 
rhesthaN nd STenU io tba dghtaaalfa coawkfaip 
"" '', ju D. 444 i but Ihii date ia alto- 
t with dM beta nwotintBd bj 

iHi. Akt. an (a. D. 450), vhich ia p»b^j 
Mnl; if n,i(nDit ban baoi baftn tta dtalL 
•f Thndonii, wikh io«k pbea in that jmr. 

Eadada ifBt tba latt tf bar life in tha Holj 
taad, danti^ bcoaalf to woriu of ^a^ aad 
•knitr- Bha npairad Iha walk of JatiualciD, 
oiTtnid modi vitb wdiiinlic^ bnBt naaaale- 
tBiia nd haipitila, and a dinich in hmonr <f ths 
— oBi^ St^bn tn tha nt wbaia ba ma 
> han beM> itooad I aniichad axiMing dranka 
'daaUa aSaasi, md baatand Btaat amu 
n^ M tba pnaata mi tha faor. Bat aha 



•fbtn^. The opinioD of Ealrcbeo on tha 
<< Ibe Imi Mtona in Chiiat, wbieh ihc bald, and 
*U had trioapbed in tha ** coniial of isbbeca^" 
> Efhaau (a. a. 449), waa andemnad in inothd 
■■ — ■ ■«i(*,D-451),«oon after 
The dacreea of thia 



"<> dnghtaca, Onumt, king of tba Vandala, had 
^nei ala Afnca {i. n. 4U), aba atnght to ba 



■d ha hnbmd. the ampenr 
<t the aptiiaa. B7 Iha mtarr 



B7 Iha mtarrantion of Oljteiaa, 
^ ■him ona of the eaptiTa prinoaaaea «■• beMtb- 
li- andef T^ 11 ilia, the laconeiliation tma aflaclad; 
■d PalrhaA aozirad j aoaght to natoie Eodoeja 
b ihi egomnniaa of (ba ehircL She eagasad bar 
Wnha and dao^ten (aaeording to Nioapbonta) 
k nM ta bar for thia pupoea : from which it 
■^ henihand that tba bTMhen of Endocia had 
"■eChriatinna, and waw Will liTJng. Aocoidiiu 
t> Ibe Flachal Chnnida, Ibej bad been adnnoad 
■■ U|b MBeaa, Aetina or Qeaina in tha pmincai, 
■ad Valtriaa at emit. Pouhl; tha Valaiitu wbo 
W ben aaa of the aMdiatora between tha prin- 
<«M,«iaoMgrih«. Wbo-thadnnchkn," 



of Eadocin wan, ia ml daat. W« rend odj af 



W« rend oalT af 
and FbdUa, liii« 



prineaaaea, w« mut andecatand danghlen in tha 
Data aztaiided aniae of iiiBale deaaandanta. Tbeaa 

lettera and tha conrenatioiia which Eodoeia hdd 
with Sjmeon the StjHle, and Enthymiua, an omi- 
nest inoiik of Jenualem, deteiminad har to »- 
noaiice Eutjcbianimi ; and her conieraion led 
manj othen to follow bar examine ) bat it i* ho- 
ooonibla to her that aha continDed har giatnitisa 
to thoae who retained at well aa to thoae who le- 
noanced theaa opiniona. She died at JeruBlem in 
Uiefbnnhjear ofthenignof Leol. A. D. 460-61, 
and waabiuiedin theehoKbof SL8t^ben,which 
die baiaelf had bant. Tbaopbanaa plaoaa her daath 
ia A. K. fM7 Alex, an (a. d. 45S), but tbii ia too 
earlT. Har age baa bam abandy notieed. She 
aolamnlj dadaiad at bat death that aba ww Am 
fron any gniltf eonnaxioa with PaaJinnh 

Endoeia waa an anther. She wrote — 1. ^^oiBa 
OH Oe BiAfji oAtaiaad if Ot mopi 0/ tar imbamd 
ntadoiiu oaar lia Arnoaa, A. n. 431 or 422. 
Thia waa in 

SooaMa. (Aui:£Wai.ni.2i.) 2.^, 
i/Um Oi*iAwo4, liaa in henie *ar*& Piiotnia de- 
•cribea it aa oooaiiting of eight booka, according to 
the diiiaipa of that part of Scripture which it em- 
bnced 1 and aija it waa wall and penpieaouly 
written, and conininaUe to the liwa of at poatie 
ait 1 but that the writer had not allowed heraelf 
the poetic liceDcaa of digreauon aod of niiFPgiiiy 
fiction with tnith, hanng kqit rery doae to tha 
aenaa of the aacred bo(^. i. A panaiiraMoftir 
Pnpiadm ^ AmhJ aiad 2Manri, m tha am« 

Ihrae boek^ oa da Uilorf md mar^rdom 1/ Cjh- 
priam and Jm^ma, who adarad in tha paiaacutioa 
indai Diodalian. Pbotina gina a pntty foil ac- 
eoont of Ibia poam. 5. Zonana and Joonnaa 
l^etaM aaoiba to EodocJa /faataro-Cbatoaw; and 
a poem imder that title, oompoaad of Teraea and 
pnta of TeriM fhnn Homer, and hanng far ita 
aubject the hialoiT of the fill and of the ndemp- 
tion of man bj Jeana Chriat, baa been repeatedlj 
pabliahad, both in the odgina] and in a Latin tot- 
aion. In one editioo, it ia laid to be bj Endoda 
Aognatai or Patridui Febigiaa. Tha genninmaaa 
of thia wDik ia, howoTar, Tory diapntaUe, and eieo 
the &ct of Endoda hanng erer written anything 
of the Itind, ia not quite dear, 

(Sooatea, HiH. Eeelm. viL 21 ; Engrina, HiiL 
Eata. I 20, 31,22; Nieaphoraa CaUitti. HM. 
Babt. dr. 23, 47, 4S, {0; Zonataa, Amnlt, tii. 
iiL p. S4— 37, ad. BidL lfi£7; MareaBuiui, Ctn- 
HicDii; CtnwuMJliBiHMawaaneAHaU*,- Jo- 
anne* Mahdaa, Oranvnipiii, lib. xir. ; Theo- 
phanea, Cknmign^Ma, ah A. K. £91 1 ad 5947, 
Alex, an; Joannea TutaM, HakwiaT. Variar 
Oulia*.XHitL S06; C*drenBi,Cb»ip«ih— . p. fiSO 
-SI, ed.BoaDi Michael Olycaa, ^aaaZaa, p«i ii( 
pp.484-fi,ed.Bann; Photiaa, fitUiDd. codd. 1 63, 
I»4 ; Tillamont, HiiL da Emp. ToL vi. ; Gibbon, 
DtU. md FaiL di. zuiL ; Cave, HitL LU. toL i. 
p.4(l3,ed.Oifeid,1740-43; Ondin, Zh iSi^'tplor. 
Bcdm. ToLL p. 1258; Fabric BiU, Gntc. toI. 
i. p. SS2, Ae., ToL I. p. 730, kc) 

2. Dau^ler of Valentiniaa III. and of Eudoxia, 
daoghtei of Theododua II., and canaeqamtly 
grand-daughter ci the aubject of tha pnceding 
article. She waa eaniad captiia t» Canbv b; 



.4,„.=.otGoog[c 



» EUDOCIA. 

OcDjaric, king oF tba Vandoli, whco h* nckcd 
Rcmw {a. a, 4S6}, together with ber mother uid 
her jDnngei liiter Pladdia. Qenierie muried 
EadocB {i. D. 4£6)i not to one of hii jonngBr 
•on*, Oaalo, M IdAtiu tjt, bnt to bit eldest *m 
HniuMrio (who nKcaeded hit btber, a. d. 477. ■* 
king of tba Vinditi)'; and MM Eodoiu and PIb- 
cMm to ConMantUMnla. Aflet Unng Biteen jean 
with HuuMric, and bouing him a ton, Hulderic, 
wbo ■!■> afterwaidi b«aiDe king t£ tlw Vaodali, 
Endodii on the gnund of diiUke to the Ariuuun 
itf her hDihaud, Mcratlj left him, and went to Je- 
nualem, whore ihe loon mAar died (i. D. 473), 
having beqtuathed all ihs had to the Chnreh of 
the Renurectioo, and wu buried in the Kpolcbie 
of her gnndnothoc, the empren Eodocia. (E>a- 
gmit, Hit*. Ecdet. ii. 7 ; Uunllinui, Chvmam ; 
Idatiiu, GbtHUBHi ; Nicephonu CaUiiti, liul. Be- 
dn, IT. Ill Piocopiiu, dtBMl FoMdaiieo, L 5; 
Thnphttwi, OinmignqMa, A. M. £947 ud 5964, 
Alex, era; Zonaiu, Anijti, vol. ill p. 40, ed. 
Baril, lSi7 ; TiUemont, HkL da Emp. tbL tI) 

9. EuiKicuFABii,wifBoftheem»nirHcracIinL 
She was the daogbter of a cntain Anion noble, uid 
wai at CoDMaatmople (a. d. 610) when Heraclin*, 
to whom the mw betrothed, haiing aMonied the 
potple in Afrio, laiied to ConUantiuople to de- 
throne the tjiant Phocaa. Phocu Ant her op in 



M led to 
daj a( Heracliu'e 
him, and, ocxoiding to Zonara*, r««Ted bwn him 
the name of Fabii; bnt Cedreniu make* Falna har 
original name, which ii more likelr* She had by 
Henetio*, aceonUag to Zanaru, ^ree children, a 
dangfaler Epiphania, and two aoni, the eldernamed 
Henclini and the jraanger (^anitutioe. She died 
aoonaftar the tHithofUeyonngeet child. Cedn- 
mu uugni to them onlr a dauohla and one ton, 
who wai, according to him, tailed both Hoaclin* 
and Connantine. He pJana the deUh of Eodada 
in the Kcond year nC HencUoa, A. n. 612. (Zona- 
na, Am^a, toL iii. pp. 66, 67, ed. Baal, 1657 i 
Cedrenna, Comptadiam, pp. 71S— 14, ed. Bonn, 
1838-9.) 

4. Eunocia, dangbler of Incer or Inger, and 
eoneubiaa of the emperor Hicbaal III., I^ whom 
abe wa* giren in miniaga (about A. n. B66) 
(0 Baail the Macedonian, afterwaidi emperor. 
She bore Baeil a eon, afterwaidi the emperor 
Leo the Philotopher, h looa afW their maniage, 
that it wai laid that Michael wai the child*! 
bther, and that ihe wai pregnant at the tdme of 
her manrioge* Cedrenni. ipeaki of the maniage 
of Banl with Eadoda, whoee noble birth and 
beanty he celebntea ; but, fa from making ber the 
eancuhina of Michael, ipeaki of her ai eicdling 
In modeily. (Zonaiai, AiimJa, tdL iiL p. 132, 
ed. Baail, 1577 ; Cednnne, Qie^pHidAim, Tol. ii. 
PL 198, ed. Bonn, 1830-9,) 

6. RuDOCIA, third wife of the emperal Conalan- 
ti» V. (Copronymua). She wu crowned and re- 
ceived the title of Asgatla from ber bubond in 
tbe twenty-eighth year of Ml nign, a. n. 7(i8. 
(Cedreni Con^mdium. tiJ. ii. p. 16, ed. Bonn.) 

6. EuDOCii, third wife of Leo the Pbiloeoplier, 
ion of Baiil the Hacedooian and of Endocia. (No. 
1.) She died in childbirth aoon after, and the 
(hild died aba. She wai the daughter, or of the 
race of Opudua. Of tbe data of her mairiage and 
death wa havi no occoonk It wM pmbably near 



BUDOCIA. 
of iba toilh oentnrj ; M tttj lata 



904. (ZiHaraa.^iBBH'oLiii-p.US, 
ed. Boul, 1567 ; Cednnni, Oomfimtimm, p. 492, 

ed. Boail, 1566.) 

7. Eldett diaghler of the Bynntine aoftm 
ConitantiiM IX., became a nun in conieqneDce of 
■ome diioaN bj which aha wai diiiignnd. She 
appeari to bare inrriTed her &ther, who died x, D. 
1028. (Zonoiai, Amuia, toL iii. p. ISZ, ed. 
BaaU, A. D. 15£7.) 

8. EtiDoci* Auonn'A of Mackihbour, wife 
of the emperon Conitanline XI. (Dntail and 
<•—-""• IV. (Dii^enei). She wai w — —^ " 



of Conalantins ihe recvind the title of Angmta ; 
and on hii death, A. n. 1067, ha bequeathed 
the empire to her ud to their thne Kna, Hiehaal 
Vll.fPanpinaee*), Andioniaitl.iUd CmutantiDa 
XII. (Poiphyngenitiu). He bmind Eodoek by an 
"''' ~ ' ' marry again. Eudoda had in &ct the 
t of Ue gorenment, tbecbildren being 
lung. PerceiTiiw that the pnteclion of tbe 
rn ftontier, whi^ waa threuened with inn- 
uon, reqniied a nnnger hand, aba married Roma- 
nni IV. (Diogenea). Romanns who waa (Bincnt 
for hii fine figure, atrength, and warlike qnolitiea. 



o priion, and exiled bin ; 



who threw hi 

readied him, and raiaed him to the eommand of 
the army. Her oath not to marry had been given 
in writing, and committed to the cnitody of the 
patriarch of Contlantinople ; hot by a trick aba 
recoiend it, and, within eight montbi aftac her 
buiband^ death (a. n. 1068), mutied BoaaannK 
and laiied bin to be coDeagne in tba eopra 
with hoaelf and her aona. She had hoped to 
gorani him, btit wai diiappointed, and hi* aaaer- 
tion of Ua own will led to qnamli betweeo than. 
During the captivity of RonMnoi, Joannea or John 
Ducaa, bratbet of the late Couttanttaw, who had 
been mveated with the dignity of Caeaar, dedared 



Endodi to a convent which ihe had henelt bii3t 
on the ahon of the PropoutiB. On the death of 
Diogenea, who on hii rd«H had fallen into the 
handi of Andnniena, the eldeU khi of Joanaea 
Dncu, ud died from the mel oioge he ncared, 
A. D. 1071 [RowANin IV. (DiooiNn)]. Endoek 
buried her nnhappy hnihand with great iplendonr. 
She appear! to have long nrrived thji eml. 
(ZonaiBi, Atmaia, voL uL pp. 318— 226, ed. 
Baail, 15G7 ; Uichid Olycat. Aumim, part iv. 
p. 606, dtc, ed. Bonn.) 

Endoda compiled a dictiumry of hittery and 
mythology, which ihe called Iveid, i. e. OoBtatiim 
orbtd if Vtobu. It wai printed for the fint tine 
by VilloiKm, in hii .iduaMa Gntca, a vnla. 4la. 
Venie^l781. II ia piebeed by an addfeai to btr 
huiband Romuut Diogenea, in which ahedeaxihe* 
the work oa " a collection of ganealogiea of goda, 
beroei, and heroineo, of tbdr metanurphoiaa, and 
of the fiUllea and iloriei reenecling them timid in 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



&M atd IB tka Luieoa of Soidu. The nurcd 
1 ud docribed bj Meineke ii 



n of tke BjwtiiH «apciiir CaloJowuMt. 
■■ mtriad, boi bi nbtm ia naknown ; mi (fter 
kr holnd^ datt lived 
AsdmnoH, kar am . 
A>dndau L Her Bcaiid hotlaitd mt Michul 
QitiH ta iriun ■})« vm muiiad. Wa can gJTe 
u DL«rt diita of the fev inddmti kunm of her 
Efe. She Ijied is thi middla of the twelfth cen- 
tBT. (Udwl aijoM, Atamad Cbwuni, Lib. 
in.)i[ilU,116, Ub.iT. pLl73,>d. Bcmn.) 
[J. C. M.] 
EUIXyBA (EdU^), » dmghler of Nerau md 
Dm, (Ho. 7iai9:214 ; ApoUod. i. 2. g 7.) Then 
K n« Don DTthied penonuei if thii uma. 
(Ba.71ii<!).S60t HJBUI1./U.I92.) [L. &] 

EUDCKRUS(EdBiir«}, > eimaf Hetmea ud 
FclftMh ■■> hnogfat iw b; hu gfasdblha Ph^- 
hL HevnoDxrflhafiTelndtnafthcUTinii- 
'wi Ddir AchiUei, who aeiit him ont to aoconi- 
ra; pMnchu, ud (a nreTCDt tha kttra Cnm 
•BAiriig taa br; boI Eddonu v» ilain b; 
PrwcbRu. (Horn. A in. 179, &c; EoatBlh. 
MAm(.& 1697.) [L.S.] 

EUDCTRUS (EMi^hi) ii mantiaiied by Alei- 
uia Apbradioniui (sJ jlrut MeUifA. p. 26, 
bL Ptrii. 1536, fid.) u ■ anunentUor on Arit- 
We'i Uetaphjiica, in which he ii wd to hsTa 
■llaid Mm*] pMMan. KmpUdni likawiie tpak* 
<' a P(ri|)atet)e pbiloaophac of thia nama, and 
■^Xa that he hid vriUen on tba Aiiatoleliui 
Csigarigb We do not know, howerer, if thia be 
I* aaae peram. Eudonu, vhom Ale^mder 

Ira, and had, Uka Ariaton of AleiaDdria, wrilleii 
> xrt an the Nik. (Stnb. xril p. 790 ; comp. 
rihn.lUdOraaa.TDl.i. p. S4i, nd. iii. pp. 1 72, 
*«). TA. S.] 

ElUXyRUa, ■ Knie-paiiitai and atatnuy in 
^vat, af aBcapd-ato merit. <Plin. hit. IL. 
'♦41".) [P. a] 

EUIxrXIA (Edietia), the name of aeraia] 
pnamaaa chiaB; of tlw Eaaten ar Bjuntizie cm- 

I. The daaghter of the Fnnk Banto, nnnied 
Otke (Bipana Anadida, ^ D. 39j, by whom aha 
U bar du^tan, Fkolla or Flacdlk « Fal- 
f^ PaUeria, Arcadia, and Marina, and ana 
^ Thaodoni II. or the jonngar. She ma ■ 
■*"rfhyi apiiit, aod eierciaed gnu infloaDoe 
•m bar ha^iaiid : to her perauaaion hia giring up 
■f <ha eua^ Eatropmi inu the poirei of hia 
Bsiaa Bay be aacribed. She wu DiTotTad m a 
fe» r«teal with Cbrjaoitom, who faariaaaly in- 
iB|hed againat Ibe aTarke and lanuy of the 
nit, and acnipled not to attack the ei^ataa 
tnwiL The paitienlan of the atrag^ aia gina 
•"■he™. [CHBTaosnuiDi, jMmM] She 
^ of a BiaElniage in the aixifa conanliUp of 
''"naa, il d. 4<M, d*^ aaeordinff to t^eaAtiKa, 
•-BIOS. Tba dMeafhar death iiianMljdia' 
°-«d by TUIamoiit. (tfiaton da> Emfttvt. 
ni-T. p.7a5.) CadnDB* nanatea aarae cnriona 
l"'<iadan af hsdMth, bat tbair endibility ia lery 
*"ikthiL (PhikMargiua, HiiL Baia. apmd Pfe- 
»•■; M a irrilJna, ClroMiaM,' Socnuea, aid. 

T01.IL 



Baim. tL 18; Cawodor. Bid. JiiparL x. 90; 
Thaopbanaa, Oaromogn^iUa ad A. u. SS93, 97, 
98, Alex, en; Cedrenna, Qib^h^. toL L p.£8i, 



wirdiwu emperor of the Weat aa Valantiniau III. 



A. D. 136 or iS7. Od the ai 
hnaband by Maximua (a. o. iSS), who naniped 
the throne, iba wu mnpellad to man; tba nanrper; 
but, rcaentiDg both the death of her boaband and 
the TioleDce ofieiad to be»el( iha initigatad Oen- 
aerie, king of tba VaudaU, who bad conqnerad 
Africa, to attack Rome. Qeruaric took the city. 
Hazimiia waa alain in the flight, and Eodoiia and 
bar doDj^ten, EDdoda and Pladdia, were earned 
by tho Vandal king to Carthage. After being 
detained in captiTity aoma yewa, alie wu aent 
with her darter Pladdia and on hononiahle 
attendance to Goiutaotinapla. [Sea £unocu. No. 
1, and the anthoritiea nbjoined there.] 

The Miitta of the ampreau* £ndoci« and Endoxia 
are, {ram the two namea being pnt one for the 
other, difficnlt to be aaaigned to their teapectiTe 
petaona. (See EcUiel, £ta)(r«u Nam. Fifama, 
ToLTiii. p. 170.) [J. C. U.] 

EUIXyXIUS, commonly dted arith the oddi- ' 
tion HiiiDs, wu a Omeco-Roman jniiit, who 
flonriahad ahntly before Jualinian. I^citoli (da 
Claris Inlerpp. Jtrit, p. 63) phicea him too eariy 
in anpponng that ho wu the Pr. Pr. to wbcan were 
addreeaed the eonUitution of Theodouu and Va- 
ianD{A.D. 427(Cod. 1. tit. B. a 1). and tba 
itntion of Ansdina and Honorioa. (Cod. 2. 
tit. 77. a. 2.) He ia mentioned in ConaL Taula, 
j 9, u the gtandhther of Anatoliut, pnleaaot of 
lav at Beiytaa, who wu one of the rampilara of 
tba DigaaL The appdlatian Herat ii not a proper 
name, bat a title i4 eioellency, and ia placed anne- 
timeebefiiR^ and aometimea after, the nuna. Thna, 
inAiiaJ.TL p. 337, we Imto i 'Kimt EJteilti, 
and. in BaiiL iiL ^ SO, EdU{iof i 'Mfmi. Wa 
find tba aame title applied to Patricjaa, AmUiehna 
(qn. lambbehna, Ba$iL iiL p. 2fi6), and Cyrillua 
(SatiL It. p. 702). Heimbadi (Amadota, L p. 
203) ia iodined to think that, like ^e eipteauon 
i iiauoftnit, it ma lued by the Otaeoo-HomaQ 
joriMi of and after the age of Joatinian u a daai^ 
nalioD of bmionr in apeoking of ~ 
who had died within udr memc 



Ainf. ii. p.'lM (ed. Heimbadi) ii .. 
ha quoted Ulpian'a treatiae Di Offieia FroBouuliM. 
Fmn the dtolioiia of Eudoiina in the Badlin, he 
appcaia to hare written upon the eonititationa of 

— aailiai than Joatinian, and Ihanoa Rdi 

I, ^ 1234— 1246) infen that be 
' le Qr^ornui, Hermogoiian, and 
from which thoaa conatitntiona 
ware tnuubnad into the Coda of JnatiniBn. It ia 
paobahlj to the commenlaiiaa of EndoiiuB, Leiai- 
tina, aid Patrictna oa die three eariiar oodea that 
JnatiniaD (CouL Tada, J S) allodea, vbra ha 
aaya of than " <nlimam aoi menioiiam ia Z^pitut 
reUqaarant," Sir the imperatorial eonatitnlioni vera 
often (ailed Lign, a* dUtingniahad from the Jai 
f thejoriaiai 
la BaA n. p^ 644, Thaldaana, who aarrifed 

D,4,i,.=.otGot>^[c 



EUDOXUa 
M EadaiiBi UDODg Ik* oUai 
tsuhsn, and dtet hii tipcutim of ■ onMlitntian 
of Saienu ud AnWDinin of a. B. 1M, wUck 
■ppcan in Cod. 3. tit. 12. l 4. AgHD, in SniL 
L pp. BIO. 81 1, a dted hit eipontion of ■ eontti- 
tDtioD of Diodeliui ud Huumnian, of A. D. 1 93, 
h inxiui in Cod. 3. lit. 4. L IB. with Uie 
~~'« HceTrio aJutltno. In botli theae 



In liki 

Appcan from the icholiut in tlu fifth Tolnnio of 
Jfeatmui'i Tlmutm (JOorum Onuamai Omt- 
— fani. Ik S6 ; AwiL, ad. Heinibuli, i. p. 403) 
that DoDmiDUit DanHSthmfa, and Eodoxtna, dif- 
fered frma Patridai in tbair conilniclion of a con- 
Uitntion of the empinit Alaundsr, of A. D. S'2t, 
■nd that that conitilatioii WM iltired b; th« com- 
pilan of Jailiniui'i cods in confimnitj with thi 
iHiiniaQ of Patriciu. Endoiini ii dtcd bj Patri- 
CHU [Baai. iii. p. 61} on a conititutiDn of A. D. 
393 (Cod. 4. tit. 19. •. 9), ud ii dud hj Thso- 
domi {BaiU. n. p. 227) on ■ coutilatiaii of A. d. 
Q90. (Cod. 8. tit. SS. i. 3.) In th« latUr paaTga 
Thcodonu, who va> a coDUmpofary of Jutiuian, 
calli Endoiiua hi* U«h«. Wfaather thii «ipn*- 
•ion ii to be takan litciall; maj be doubted, a> 
Tbeodntu atw ealli Doominni, pMridu. and 
Stephanm (BaiiL iL p. 680) bi> tncfain. (Zacha- 
liHi, Amtodcla, p. zlriiL i Zimmeni, K.H.G. i. 
ft 106, 109.) 

The nntnulwoih; Nic. ComMniu Pipadowli 
{PramcL MfOag. pp. 345, 402) mention) a En- 
daxini, Komicoa, Jodez teli, and dta hii Sjnop- 
na Legnm, and hii Mfaolift OQ tha NoTella of 
Aleiioi Ceninemu. [J. T. U.] 

EUIXyXlLIS, a. phTiidaa, ailed b^ Pntpn 
Aqnituot a nuu " pnn aed eierdlati ingeuii," 
who in tha time of the anpenr Iheodatio* the 
YDonger. A. n. 433, dacrted to the Hnna {Ckra- 
iwn niioeaa. in Uhbe, Nom BiiUalL JUSS. 
Libror. toL L p. 69J (W.A.G.] 

EUDOXUS (EAii(n) of Cnidu, the eon of 
AeKhinea, lired abant B. c 366. He WM, accord- 
ing to Diogenei lurtitu, Mtrononier, g«nut«r, 
phpidan, and l^MlaWi. It ii onlj in the fini 
capadtj that hit bm* hai deacanded to onr daj, 
ud he hai mora of it than can be jnitified b; u^ 
■EOOnnt of hia aitRinomicai 



tiao infbnnation, of ^o langdi of ^e yaar, 
anJDjed a wide ud popular repnlation, *o i 
Luitina, who doei not eren mention Hippuchn^ 
haa giTU the life of Endonu in hii nraal laanD 
that ia. with the omiiaton <f tU w aatroDon 
wonld wiib to know. Aeowling to thia writ 
Endoxna went to Alhou at the age of twmtj-thi 
(he had been the popil of Anhjtaa in jwoae tr y), 
ud heard Plato for HBe months, Wn^ng at the 
wng time with ponrt]'. Being diimti'd bj 
Phita, bnt for what naaon ia not atatad, hii frisndi 
luaed aome money, and he ailed lor Egypt, with 
lettera of reenmmendalion to Nectuabia, who in 
hit tain recanunended him to the jpieMa. With 
than he remained uxteen monlbt, with hit chin 
and ejebrowi ihafed, ud there, according to 
LwlrtiBi, ha vnO the Ocla«tsiii. Serelal aocient 
writen attribale to him the innntioo or introdoo- 
tion of u improTcment upon the Octselerida 
of hit predNeMori. After a time, he canM back 
M Athaoi with ■ band ni popilt, harisg in the 



BUDOXU& 
le lught ^oeophy in Cjileam ud iht 
Prtfu^ : )w dtoM Alhna, Lafttim nji, tat the 
pmpoM of Temnf Plato, at bm of wboaa tjnpetia 
Iw iotndaeed tha fa " 
atemiciRlei and N 
of Arittotle, tepotta him 



haie written good wwkt o 
metij, and mentiona the coinna waj in which the 
buU Apt told hii bitnne when he waa in ^jpt. 
Eudoiui died at the age of fiftT-thiee. Phaoocrimi 
wrote a work upon Eiidoxni (Athen. nL p. 276, t\ 
whidiitloiL 
The bagmen 



him freqnenllj, and itata (ii, p. 
9, irii. p. B06) that the obeeiTitoij of Eadonn 
Cnidni waa exiitiDg in hit time, fram which ha 



Stiabo alto aji diat he nmainad thirteen jnn 
in Egypt, and attributa to him the intzndnctiaii of 
the Md quarter of a day into the Talne of the year. 
Pliny {H. N. iL 47) a " ' ' 



thing. Saneca(Qi>.JVaLTiL3}i 

' nt bmoght tha motioDt of the , 
] thit inbjeet) frmn Egypt into Orcee*. Aiiita 
" ' ' " «« ' ^^ li^ to hare m^a tepan 



■«.«■> 

|ht tha motioDt of the planeti (a t 
jta) frran Egypt into ^ ' 

(JtfctapiL xiL B) itBta bim to hare m^a tepaiate 



mater of the ton nine timea at great ai that of (be 
moon. VitmTina (ii. 9) aicribotet to him the in- 
Tention of a aolar dial, called dp^x*^ - and to on. 

Bnt all we poeitiirely knov of Endoxnt it Ina 
the poem of Abatub and the ennmentary of Hip- 
ptrchnt upon it Fran thit ciamentary we lean 
that Aiatna wia not hlraalf an obeerrer, bnt wu 
the TcrnSer of the ^ma^ium of Eodoisa, of whidi 
Hipprehnt hai pretened ftagmentt for compaiiun 
with the TBiaioD by Antui. The molt ia, thai 
thoogh there were by no mam to many nor id 
great enoti in Eudoini u in Aratu, yet the epi- 
nioD which moil be formed of the work of the 
fbnner it, that it waa written in thenidal itau et 
the idence by u obterrer who wai not Tery com- 

FoL iTp. 107) hat ^ren a full aceWl of the 
compaiiton made by Hippaithui of Aiatna with 
Bodoint, and of biith with hit own obaermtioni. 
He annnt bring himalf to think that Endoiot 
knew anything of geometry, though it it on record 
that he wrote geometrical worka, in ipite of the 
pniiiH of Prodtu, Cicsm, Pinlemy, Seitoa Empi- 
licu (who placa him with Hrppanhot), Ac, Ac 
EndoiDi, ai nted by Hipparchnt, neither taDu 
like H geomelrt, nor like a penon who had tun 
tha hunni he dencribei : s bad globe, conitrueted 
tome cmtnriH befon bi> time in Egypt, might, lor 
anything that appein, haw been hit tide authoiily. 
Bui tDppDting, which i> likely enough, that he 
wat the lint who brought any globe at all into 
Dteeee, it it not much to be wondered at that hit 

ration ihonld htra been nugnified. At ID 
Ptoclua KTi of hii geometiy, lee Eoctsintt. 
Rejecting the 'onTomi^t mentioned brldiirtini, 
whidi waa not a writing, but a period of timo, ud 
alio the fifth book of Euclid, which one maouacriM 
of EucM attribatw to Godonu (Fabric fiM 
Oraee, roL ir.p. 12), we hare the fbllowinf woriu, 
aUloit,w"' ' ' ■ - 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EVBLTIION. 

id by Pnclu mi Lair- 
nis niB II Hii, >nn?n', to ba tikon u tba titla 
rf 1 mk : 'tVjitnnf, mentioiHd b; Haluch 
'Arrfni/ J t V M>, by Soidu : tm boski, 

br Hi^^Rhiii, ud tha Snt by ut i. . , 
linpVbir ef Anlm : n^ 9tmw ml K^^hw nl 
iH ltiriii>»>«)iL ^jm i, nMntionad by Eodona : 
rii IT f i il w , ■ vttk gAen meatiaoed bj Smba, 
Bd br nuf otlun, u (o which Harleu thinki 
GnW^ (jiiiioa jmbBble, th*t it vw writtan by 
Eiiam f Rbodn. (Ffttxic Biil. Grato. toI It. 
^19,ftcj Waidier. 0M. JKm.; Ding. lurt. 
£ »->l I Dehmin, ffi^ lie r^ilm. ^w. T(d. i.; 
l%m*M. flumnit »Antmm! Bifbrnar, jDw- 
••Ma A £Uw Odrfu, HdmNxi I71S; Ida- 
b, a Oa ^Miff. ifar Birlwr .fted. d. Wiaat- 
•4^ te Um yvr ISaS, p. 189. &c^ and for the 
^ 1130, p, 49, &«, ; Letmuo, JomnaL d. Sob. 
I'M. p. 741. Af.) [A.DaM,] 

EUDOXOS ( EMuCm), a Oceak iJirnciaii, bom 
ri Cuba m (^rii, wbo lived probably in the fiftb 
K knh eatoTf i. c^ w he ni numtioned by 

lavl. liL 90.) He ii iBd la hkrs been i gnat 
l^nsK t« die SB of gynmutk*. [W.A.O0 

EUDOXUS (tOafof). I. Ad Altianiu mnic 
FMif ika ne«CDm«d(, wu bj birth s Sidliu 
■< At MB af A||atl>oGi«. Ha guned tiglit He- 
>«Mi tkna at ibe diy Diooyin. ud 6n at the 
Ian, Hii NhJkXivvi and TnCaA^uuoi are 
und. {ApsllDd. <v Oiog. LaM. tuI M ; PoU. 
■<>-ttl;Zaoob.^d^i. 1; ItantkB, Fn^ Com. 
ft™, wl i. p. 492, »iJ. ii, p. SOB.) 

3. Of Bhod*^ ao hiHonal wiiln, whoa* time 
B M kMvB. (Dice. I'iirt. il <■ ,- Ap<dlini. /7u^ 
(^H; afm.Mag.,.i,.'/>tiiai: Vawaa, d« 
At Gnu ^ as, cd. Watamaim.) 

i- or Cynciu, a gsagrapbcr, vbo vBit fnmi fail 
■*T« ^acr to %ypt, and wu am^yid fay Pto- 



Ffviy by Plolnay Latfaynu, he aailed away 
Ihii tka Bad Bs, and at bat anifed at Oadea. 
Ht rftiTvirdi uada altnopla to cireiuniiH^te 
IIr* m Iha oppoaite directnn, bat withoot too- 
<>& (Stab. B. pp.98— 100; PliiLiL 67.) He 
«■ luie HthI about B. c. 1 30. [P. S.] 

ETI-LPIDEB (CJaXYOnt). a ealebiatad ocnliit 
abtiaeor C^BU, aUmt the bi^mniitt of the 
<^badaii am, asrosl of vboae medical nmi 

" kdajU„. r^ 

(W. A. G.] 

EVEU-ISTUS (EMiWTaf), ao emnat ma- 
Pw M Raae, triie Hred abortly bdin tba time 
•fCdm, and thanfcn probaUy aboat tbe tod at 
<h fa« ^MiT B. c. <Cdi. ita AM. Tii. pnaf. 
1 117.) Me ia perfaq* tbe mm pemn me of 
*^ jlawtn b ptMCTTed by Scriboniiu I^ifinii 
'•<Wia.tfed«Ba.e.21fi,p.aS0. [W.A.O.] 

ETELTHON (EMaIw), king of &kmi« in 
^Tfna. Win Ana^lua III. vu drintn bam 
Cfioa ia aa attorpt (o reearet the royal prm- 
^ pebaUy about a. c. £39 or £38 [aaa toL L 
1^ *Tii, Ua wtber Pbantuna fied to tbe court of 
^'•hhoB, and [aiiil him with tha mott pene- 
•oiag ttilnialWa fbr u amy to enloiia her aon'i 
•Untiaa. Tbe kii« U lut Mat b«c a goldan 
■lodk iDd diatalt mrini tbU aucb wan the man 
. (Her. i». 162. 



r.lW:Pdjan.Tiii.47.) 



EVEHERUS. BS 

EVE'HERU3 orEUHrUERUS (Edrffiapn), 
a Sicilian latbor at tha time of Alexuider the 
Omt and hii immediate aucenmn. Moat wiilan 
aU. him a iialiTa of Meueno in Sidly (Pint dt 
It.tlCk.Q3; iMOnt. de Fait. Htl^. I 11; Etrm. 
M. I.O. Bporit), while Amobio. {ir. IS) otUa him 
an Argentine, and otheti mention either Tcgea 
in Arcadia or the i>laiid of Cdi a* hii natiTa pioce. 
(Athen. XT. p. 6SH.) Hia mind wa> trained in 
tha philoaopbieal achool of the Cyrenaica, who bed 
belan hia time become notoriona fbr ih^ acepti- 
eion in matten connected with the popular reli-. 
pno, and one of whern, Theodonu, ii beqnently 
called an athdat by the aacienti. The iufloenca 
of tfaii echool npoD Bremenu Knu to hate been 
my gnat, for he inbaeqnently became the founder 
of a pacnliu metbod of intnpnting the legend) 
and mythi of tba pi^nlar ttjigun, which baa often 
and DM nnhiMlT baco comBwed with the laliaa- 



nnJnMly 

Be nioaera ini 

S16 wefind Ei 



Aboat 



uectid by friendihip, and who, accuding to Eue- 
biu{i^nap.A^nv. ii. 2, p.£9), aenthimoDt on an 
eiploTing eipadiliDn. ETcnunu ii laid to have 
Bikd down the Red Sea and ronnd tha aonthara 
ooaiti of Alia to a Tery great diitancB, nntil bo 
came to an iilsnd eallsd Panchaea. After hia ro- 
torn frtm lbi> Toyage ho wrote a wodt entitled 



, which Biiited 
great nninbata in the tamplea of Gnece, and 
BTcmerna choaa it becania he protended to ham 
deiired fata infbrmatioD from pnblic deoumente of 
that kind, which he had diacorered in fari travdi, 
eapedally in the iiland ef Panchaea. Tha work 
eoDtainod acconnte of the aereral goda. whom 
ETomarai repmenled aa having criginally been 
men wbo had diatinguiihed themaelvei either aa 
warriora, king*, inrenton, or bene&ctori of man, 
and who after tfaeir death were wonhipped aa goda 
by the giatafbl peopie. Zeua, for example, waa, 
according to him, a king of Ci^e, who had been a 
^rcat cooqanvi ; and he anarted that he had leen 
m the temple of Zcnt Tripbyliiu a tolmnn with an 
inaeription detailing all the azplait* of tfae kingi 
Uranni, Cnmaa, and Zeoa. (Enieb. tc; Beit. 
Empir. ii. 17.) Tbia book, which eeuni to bare 
been written in a popnlar ilyle, muit have been 
very attnu^ve ; for nil the bblea of mythology 
wen drcaaed np in it a* to many true end hitlo- 
rica] namlivee ; and many of the aubieqiient hie- 
tofiani, nch a> the nnciitical DiodDmi (lee fVi^sL 
lib. vL) adopted hii mode of dealing with mytfii, 
or at leaat followed in hia tnck, ai va find to be 
tbe oaaa with PolyhHu and Dionytiui. Tntcea i^ 
iDcb a metbod of tnating nythology accnr, it ia 
tine, even in Heradotna and Thncjdidei ; bet 
Evonem* waa the flnt who carried it out lyite- 
matieally, and after hii time it found numenna 
admiren. In the work of Diodonu and other 
biataiiena and mythographera, wa meet with innn- 
metable Moriei which have all the ^ipeaiance of 
belDg nothing but Eiemeiiitic intetpntationa of 
ancient mythi, thengh they an beqnently taken 



waa mBcb attacked and treated with o 

and Erateetbenea called him a Bermmi, _, 

■« gmt a liar aa Astiphaoa el Beiga (Pidjk 



'olyk 

4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



Bl EVENOB. 

xviiL 12, xxxiT. 5t Smb. L p. 47, ii. pp. 10-2, 
104, TiL p. 2»9} ; bnt tha ridicule with whkh fan 
ii treated refen mlnKHt eatirriy to fail pretending 
to have viajted the iiland of Poochaca, a. Bit at 
Tbuls of Ilie Kiullicm ocsan ; vfaereu hii method 
oC treaUng mythDlogy ia pau«d oTcr muDticBd, 
and ia emi adopted. Kla method, in Cut, became 
■0 fiiml; looted, tlial even down to the end of the 
laat centurr then ven wrilen wfao acquieiced in 
it. Tbe pMHU believera among the ancienia, on 
the other Wd, called ETemenia an alheiat. (Pint. 
de Plac FkUoi. L 7 ; Aelian, F. H. ii. 31 \ Theo- 
phiL ad Anb^ge. iiL ti.) The great popnkiitj of 
the woHc ia atleiled by the circnmatuiee Chat Kn- 
nioa made a Latin tnutalation of it (Cic de NaL 
Dtor. L 42 ; Uctanb dt Fait. Relig. L 11 ; Varro, 
de St Rat. L 4S.) The Chriitian vritera often 
Tcfet to Eiemerua aa tijeir moat Daefol allj to pme 
that the ffgnx mjthologj waa nolhina fant a heap 
of hblea inrented by mortal nietL (Hienm. Co 
Inmna, Pnligom. ia Eveintritm, in hi) Q. £iERi 
Quae Hptmail Fragm. p. 4S2, Ac, ed. Naplea, 
1590; Serin, in the ItftM. de CA<ad. da liaeript. 
*iii.p. 107, Ac; Fovnnont, Aiit. it. p.2G5,eic; 
Foncber, iUd. ixiiT. p. 435. Ac., iiii. p. 1, 
&0. ; Lnbeck, AvbujA. i. p. 138, tic) [L. S.] 

£VE'NIUS(EA|rioi). a leer of Apollonia, and 
Either of Deiphonaa. He waa one of die moat di»- 
tinguiahed cidieni of Apollonia ; and ooe nigbl, 
when he wai tending the ihtep of Helioi, vhiiJi 
Ifae noUe ApoUoniatae had to do in tomi. the 
Sock wai attacked b]r irolnb and aiitj aheep 
were killed. Erentiu Bid noUiing of the oecnr- 
renee. bat intended to pimhaae new aheep, and 
Ihiu to make op for the loo. Bnt the thing be- 
came known, and Evenio* WM brongfat to trial. 
He waa depriied of hit oltice, and hit e^ea were 
pnt out aa a jmni^ment for hia caRleianeia and 
negligence. Hereupon the earth ceeied to prodnce 
fmit, and the aheep of Helioi ceaaed to prodnce 
joung. Two omdea were coniolted, and tbe an- 
awer wai, that ETeniaa bad been puniihed an- 
jnatlj, for that tbe goda themielvet had lent the 
wolTea among the ueep, aod that the calamity 
Dnder which Apoihxiia vat nSering thonid not 
eeate until Evenioa ahonid have received all the 
Rparation he might deiire. A number of citiiena 
anor^nglj wailed upon Eveniua, and without 
menliDning the oracle*, they aaked bim in the 
conns of their conTenatian, what reparation be 
wmld demand, if the Apolloniatae ahonld be wil- 
ling to make any. Ereniua, in hii ignorance 
of the oracle*, merely a^ed for two acrea of the 
bnl land in Apollonia and the fineat bonae in the 
cily. The depntiea then laid that the Apolloniatae 
would giant bim what he atked for, in accordance 
with the oracle. ETenint wu indignant when he 
heard how he bad been deceiTcd ; but the godt 
^ve him a compenaation by beatowing npon him 
the gift of prophecy. (Herod, ii. 92 — 9S) Conon. 
Narral. 30, wfao calli him Peithenint initead of 
Erenina.) [L. S.] 

EVE'NOR, a diitingniihed pnnter, wai the 
&ther and teacher of P^iuuustua. (Plin. xxn. 
9. a. 3fi. § 1 ; Said, Harpocr., Pfaot^ l f.) He 
fiouriahed about B. c 420. [P. S.] 

EVE'NOR (E'ljnif)), a Greek targeon, wfao 
qipaiently wnu on fiictaret and Inxationi, and 
who mnat have lived in or before the third century 
B. c, aa he ia maatioDed by Henudeidea of Tarenlnm 
(ap. Galen. Cammtal. ia fUppocr. "De ArUe," ii. 



EVENUa 
40. vol irlii. pt. L p. 736.) He ia Tety piwHj 
the lame penon wfao ii mentioned by Pliiiy {H. 
N. n. 73, xii. 105). and whote woik enlilled 
"Cnntionei" ia quoted by Caelioi Aontiuu. 
{di Mori. Aat. ii. 16. p. llS; dt Maiii.ClmM. 
iii. B. p. 478.) [W. A. ai 

EVE'NUS (EAiHi), the nana of three mythi- 
cal penonagea. (Hea. Theag. 346; Horn. /L ii. 
GS2,ii.5fi7i Plat. /'onU. Him. W; AMODli 
7. § 8.) [L. S.1 

EVFNUS (EJhinii or EiW', bat tfae fbraiel i> 
more collect). In the Oreek Antfaolon then an 
■ixtMn epigtama under tbii name, whuh an, Lov- 
ever, the productiont of diSerent poota. (Bnnck, 
Anal. vol. i. pp. 164—167 ; Jacobt, Jatt. firac 
Tol. L pp, 96— 9».) In tbe Vaticao US. Kne 
of tfae epixiami an headed Htlbm, the 7lh ij 
headed vSinv 'AsmiMthoii, tbe 13lh fUr— 
'AtTindeu, tfae 14th EAjvM XmXh(tm^ and (ht 
lut Edit»u Ipatilurrmu, 

The beat known poets of thii name are two 
elegiac poeta of Faroe, mentioned fay Entotthenai 
(ap, HarpoeiM. •, v. Etitwi), who taja that only 
the younger wai celebrated, and that one of then 
(he doei not lay which) waa mentioned by PlatA 
Then an, in fact, aeTeivl taieaa|[ia in whicfa Piite 
refera to Eienui, aomewhat inoKallj, ai at once i 
uphiat or philoiophei and a poeL (Apobg. Sar. 
p. 20, b., Piatd. f. 60, d., Fiardr. f. 267. a) 
According to Maiimut Tyriui (Dia. xuTiii 4. 
p. 225), Erennt waa the initmctor of Socntea in 
poetry, a itatament which derirea lome conuten- 
ance from a panage in Plato (Piatd. I. c). bm 
which it may alio be infened that ETeau 
wat alive at Uie time of Sociatea'i death, but at 
auch an advanced age that he waa likely aoon to 
foUow him. Enaetunt (Ciroa. Ann.) placM him 
at the Both Olympiad (&& 460) and onwanii. 
Hti poetry waa gnomic, that ia, it IbmKd the 
vehicle for expretaing philoaophic T"flTinw and opi- 
niona. The fint lii of the epigramt in the Antfao- 
logy are of thii chiracter, and may tberefon be 
aaciibed to bim with loEeiafale certainty. Perba{a, 
too, the fifteenth ahonld be aaaigned to him. 

The other Evenni of Faint wnle "EpafniEd, u 
we learn from the expreat teatimony of Artoni- 
dorna (Ono-rxr. i. S), and from a paMngn of Aiiira 
(k^tidet iv. 9), in which EraDU ia mmtiooed in 
conjunctian with Ariatadea. [See tdL L p. 296.| 
A few other fragments of hia poetry are eitanl. 
Among them ia a line which Aristotle (AMo- 



■ ^\ ' 



1 Finn 



(AfoniLit. p.ll02,c)qnoMb]'thciu 
noi, but which ia found in one of tbe elf^iei of 
Theognia (tt. 467—474), wfaence it ia mppoted 
that that el^y ihoold be ascribed to Evemii. 
There are al» two bezametan of Eveniia. (Aiis- 
toL EA. tfiam. TiL 1 1.) 
None of tfae epigrama in the Andulogy are ei- 



fakeWtt 



> ii hia If the 8th and 9th, 
on the Cnldian Aphrodite of Praiitelea, and tbe 
10th and 11th, on Myren'i cow, an hia, which 
•ecmt not improbabia, tboi hit data would be 
filed. Otherwiia it it Tsry diSenlt to deunnine 
whether he lived before or after the olber Erenns. 
Ai he was certainly leat Ejunana than the oontem- 
poraiy of Bocmtea, the atatement of Eratoathenet 
that only the younger waa eelebnted, wtnld imply 
that he lived before him -. and thit riew is main- 
tained, in oppotilion to the genaial o^ioo of 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EUOAMON. 
ia tlw ZtUtArifl fir 
AlB«,p.lI8. 
Of Ik( gther piwta of tliu mine next to DMhing 
■ kMwn bif mid Ike tillti, qootad abon, in the 
hkimc Antbologj. Jacob! conjccUim Ihal the 



m k* pit* DO Kuoo fin Ihii con^Mton. The 



A:Aj ike ntie* of poala noiiljr conUmponi? 
■hb nilip hiaidt 

(W^ur, 1^ £««■ iiiMfB (jq^ioai, VistiiL 
1(28; Schniba, O^iri. ila filHnt Porw, Odtting. 
1«9 1 SoDchij, Smr la Foil- iUghjim, in the 
Mtm. i, FAcad. da ImiaripL toL i. p. £98; 
SdBBibwiB, IWni. 7^w>. Qroac. •fgp. ToL i. p. 
lU; GiUxd, ifatf. ATbl OrtHc voL Hi. p. 277 i 
BoKode, Orocc Prxt. p. 163; Jaeobo, AmA. 
Umt. T^ dii. pp. 893, 694 ; Fabric BiU. Orate. 

"iit?m.) [P.S.] 

EVITEES (SA^i), ■ Km of PtanialU, wai 
tbtoglf OH BKng )ua brathen that en^ed ia 
Mitffa with the MU of Elsctrjon. (ApoUod. 
iLtS,&c.;comp. AiCKKinand Amphitbyon.) 
Thm an two oUm mjthieai penatugei of ihii 
■». (Apollod. ii. 7. § 8, iiL 6. § 7.) [L. S.J 

EVTROETES [Zi'rrt^')' 'I* " Benetctor," 
n> 1 liilc of honour, freqtuntlj confeired bj the 
OiHk itati* upon tboae from whom thef had n- 
cdnd bene6la, and waa aftcrwardi ueomed bf 
BDj (f tka Onek king! in Eg7pt and othei 

"Wtria, lPrOL.M«D(L] 

IV'EBSA, a Tbeban, who jouied Callicritai in 
t^ainf in the Boeatjao uKmblj (be viswi of 
FsHi, ud waa in eouequence moidered with 
tJOiaitu I17 nder id the king. (Li*, ilii. 13, iO.) 
[CiLLirairuii.] 

t-VETBStEWTnOMid EUXE'NIDES{B)(.- 
'3*1). were Athenian comic pwCa, conlempamy 
TiA i^Khanana, aboat B. c. 185. Nothing ii 
bntd M nmie poeti; during aa ioteml of eight; 
Jon fna the tiiiie of SoiuioD, till it wai re- 
nnd by Spidianiiu in Sicil;, and bj ETetsi, 
Eoanides and MjUni at Atheni. The onl; 
■nur vho nwntioiu Iheie two poet* !• Suidu 
{■.f. TrlxopMH). Uj-lloe ii not nnfreqnenil; 
•minied. [Htllus] (Meineke, Attf. Ciil. 
Gm. Craw. p. 26.) 

fhm ii ako a Pjlhagonan pbiloiopher, ETeto, 
' TbgB itotliiiic ia known bat hii name. (Tam- 
U*. n. Pglk. 36.) [P. S.] 

EUQAUON (EdT^rw), one of the Cidic 
fin. Ha waa a natirs of Cjnne, and Hied 
>biM >.cses, ao that he vu a coitanparar; of 
^niitniai, Stenefaonu, and Ariitcaa. Hii poem, 
■Ue^ wia intended to be a csntinaatian of the 
Oi]^, and bore the title of TtiXryark, cODsiiled 
<! In boiAi or liianodiei, and foniied the conclu- 
■■ if the epic cjd& It contained an icconnt of 
>I1 ihtt ^nened after the t^l of OdjHcui with 
Iki nitaii of Fenekipe till the death of Odjileiu. 
TW Bhttaiea ef the poem, which it«if i) eatinlj 
^ > pnaeYcd in Prodiu'i Chieatnmatlua. 
|[«^EiiMalh.K(S'«.p.l79E.) As Eugamon 
Bnd u B late a period, it ia highlj probable that 
b( ^ide oaa of the pniductioni of earlier poeta ; 
•ad Ooemi of Alexandria (Strom, ri. p.7St; 
omf. Eamb. Praq). Bmy. 1. 12) eipmaly italei 
te EagemoD inenpinated in hia Telegonia a whole 
fft FMB if lluaeia, entitled " Theit^tia.*' 



EUOENICUS. 85 

Whether the Teh^nia iKxibsd ta the Ijicedae- 
monian Cinaelbon «u an oriier woik than that of 
EDgamon, or whether it wai identical with it, ia 
uncertain. The oarae Telegonia wai formed fivni 
Telegonni, a aon of Odytseui and Circe, who killed 
hiiblber. (Camp. Bode, Uocil. lier ^i«e4. ZMdit 
p. S39.*c.) [L. 8.1 

EU'OENES (leiyinit), the anthor of an epi- 
giam, in the Qreek Anlhology, npoo the atatne of 
Anacmn intoiicaled. (Bnuick, AmaL td. iL p. 
463t Jacoba,.<i>lil. Onus. ToLiii p. tSB; Paul. 
L 93. $ 1.) The epigiain aeemt to be an imitation 
of one bj LeoDidaa Tatentinni on the wne mb- 
jecL (Bmnck, A<a!. tuL >. p. 230 ; Juoba, AmOi. 
Onaa. tdL i. p. 163, No. lUTiii.) [P. &J 

EUOENIA'NUS (EilynDind), a phjiician in 
the latter half of the Kcond oeatDir after Chritt, a 
friend and omtempaiaiy, and probablj' aba > pu- 
pil of Oalen, with whom he waa acquainted whils 
tiie; wen both al Rome. (Oalen. de MalL Mtd. 
Tiii. Z ToL I. [I &35, £36.) lli«i at hie nqoett 
that Galen waa induced to reaume hi* work *• De 
Methodo Hedendi," which be had begun ta wrilo 
for the uie of Hieion, and which be had laid arida 



Librorum Suoram.- (yoL iIt. p. *B.) [W. A, G.J 
M. EUaE'NlCUS, a brother of Joannei Enge- 
nicua, who waa a celebralAd ecdeaiaatical writer, 
nrme of whoee worke, howeTer, hai jet ^ 
peand in print ( Fabric SiU. Graai. ToL li. p. 
833.) M. Enganieua waa bj Inrth a Greek, and 
in early life he waa engaged u a Khoohnaalei and 
teacfair of rhetoric Butbia erait learning and hia 
eloquence raieed him to the hi^eat dignitiei intho 
church, and about ^d.US6 he enccseded Joeephna 
at archbi^Dp of Ephetni. Two yean later, he 
accompanied the empeiur Juanaet Palaeologoi to 
the cooncil of Floreuoe, in which he took a very 
prominent part ; for be repretented not only bii 
own dioceee, bnt acted aa proxy for the patriarclia 
of Antioch and Jenualem. He oppoeed the Latin 
church with ai much bittemeu ai fas defended Iho 
righta of the Qreeii cbunh wiib teal. In the be- 
ginoing of tiie diacusBionB at the connciU thii di^ 
poeition drew upon him the diqjleaiun of the em- 
peror, who wu aniioui to reunite the twochurchee, 
and alao of the pope Eogeniua. Tbia gave riie ta 
moflt rehemenl diiputes, in which the Greeki cboee 
Eugenicui ai their ipokemuin and cbampiaD. A* 
be waa little scqusinted with the dialectic nbtle- 
tiei and the tcholastic pbiloBopby* in which the 
prelalei of the Weet lar luipalied him, he wa* at 
tint defeated by the (atdinal Jolian ; but afler- 
wardi, when Beuarion became hia ally, the elo- 
quence of Eugeoiicua threw all tiie council into 
amaiemenL The Tshemence and biltatneai of hia 
inTectiiea agaiuit the Latina, however, wu ici 
great, thai a report wai eoon uprmd and beliend, 
that be waa 01 ' ' ' ' ' ' " 



.a. 






cloBB of the cooncil, when the other buhopa were 
ready to acknowledge the claimt of the pope, and 
were ordered by the emperor to lign the decreca 
of the council, Eusenicni alone Resd&atly nfuied 
to yield, and neither threat* nor ptomiK* could 
indues lura to alter hi> detemunatiDD. The union 
af the two churchei, bowerer, WM decreed. On 
hia rvtum to Constantinople, he wu received by 
the people with the gieateat eathnuaan, and the 
"" pudhAn. Dnr- 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



K EUQENlUb. 

i)ig tha nmniiiilrr bT bii lif* hs condniwd to oppow 
til* I^tin cbonfa vhenmt b* could i md it wi* 
■uinlj oring to hu inflMoce lluit, ttlia bn death, 
th« nnioii wu hrolua off. For, as liu doUb-bed 
in Ui7, hs Blnanlf nqncUcd Oeorghu Scbohriiu, 
to amtmEio the itnig^ igiiiut tin 1 -"'^"fi which 
h« himtelf bad anied on, tai Oeoirioi promiKd, 
and Uthfbllj kapt hii void. Tbe hnml oration 
on Engcuiciu wu dalJnnd hj tha mns friend, 

M. Engmiau wu the latbor of many woiki, 
noM of which wta diraetod igunU the I^lin 
cbonh, whonoe they wen attKkcd by thoie Oraeki 
«4ia wan in bmir of that chnich, Rich u Joarph 
of Matlmia, flaiMrina, and other*. Tha followiag 
■» piiiitad either entin or m part 1. A LeOer 
la at * mm n i r FalatBlagm, in which be cantimi 
the Oreek* againit the ooidcO of Florence, and 
aipoeei Hu intrigun of tho Latini. It ii printed, 
with a Latin Tcnisn and an uurer by Joeeph 
of Hetbone, in Ubbeiu, Cb«L tdI. liii. p. 677. 
2. A Orwhr, addieaed to ell Chrinendom, on 
the Hme nibjcct, ii printed in LBbb«iu, Lcf. 740, 
with aa aniwer by Giegotiiii PcatotjnceUiu. 
S. A TVtafiH on Liturgical SiJgetU, in which he 
naintun* the qriritnal power of the prieithond. 
It ii printed in the LHwr^iat, p. 138, ed. Parii, 
ISBO. 4. A Pnfauim r/FaOJt, of which a ing- 
mont, with a I^lin tranelation, ii printed in Alla- 
tiDB, dt CbaicBn, iil S. g 4. B. A Lettar to lie 
tn^enr Paldtoiogua^ of which a fragment ia giTen 
in Albtiu, ib Sfmodo Odata, U, p. £14. Hii 
other vorki an atill extant in MS., bat haTenerei 
been pnbliabed. A litt of then U giien by Fabri- 
dna. (SiM.Sn(eciToLTLp.67D,Ac.j comp-Caie, 
/TM. Lit. lol I. Appendii, p. 1 1 1, &c) [L. S.] 

EUOE'NIUS, an JJnaa confewc, not lea 
edebrattd for bit laming and MUctily than for 
tho coniagfl with which be idToiated the doctrinefl 
of the oidtodoi &ith dorins the penecation of 
the Arian Vandali towaidi the cloee of the fifth 
centnty. At fint tolerated by Hunnarie, who a 
quieiced in hit eleratien to the eee of Carthiwe 
*. i>. 480, he wai eabacqnently tranqnrted by 
that prince, after the itormy council held in 
Febnitry a. D. 481, to tlie deaertt of Tripoli, 
from whence he waa recalled by the taidy cle- 
mency of Onndarannd, bnt eight ynr* efterwarda 
wu arrated, tried and condemned to death by 
Tbzaiininnd, who, howeTer, commuted the 
tanea to baniihmenb The place filed upon 
Vienna in lugnedoc, where Alaiic at that period 
held awaj. Here Eagenio* (onnded a monaaterj 
near the tomb of St Amaiantbne, where he 
paieed hit time in deroot tianqiuUity 
death on the ISib of Jnly A. O. SOS. 

Under the name of Eogenini we poaa 
(iaaion of fiildi drawn up in accordance with the 
docttinea recogidiad by the council of Nicaeo, and 
preaented on toe part of the orthodox A&imi pre- 
ulea to Hnilneiic, under the title, Profimi/i Jidri 
OaOiiicanan tfitcoponmi Hwurxo ngi Mala. It 
will ba fbnnd in the BM. Mat. Fair. Lngdnn. 
1877, idL TiiL p. 683, and an account of iU oon- 
lenta in Schrock, Kinka^^adneUa, ToL xriii p. 97. 
Oennadint mentimia eeTeral other worka by thia 
aalhor, but they no longer eijtt. For the 
dDcnmenta connected with the Vandal penecntion 
aea 'Victor Viieniii de peraeentiana Vandalica" 
with the nolea of Kuinart. Parii. 1694 ; the "ViU 
& Fnlgendi " in the OiU. Mia. J^r. Lugdi 



EUHODUS. 

1677, ToL IE, p. 4 ; Bt>d Pracopiua, Di Bdh Vim- 

i™. i. 7, it IW. R.) 

EUOE'NIUS, who waa biihop t£ Toledo baa 

D. 646 to 6J7, ia mentioned under DRia»- 

ua at the editor and enltrger of the woik by 

Dncontint upon the CreatiDn. He ii known iIb 

U tho author of thirty-two ahott original poemi 

ipoaed on s gnat miety of aobjecta, chirfly 

rerer moral and religiout, in herok, elegiac, 

trochaic, and aapphic meaaniea. Thtae were pob- 

Uahod b* Sirmond at Parii, Bto. 1619, will be 

found alio in the collectod wotkt of Sinwnd 

(ParU 1696 and Veniw 17SS), in the SU Pair. 

Maic Lngdim. 1677, tdL xiL p. 34£, and in the 

edition of Dracontim by RiTinoa, I^pa- 1661. 

of letten, the othnr on the uamet of b^luul 

li, are cont^ned in Ibe Anthologia Itma of 

ann, iL 264, T. 161, or n. 33i3, 387. ed. 

Meyer. [W. R.] 

£U0B7)tlIS, praefects) jsaetorio Orienlii b 

D. 517 or 540. He wu the author of an Edict 



prutorio. (Biener, OEaoUciUci^^oBefCai Jh(«- 
II. p. S33 1 Zachariae, AwnUo, 11.36 1. ) t J. T. G.] 

EUOENIUa, a Oreek pbyaieitn. of when it 

only known that be muat hare lind tome 
ne in or before tha firit century after Chiiit, 

one of hit medical formnUe it qnoted by Ai- 
dronuchnt. (ip. Galen, de Cotgat. Midiaai. kc 
Loeot, tU. 6. Tol. xiii p> 114.) He ia alto qnoled 
by Qariopontu {di Ftbr, c 7), from which H 
wonld appear either that aoine <rf' hit worki ircre 
extant in the eleTcnlh century, or that Kaneaoarcn 
of information coocemiiig him were then to be had 
which do not now exiit. [W. A. O.] 

EU'QEON {E<>)^M< or Edfoiw), of Sanwa, ana 
of the earliett Greek hittoriant meotioDed by Dio- 
nyaiua of Halicamaaana. {Jmd. dt Tliuijd. &; eemp. 
Suid.ke.) [LS.] 

EUOESIPPUS {^hi-tarm), the author of a 
wDilc on the diitaacet of placet m the Holy Idnd, 
of which a I«tin tranilalion it printed in Leo Al' 
latint' Ziwuvrd. He liTed abont a. n. 1040, bat 
no particulara are known about him. ^I^ &J 

EUGRAMHUS. IBdcbsb, No. 2.] 

EUaRATHIUS, a Idtin grammarian, who ia 
beUered to haie flouriahed u late u the end of the 



notea upon T , 

logne*. Tbey were fint publiihed by f 
(FlorenL Bro, 1565), were aobecqnently impmnd 
and enlarged by Lindanbrogina (4to. Pari*, 1502, 
FinncC 1G3S) and Waateihoriaa (Hag. Com. Ita. 
1736), and are giTen bi all the more completeedi. 
tiou of the diamatiaL We hear ataoofaMS.in 
the BibliotblijUB da Htn at Paiit, intitled Omimb- 
turn ta Termtiam, bearing the name of Engiaphiu), 
which Lindenbrogiua did not think worth pabliih- 
ing. [W. R] 

EU'MODUS, a fivedman of the tanpeiw Sepli- 
mint Serama and tntor to CaiaoJla, who *aa 
nnraed by hit wife Enhodia. At the inatintion of 
the young priitce he contrired tha rain M the too 
powerful Plantianiu [Pl A [iTi anus] ; iiul aJthoogh 
loaded with honours on account of thia good arc 



u put to dtath ii 



0.311, 



ledialely after the a 
a oiKpicinn, pmhably, that he pnttrtaine 
I fcclti^ towardi the hated Gela. When 



EDUARIDASl 
(id Soof, c 1) rnn that ymng Antoniniu ma 
tandiini CuMMn milk, hs reEen to Procnliu, 
Ike Brnid <if Eoliodai, toi then ii on nuon to 
kEm ikt ether Enlwdiu or hi* wib fmfeued 
iktnKbiih,u miKliBTB idngiiMd. (Dion Cm. 
liKi.3,<i,luTS.l.) [W.B.] 

EFIPPB (iihnin). Hit name of 6t» mjlholn- 
pnl n ni[H|n. toacefning whom nothing of iu- 
BM it nbttd. {ApoUod. ii. 1. 1 A ; Phu. ix. 
UgS; PutbBL£iM:3; EimtoKh. Orioil 1 8 ; 
Or. .U^ T. 303.) [L.S.J 

ETIPFUS {EIrwwn). 1. A Km of Tbettiiu and 
EaiTtkoiu, vho, loRthii with hit brothan, i>u 
UM bj Udaga. (ApoUod. L 7. S ID, S. § 3.) 






d byth 



CikBiiMUi lioD. [Puit. i. 41. g *.) Then 
m Mhs Bjthinl pertouget of thii nune. (Horn. 
n.nH\7: SlepL Bri.j,e.'AX.UvIa.)[L.a.] 
EULAEDS (EJaui), u enniich, benUM one 
(fide itgnti of Egypt ind goacdiuii of Ptolemjr 
I'UnMor en the death of CleopMn, the niother 
if Ik hOK, in B. c 173. The jonng king wu 
'it 11 jnn old, umI be it laid to han been 
^H^t op b the grcAteet Inrniy and efiraninacy 



id eonteqnent WMk- 
nu who, b]' icflidng ' 
Ik (Un </ AxtJochot IV. ^rap^wa) to the 
fniaiB af Code-STna and Pabitine, inrolfed 
tCfimfteJiMttnmiwr with 8jti*iaB.c 171. 
(Mjb nriii, IS; Died. Aiyni. lib. iii. Em. Je 
h- "in- ^ BU, (fa FiFt it VO. p. 579 ; lit. 
ili»,ilT. 11, 13) Ado. ^.66; Jut. niiT. 
1) [E. E.] 

SCuyoWA. [BcLoonm] 

EULffOIU* VAVCyyiVi, * ihetotintn of 
CMige, ud k eoQienpoewT and ditciple of St. 
i'p*6ii.{Atfiut.deair.j>rvMori.U.) Under 
ia ^ne we poaaeaa a diipntation on Cicero't 
&mtam S e^ iemm, which eontaint TmriooA diacu^ 
■■• (a pomti of the Fjlhagonon doctrine 
' nahn. The tnatiie wai &nt printad hj 
i-Sduu at the end of hit QiuatiEHef TVliauae 
(iMm, 1613, 8TD.), and aflenraid* in the 
><iIiiBrfCieFn'« A Qp(iii,by Otaemia (1688), 
faa ehid it if npriated with unie impnremenU 
aOidri tdilisiiaf CicetD,ToL t. put. 1, pp.31>7 
-♦il [U a] 

EFHACHUS (E0>ux«<> 1- A Corinthian, 

--"^-^ ' -' rail lent by 

1. c 431 in 
D mton Evaichni, 
1»M of AiIacBi, who had been iccentlr expelled 
IflheAthemnM. (Tbuc 11. S3.) 

S. A natin of Nc^nljt, who, acoxding to 
;J>^Bana ^diL p. i77), wtote a work entitled 
""Vai TVf ir^ 'AvrlSar. It ia peifaapt the 
■w Imaibm ef whoae wo A entitled ntpntnni 
■ bparat ia ttiU eitant in PU^on. (^rnii. 
t- "■) [C P. M.] 

fUKAKOS (EfauM), the bmou and bitbfbl 



""And at CMjaaena, wai a am of Cteuni, king 
■(At i4md of Sjiie ; he had been srried awaj 

»■ Wt fclherli hmae by a Phoenician tlare, and 



(Hon 



o lAertea, the blfaei 
:t. 403, Ac 1 comp. 

j'JMA'^DAS (UfuvOtf), of Rirot, a Py- 
™PMb pfailati^ihar, who it mentioned by Tani- 
™»«(Fit./>*.3e): b«t it it imcertain iriwtbet 
« ndiag ia canact, nd vheibar we oi^bt not 



EUMELUS. 87 

to lead Thjmaridat, who la known at a celebrated 
Pj'thagDteBit. (Iambi, i.0. 23, with Kieulingl 
not*.) {L. 8.] 

EU'MARUS, a Teiy ancient Onek painter ef 
monochnmea, waa the fint, acconilng to Pllnjr, 
who dlitinguiihed, in [aiating, the male Emm the 
lemale, and who " dued to imitate all figueB." 
Hit invention waa ImpnTed upon by Sunon of 
Cleooae. (uit.S.L 34.) Milllei (JreLtf.iTaul, 
g 74) anppoaea that the diitinction waa made by a 
difEuence of colouring; bal Pliny'a wotda Beam 

[her to refer to the drawing of the figure. [P. S.] 

EUMA'THIUS. [EiPirriTHiii^ No. *■! 

EUMe'LUS(Etl>n|AoilBaoai>rAdmetut and 
Akeatla, who went with eleTen thip* and watiion 
from Pheiaa, Boebe, Ghiphyme, and laoleoa to 
'^ He waa diatlngoiahed for hia excellent 

I, which had once been nnder the can of 
Apdlo, and with which Eomeiua would hare 
gained the priae M the ftmeral gomea of Patiwlua, 
B hit chariot had not been breken. He waa mar- 
ried to Iphlhima, the dangbter of Icaiiaa. (Horn, 
/til' 711, it 7S4, iiiii. 373,136, Od.ii.79S; 
Stiab. ii. p. 436.) There an three other mytho- 
legieal pattonagea of Ihia name. (Anton. Lib. 15, 
■t; Paoa, Tii. IB. S 2.) (L. 8.] 

EUHrLUS (E^Jkot), one of the thteo ton* 

Paiyiadea, Kii^ of Botponu. After hia bihet'i 
•th he eo^iged in a war for the crown with hia 
brothert Salymt and Prylanit, who were tnccee- 
iJTel; killed in liattle. Ennulna reigned moat 
proaperonaly for fin yeara and fire montha, KC* 
309—304. (Diod. u. 23—36 ; .Clinton, K fT. toL 
ii. pp. 382, 283.) [P- S.] 

EUME'LUS (EC/iqAH}. 1. Of Corinth, the. 
taa of Amphilytui, a Tery ancient Epic poet, be- 
longed, according to tonie, to the E|ue cycle. Hi* 
■tame, like Encheic, Eugrammui, Ac, ii lignificaat, 
referring to hit akill in poetry. He wat of the 
noble honae of the Bacchiadae, and flourithed about 
the 5th Olympiad, axetding to Enaelriua(Cln>ii.*), 



(Comp. Cyril, c ^iitHiii. 'L p. 13 j Clem. Alex. 
AUr™. i. p. 144.) 

Thote of the poeme aacnbed to him, which ^>- 
pear pretty certainly genuine, wen genodogical and 
iutturical legendt. To thia data belonged hit Oty- 
rintUn. Hiitorf (Paul. IL I. $ 1, 3. $ 2, 3. $ 8 i 
SchoL ad ApoU. Riod. i. 146 ; Tieli. Sckoi. ad 
Lfiopkr. 1024, comp. 174, 460), hit wpoirAiar t, 
AijAar, from which aome linet an quoted by Pau- 
taniaa, who coniidered it the only genuine work oi 
Enmelnt (i*. 4. H> 33. §g 2, 3, t. 19. § S), and 
the &avpia (Euteb. L c. ; Clem. Alei. JbvsLL p. 
ISI i SchoL adHom. ILiLp. 131.) He alas wrote 
Boi^aiia, a poem on beet, which the Qnekt called 
0ov>^w and jSovrmli. (Enteb. f.e.,- VarTD.A.A 
ii. A g £, ed. Schneid.) Some writer* aactibed to 
him a Tiran/toxfa, which alao waa attributed to 
ArcliQU*. (Athen. ni. p. 277, d., camp. L p. 22, 
Ci SchoL a.J.Hpotf.nioiJ. LI IBS.) 

Tlie cyclic poem on the return of the Oreeka from 
Tny (rJirrei) ia atctibed to Eumelu* by a Scho- 
liaat OD IMndar (Of. nil SI), who write* the name 
wtongty, Emnolpuh TheluietqaotedbythiaScho- 
liaat are alto giTen by Pantaniat, nnder the name 
of Enmelan (Votunt, dt Hut. Ortue. pp. 5, 6, ed. 
Wetlermarm; WctckeT,jM£>(B)e(>a^p.274.} 



4,i,.=.otGot>^Ic 



EUHENBS. 
2. A Ferifateticphilow 



wbom DiwDei I^rtioi (t. 5) qootea an accoimt 
of thsdeMiof Atutotle. (Heiii«ke,//uf.Oitan. 



Ontti.p.8.) 



[P. 8.1 



. . n dutrngniifaBd for liuu boiatj, Tben 
wu • BalSD bj him in the tonun aX Rome. H< 
probaUir lirad iboot a. a. 190. (FhiliMtr. Tmag. 
Pnrafim. p. 4 I FiL &9it. iL S.) HeunippoMdu 
ban biBi Ilia tauha of AriitoibaHW. whoM mIhmI 
wu fivqnsDted by th« ddet niQmtatBi. [P. &] 

EUurLUS (U/afiiai}, ■ reuriuijr naguo, 
i>f*whom noUuDg ia known except that be ma ■ 
uOiTe of Thabo. {Hgfialr. p. 12.) He 10*7 per- 
hapa hMB lind m the fourth « fifth cmtorj after 
Chritt. Soma fc^Miili, Hbicfa an all that lamain 
of bia wiitiua, an to be foaud in the Collection of 
Wriloa on Veterinan SugerT, fint pnbliibed in 
I^tinbr J. lUdliiu, Paiia. tSSO.foUandinOreek 
bTa.OnnaMia,BaiDL lfiS7, lUk [W. A. 0.1 

EUIKNES (KM^)- 1- Rolei « djiuut 
tt fk» dlT of Amaatiia on the EniiDe, conlempir- 
arj iritb Antiochn* Boter. The dtiiana of Han- 
dak ariahed to nucbMS fioBi him hia aoraogn^, 
■a Amaatiia had fbmailf beleittBd to tbem; Irat 
to thia he lafbaad to aoeda. He, howerei, •oon 
■fm gaTC up the dtj to Aiiobanane^ king of 
Pontoa. (HeniDon,16,ed.(hellL) Drojani(/lii- 
faWHi^ nL ii. p. 3S0 ) mppoaea lU> EDOKiKa to be 
the nephew of PbiUtaaui, who aflenraida bscame 
king (U Pu^mna [EdminbiI.]; but then do not 
aeem an j nffident gniuidi for thia identificatiaiL 

2. Bnthet of Phbetaenu, bnnder of the kiag- 
* dam of Praamna. [FBaBTAiKua.] [E. H. &.] 

EITM^ES (CJftJnif) of CiRdU, aecretarj to 
Abxaoder the (heat, and after hii death one of 
the moit diiUngniied gmeiala among hia mccea- 
aoia. The aoounti of hia origin larf MiniideiBblj, 
Bome refnaenting hia tatber aa a poor man, who 
wu obliged to mbaiat bj hia own labonr, atheri 
aa one of the moat diatingniahed dtiaena of bta 
natiTe place. (PluL Eawt. I; Corl Nep. Eum. \; 
Aelian, F. H. xiL 4S.) The laUer italemeuu are 
upon all account* the moat probable : it ia certain, 
at teut, thkt be ncdnd ■ good ednca^on, tad 
haTingallncted ^ attntion of Philip of Macedon 
m occaaHHi of hia TiailiiiE Cardia, wu taken bj 
that king to hia court, and employed aa hia piivale 
aecretaij. In thia cqaci^ he aoon roae to a high 
place in hia coDfidcoce, and after hii death conti- 
Emed to diachaige the lame office Dndar Alezander, 
whom ha accompanied throughout hia expedition 
in Alia, and who aeeDU to hare treated him at all 
time* with the tnoit mariied confidence and dia- 
tinction, of which he gave a atjiking proof abont 
two jean before bii death, bj giring him in mar- 
riage Artonie, a Pertian princeei, the daughter of 
Artabama, at the aame time that he himaelf married 
Staleira,thedaaghlerof Daniua. (ArTian,^Hi.Tii. 
4.) A itill itrODget etideuee of the favour which 
Eumenet enjojed with Aleiander ia, that he vaa 
able to maintain hia ground againat the influmca 
of HpphaeatJon, with wbom he waa continually at 
enmitj. (ATnan,^«&.Tii. 13, U; P[aLEam.2.) 
Nor wen bia tervice* confined to thoae of bia 
offioa aa iMntaiT : be waa mora than once em- 
plojed bj Alexander in military eommand^ and 
waa nltimalelj appointed by hmi to the poit of 
kippwch 01 leader of one of the chief ditiaumi of 



EUHENE6. 
ctTalry. (Arrian, AmB. t. 94; Pint. J 
Com. Nep. Eum. 13.) 

In the diacuaatona and trnmlti wbtd a 
the death of Alexander, Eonenea at fint,i 
the jeeloaiy with which ai a Oleek he 
garded by the Macedonian (cadeta, reliaii 
taking any part i but when matter* can 
open mptoce, be wa* mainly ii 



ilini 



In the ditiaion of the aatiapiM which fwowed, 
EnnMme* obtained the goremnnnt of C^ipadoda, 
P^il^onk, aad Fontna : but aa thaw pnmnce* 
had nerer ret been conqnend, and wen atill in 
the hand* of Ariaralhea, Antigonu* and Lewmataa 
were qipointed to ndnca them ior hin. AntigDnnia, 
howerer, diadainad compliance, and Leonnatna wa* 
quickly called off to Gi«ecB by hia ambtlieaa pro' 
' — [IiioNNiTUB.] In theee he endeaToured to 



penuade E 



'hiygia, to ^oin ; bat the latler, iaat^id of iaiog 
ao, a^ptly quilted hiflt, and haalening (a Patdio- 

By thia piocf of hia fideGty, h* accond lb* &Taar 
of the ngent, who banoateward lepeaed hia dut£ 



poniaed tatiBpie*, defeated and pat to deUfa 

Arfarathea, and eatabliahed Enmenea in the fhll 
pDaaaaaioa of bia gonnuDeat, ■. c 332. (Pint. 
£01. 3 i Died. iniL 3, 16 ; Airiaii, t^ FkM. p. 
SS, a. i Com. Nop. Eum, X) Here, howerer, he 
did not long reanain, but accompanied the negent 
and the royal bmily into Cilicia, In the following 
apring, when Petdiccai detarmiiMd to proceed in 
peraon againil Ptolemy, ha committed to Pun 11 ma 
the chief eommand in Aaia Minor, and mdered 
him to repair at once to the Helleqant, to make 
head againat Antipater and CnteiuL Enmenea 
took adTanlaga of the interral befice their arriTal 
to raiie a nunerosa and eicelleut body of canity 
out of Paphlagonia, to which he waa indebted loir 
many of hia aubaeqoent Tictocifa. Htaniriiile, a 
new enemy aioae against him in Neoptcdemna, 
gDTemor of Anoenia, who bad been placed mtder 
hit GOmmand by Peidiccaa, but then rerohed 6md 
him, and entered into comapondenc* with Anli- 

C'l and Craterua. Eumenea, howeTW, dented 
befon the aniTal of his confederates, and then 
lutued (o meet Craterus, who waa adnncing 
against him, and to whom Neoptolemua had made 
1^ escape after Us own defeat. The battle tbat 
ensued waa dedsin ; for although the Hacadonian 
phalanx mfiend but little, Cntanu himaalf Ml, 
aad Neoptolemui was alain by Enmenea with bia 
own hand, after a deadly atrng^ in the pteaeuee 
of the two aimies, (Pint. £mt. 4—7; Died, xriii. 
39—32; Arrian, 191. PM. p. 7Di b^ 71, a. ; Cotil 
Nep. Eum. 3, 4; Juitin, liii. 6, 8.) Thia UxA 
pUoe in the summer of 321 b. c 

Bnt while Enmenea waa thua trinnphani in 
Asia, Perdioas had met with repeated dinstoa in 
Egypt, and bad finally Ulea a Tietim to the die- 
content of hia trom, just before the news arrived 
of the Ticlmy of EnnMnei and the death of Cra- 
lema. It lame too late : the tide was now tamed, 
and (he intelUgeDce excited the greatcat indigna- 
tion among the Mb'-*^""'*" aoldiera. who had 
been partienkriy attached to Cfatena, and who 
hated Eumenea as a foreigner, for sn^ they gob- 
sidend him. A general aasembly of the army 
was held, in which EumelM, Attalui, and Aloetai, 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EiniBNEa. 

A, II Milling haltn of tkcjnc^ of Pcrdkcu, 
nn ondsmcd la dcMh. Tba csndict of tk« 
nr ipbut tba wu ■■ignnl to Aitiginu ; but 
bt did Dot kka the Ud trnta tb« Mowing nni- 
■BfftcnO). EuHnM Ind wiBWrad It Cebta- 
■t in Pkiygia, nd ftnngthnied hinuelf kf all 
■an B ka paver, but ha wu niuble to naka 
bod ignaat Aatigmoi, iriw dalialad bin in ibe 
lUa of OKjniom ii Cappadoda; and Budisg 
^bbU aiabk to c&ct bit raDcat ioto Annenia, 
■ b( bid damned to do, he adt^ted thi mohi- 
lia rfdiriaodinf tba mt of hiaana;, aodthraiv- 
wilb otdf 700 tioqii, into the onaU 
■Ue fonnw of Nan, on the e«i£ii« 
un^ Ca^adoda. (Plot. Ekbi. 8 — 10; 
iiL 37, to, 41 I Corn. Hep. Earn. £.) 
«■• doaely blockaded bj the fi>n« of 
■ ; bat, EOnfidait in th« itieDgth of hii 
■ed aU aOn* of capitulatiaa, and amited 
I of eztenaJ diaiigea. It 



Miuil badin ; aad ADtJavaiu, who mi nmou 

nal ifcaiildii oSiaa, cf vhidi tha latter oult 
»dcd UBMif 10 br ai enabled Ui U qiit tau 
■NBtaa kitam, m whidi be bad bow bdd oat 



in lerring tnop* ai^ gathering bti 
bar, wba ba nenTid letten ' 
aiid Oljaipai, aitnatiiig hii 
bin, ia tba dum n the 



■Ml ela^ ilii|iiiani1 to eapODae tha imue of tl 
"I>l iaHj of Maoodonia, and gladl; enibna 



" ■b ri apiut him bj order of Autigonu, and 
wind ia Cilkia, wboa be foond the lelect bodj- 
■f Hinrdnnian TStoruu olkd the Aigpa^idi, 
nla Aitiganea and Teataana. Tbeie, ai well 
■ tke njal tmeon* deporilod M Qniiida, hid 
kn fhaed at hie diipoeal b; PolyipeidioD *d' 
(Mjafiw: bat tkoi^ vcleaDed at fintwith a] 
ftan sithnaum, SuBenei *aa well awan i 
lb Jala— J with which he wu renrdtd, an 
ma leegbt to snrid tbr appeanDce m cemniand 
ag the ether generali hj the ungalaT Bipedient < 
in which the throH, the oovn an 



■a nodb rf WW were held, •• if in 
•f 'in dnramil toonatch. (Plat, fiaat. ii~ia; 
Oiid. iriil 43, S3, 58—61 ) Foljaen. ir. 8. § 2; 
Jaitin. xir. S.) Bj then and other meani Eu- 
■OM eacneded in conciliating the troope Dnder 
Ui o^aasd, eo that ibe; rejected aU the attempti 
■edi by PuJoBj and AntigODiu U compt ' 
Udttj. At the ease timo ho made tau 
Iniei if msnnaiiea, and having anaiUed in all 
• ■nBiiuae Bm;, be adfauced into Phoenida, 
ank the new Dtradadng the maritime towaa, and 



— n coaeeqnence retired 

■to the isletior of Amm, end took up hii wintar- 
tHtan in BahjiMiia. (Diod. iriu. 61— 63, 73.) 

la the idling of 317 he deacended the left bank 
'' t^ 'Hgria, and hanug (oiled all the endeaToon 
If Sdncw to fnnm bU peaaiDg tbat rim, ad- 



BUUENES. SS 

Tancad iata Sn^uia, where be waa jtined by Pev 
cMtea at the head of all the bma of Media, Per- 
lia, and the other proriocei of Upper Ana. Still 
be did not chooee to await here the adTinee of 
AntigiBnu ; and leaTing a etrong ganinn to guard 
the njel treaanree at Sua, be took poal wilb hji 
arm} behind the Paiiligria. Aniigonub who had 
followed him ant of fiabjloiui, and eflitded hii 
Jnnctioo with Selenciie aad Pidion, now mvched 
agaimt him; bat baring met with a check at the 
tirer Copnlai, withdrew bj a cme march Ihnia^ 
a difflcnlt aivatrf into Media, while Enmenee took 
np hit qoarten at Pertepolia. He had rnanjr diffi- 
cnlliee to contend with, not only from the enemj, 
but from the diicontent of hia own troopa, the re- 
laxation of their diidpliiie whBi the; were allowad 
to remain in the InzurioDB pmriDcea of Penia, and 
abore all &ani the coniittnal JealDoiim aod intrignM 
of the general! end laDape under hi> crannund. 
Bat wfasDeTer the; were in citCDDUtaneee of diflt 
enit; or in ueaenca of tba enaa^, all wma at one* 
read; to acknowladae hit aopariMitj, and leara 
him the imcoDtTDlled direction of oTo^rthi^ Th* 
two armie* ftnt met on tha coofiue* rf (teUaM* 
whan a pitdiad battle eatoad, with no decided 
advantage to either tide ; after which Antigonoi 
withdrew w Oadmnuga in Media, while Enmenea 
eitabliahed bit winle^qBHten in Oahiene. Hen 
AntigonBa attempted to lorpriae him b; a ladden 
manh in the depth of the winter ; bal he waa loo 
warr to be taken unprepared : he contriTed bf ■ 
■Iratagan to dela; the march at hia adrenu; un- 
til he had time to collect fail icattend foicei, and 
aEun bring matten to the iiiue of a ^tched tattle. 
Neither part; obtained a coniplato Tictoir, and 
Eunenet wootd haTO renewed the combat tba next 



fit mnenl in 
rehMn at A 



intobiabanda. Tbalu 
at Ant diipoaed to qiare tha fih of 
hii captive, which he wai itronglj nrged to do bj 

Neaichni utd the ;oung Dcanetriot ; bnt all hia 
other offieen wei« of the contrary opinion, and 
Eameuc* waa pat to death a few da;i after he 
had fallen into tha handi of the enem;. (Plat. 
fflna.13— 19; Diod. lix. 12— IS, 17-34, 87 
—14; Com. Nep. £■«. 7—12, Jnitin. xii, 8, 
4 ; Polyaen. W. B. § 3, 4.} Theae cTeoto took 
place in the winter of 317 to 316 B. c* 

EnnMDct waa onl; fDrt;-liTe ;ean old at tba 
time of hii doth. (Com. Nep. £ml 13.) Of hia 
conHunmato abilil;, both ■■ a general and a lUtea- 
man, no doabl can be entertained ; and it i* probap 
hie that he woold haie attained a br more import- 



had It not been tor Ihe accidental dimdvantage of 
bia both. Bat aa a Greek sf Cvdia, and not a 
natin Macedonian, he waa conatantl; looked upon 
with diilike, and eten with contempt, both by hi* 
opponenta and compaaioni in armt, at the very 
time that the; were compelled to bow beneath hia 



le chronabg; 
Clinton (who 



* In the retatiDn of thnt 
at Dra;aen baa been (bllowed. Mr. Clinton (wt 
plicei the dtath of Eomenea earl; in 31S B.c.j 
^ipeari to buTc been mialed b; attaching too moch 
importanoe to the ardiDnahipi, aa mentioned by 
Diodonu. Bee Dn^aen, Coot. d. Sad/, p. 269, 



4,i,.=.otGot>^Ic 



»0 BUHENES. 

goDiiu. ThUpnjadiee wH chrougliaiiltlwgRBtat 
obalKle with which bs hod to contend, and il nuij 
be Mgu'dsd u the higbMt proof al hii abilily that 
ho OYemme il eiea U tha extent ta which he wi 
Mt. It mtut be borne in mind alM, if we prui. 
him for bi> fidelity to the lojil houH of UBcedDl]ll^ 
tlul Uiii vune diiadvuiiage, b; rendering 
poiiible for hint to upics to uij indepaodt 
thoritj, nude it u much hit intenit u bi> dutj 
to uphold (be legitimate occupant! sf the throne of 
Alexuider. He i* devxibed b7 Plutarch (£biii. 
II) u>m«D of poliahed muiiMn and oppeaiance, 
with the air of a conitier nther than a warrior ; 
and bla onloty waa nwn aiibtle and [daanble than 
Cnft and andon Kent iodeod to hare 
ID the prevailing polnti in hii chaiaetat ; though 
be wu able aleo to exhibit, when called for, the 
Htnual cntrgjr and actiiilr. [E. H, B.] 

EU'HENES (EiMi^t) I^ king, or rather mler, 
of Pbioakuh, Ue wu the ton at Enmene*, bro- 
ther of Philelaem*, and moceedtd hi* itncle in the 
Eiemment of Peigemni (a. o. 263), OTcr which 
reigned for two-and-twentj jean, Soon after 
hit accetuoD he obtained a victory near Saniii 
Drer Antiocho* Solar, and wan thai enabled to 
Batabllib hie dominion over the prOTineee in the 
neighbonthood of bii capital ; but no fiirtheT pani- 
cnlan of hii reign arerecorded. (Stiab. liii. p. 621; 
Clinton, F. H. iii. n. 401.) Aceording Co Athe- 
nanu (i. p. 443, d.), hit dnth waa occaaioned by 
a fit of dnmkeaiiett. He wa* encceeded bj hii 
nephew of Philetaerua. It 
% (thoDgh ityled bj 
hat Juitin (xivii. 3) 
eoDiIy, the great vio- 
tory over the Oaola, which wai in bet gained hj 
liii iBcetiMr AUalu. [Attaldb I., vol. L p. 
410, a.] [E. H. B.] 

EU'MENES(£M"t<) H^ king of pBaomuB 
•OD of Attaint I., whom he tncceedtd on the 
thn>DeB.cl97. (Clintan, /*.//. iiL p. IDS.) He 
inheiitad &am hit predtcenor the friendihip and 
alHanee of the Romtni, which he took the almott 
paint to coltirale, and wat included 1^ them in 
the treaty of peace concluded with Phihp, king of 
Haoedonia, in 196, b; which he obtained pettet- 
•ion of the towni of Oreoi and Eretria in Euboea. 
(Liv. xndii. 30, 34.) In the fblloning year he 
tent a Sett to the uaiitance of FUminiDU) in the 
war againtt Nabik (Lit. iuit. 36.) Nil ^liano 
Wat in vtin courted by hit powerful neighbonr, 
Anliochui III., who offered hmi one of hit daugb- 
ten in marrii^ (Appitn. Si/r. £.) Eumenet 
plainly taw that it wat hit intereit ta adhere to 
the Romant in the appmachioft conteat; and br 
feim teeking to irert ihit, he nied all bit endea- 
voun to urge on the Romant to engage in it. 
When huttilitiei had aclnallT commen«d, he wat 
■etiva in the Mrvic« of hit alliet, both by tending 
hit fleet to inpport that of the Romant under 
LirrDi and AelniliDt, 
p— g* of the Helleipont. In the di 
of Magneaia (a. c ISO), he oommtitded in penon 
the tnwpi which he fumithed aa auiiliariee to the 
Soman anny, and appetn to hai« nadered valuable 
aerrioet. (Liv. hit. IS, nxvi. 43— IS, uxvii, 
14, 18, 3S, 37,41 1 Appian, V. 32, 25, SI.SS, SB, 
43; Jnttin, xzxL 8.) JDunedialelyontlieconclnBon 
of peace, be haatened to Riune, to put fotwaid in 
ptnoD hit claim* to reward : hi* pfttennoa* were 
SiTonnhly nccived by the lenate, who graolad 



id farilitating the important 



EUMENES. 

him the poiMttion of Hyiia, Lydia, both Pbrygiai, 
and Lycaonia, a* well at of Lyiinwcbia, and the 
Thrscian ChertoneM. By thit meant Eamenei 
found himielf laited at once from a ttate of coni- 
paiBtire iniignificnnce to be the toTercign of t 
powsrfal monarchy. (Liv. mrii. 45, 52 — £5, 
lUTiii. 39; Pdyb. uii. 1—4, 7, 27; Appian, 
Syr, 44.) About the lame time, he nurried the 
daughter of Ariaiatbe*, king of Cappadocia, and 
pnicured fnnn the Romant broorable term* for 
that monarch. (Lit. lUTiii. 39.) Thit altiancs 
wat the occatioa of inToliing him in a war with 
Pbarnacea, king of Pootut, who had invaded Cap- 
padocia, Imt which wu ultimately terminated by 
the intertention of Rome. (Polyb. nv. 2, 4, 5, 6, 
zrvi. 4.) He wu alto engaged in hoatilitiet witli 
Pmsaa, king of Bithynia, which gm the Roman* 
■ prvteit fin interfering, not only to protect Eu- 
menet, bnt to compel Pruliu (0 give up Hannibal, 
who had taken refoge at hii court. (Lit. xiiix. 
46, SI ; Jnttin. ixiiL 4 ; Con. Nep, Ha-m. 10.) 
During all thit period, Eomenet enjoyed the 
higheit bToni at Rome, and certainly wu not 
backward in availing himtelf of iL He wu con- 
tinuallv tending erabawM thither, partly to enlti- 
vate the good undeinauiiiia with the Knale in 
which be now fboad hiaueU; but frequently alas to 
complain of the cenduet of hi* neighboara, etpeci- 
ally of the Uaocdonian kingt, Ptdlip and hia iDe- 
ceiior, Penent. In 172, to giTa mom waght to 
hit remonitiancea, he a tecgnd lime vitited Rome 
in penon. where he wu received with the ntaoat 



formed by the et 
lUi 11— 16; D;od.£».Z;i^p.623,£n. Valt,. 
p. 577 i Appitn, Mat. En. 9, pp. 519—536, ed. 

Schwcigh.) But thoogh he wu thut apparently on 
term* ^ the bittereit hoitility with tiia Maceds- 
nitu monarch, hit eendnct during the war that 
followed wu not inch u to give laliihction to 
the Romant ; and he iru tutprcted of corretpond- 
ing lecrelly with Pemeoi, a charge which, aaxnl- 
ing to Poljbiut, wu not altogether unftundeii '; 
bnt hit deaigni extended only to the obtaining 

a peace on finoursbla temu. (Polyb. Pmpm, l^a- 
ttouL pp. 427-429 ) IdT. iliT, IS, 24, 26; Appian, 
Mac Etc. 16. PP.5S1-2,) Hit overtorea were, 
bowever, rejected by Peruut, and after the victory 
of the Romant (b.c 167), ha hutened to tend hi* 
brother Attain* to the tenate with hit congtatala- 
tioui. They did not chooee to lake any public 
notice of what had patted, and diKuitaed Attalna 
with Ur wordti but when Eumenet, i«obably 
tlarmed at Ending hit tchemea diicovered, deter- 
mined to proceed to Rome in penon, the tenate 
puted a decree to fi>rbid it, and finding that he 
wu already arrived at Brundnvnm, ordered him 
to quit Italy without delay. (Pdyb. m. 17. 
/Vajna. Vatic p. 428 ( Liv. ^tit xlvi.) Hencs- 
fbrward he wU conttantly ngirded with iU^icion 
by the Roman lenate, arid though hit brother At- 
taint, whom he tent to RonM agun in i. c 160, 
WM received with maAed ftvour, thi* nam* to 
have been for thevetypurneof exciting him against 
Bumcnet, who had tent him, and inducing him to 
tat up for bimtelt (Polyb. "■"■ S.) The laat 
ytart of tlw reign of Eamanet teem to have bem 
diitnrbed by frequent hottUitin on the part of Pra- 
ntA, kii^ of Bithynia, and the Qauia of (Mati* ; 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



Wt kU Ikped-fbrbnw n dczteiltj to iTud 
amag a m <ipen niptiue citlm with Rom* or 
Ui hnibci Analo*. (Foljb. xvd. 9, luii. 6 ; 
IM. mi. £«. firinL p. SS2.) HudMtKwUcli 

uia pfan m B. c liS, ttta ■ reign of SB j-bib. 
(Sd^ liiL p. 624 ; Clinlcm, F. it, iii. pp. 403, 



|lsl Tiggai ind pova of mind, whid 
Ebiaiaj nineed bj tha hiitoij of hii reign : 
li poi'T *■■ iodnd cnftj and lempoiiiing, but 
iui^n of mn^ Mgacdlj; md fai niicd hit 
LigdDB frca ■ petlj Hale ta oua of the highiat 
HBdeatign. All the uU of peace vera taudo- 
nlj pnltcted b; him : Paigimiu itaelf becune 
adft hit nle a gnat and flooiiahing 
kdmid vith (| 



nt.) Itn 

d tbnngbont hia lib oa tha 
tol loaa irith all hii three bnthen, who chee> 
bli kst their HrnGee to mpport him in hii 
pnB. Oac af then, Altalna, n* hie immediate 
■sna^ hii «ai Attahu bemg jet an iubnt. 
IPoljk xniL 2S i Suab. xiii. p. G2«.) A de- 
taM aocnant of the ndgn of Enment* will be 
hni ii Van Cappelle, Gmux-to&i dt Rrgibn « 
l. fj .i l Hgai fwyaawis AmiteLlMB. [E.H.ai 
El'HE^'IDES (E^ritti), alu eaUed Eam- 
nn, and bj the Ranana Ftntui « IhiuE, wan 
■V«llj- nothing ■ 
F — mad upm a gniltj 
EtaajS wlncli ia the man 
lind bj tha Oraek* foan the Torb ^> __ 
'i""*!!, I hmt up la pcntcata, or baa tke Aiea- 
^uwacd^ar^^Ii . . _. 

•in othar tlw angr; 

■ ifln tha crininaL (Ai 
MAa. 499 : Find. IX il 4At Oc. obMiL 
Ar, iiL IBL) lie aaiae Eaaienidaa, which ug- 
"^*tb»wrll awaninf," nr "wolbrnl 



EUMENIDES. 91 

rluek thoj pnnuh an dinbedknae tawarda pa- 
•nta, *i(datioB at tbe napect doe to old age, per- 
JniT, mnrdar, Tislation of tha law of hoipitBlitj, 
and improper cmdnct tovardi upplianta. (Hon. 
Ix. 114, XT. S04, lii. S£9, CM. ii. 1 36, i*ii. 
475.) Tbe DDtian which ii the fbnndatiMi of the 



le^iBadedU 



<■■ thw fcaifal goddann by thairraal 
n aaaaid to hara batn fiiat giren than after tha 
■tfdCtal of Onalea bj tha ceart of tha Areiopagni, 
ilKa tha BDger of the Erinnjei had beeonw aooth- 
■L (Soph. OmL €U. 138 ; SduL ad Otd. CoL i2; 
Snf.!.*. E^aaOat.) It waa bf a timitar eapbe- 
BM that at Athena the Eiiimjrea wen oiled 
f^Ht »aal, ar tbe TONnbla gaddeaaea. (Paoa. i. 
^ § t ) SeniHa (of Am. ir. «09) aakaa a dja- 
■bOu, aacaediag to wUet tbey bm tbe 
™«. »haB the; were eouedrad *a baiiig ii 
IB I7 tha Ibrone of Zena, Pmiae, when coneei*ed 
""■""" "■ ■" aiidea, IB being! of the 

II to be a poitlf aibi- 



la the naa of cww or laraet, the word Eiiiinji 
* Eioajee ia efbn aaed in the Homenc poemi 
(A II. 4M, Z1L412, CU. li 380), mdAeacbTlc 
{Cla^ 406) (alia the Enaniidea 'Afnl, that 1 . 
(nta. AeaaadiDg to the Homeric mtini, the 

^aaga, b« teckoncd among thoie who inhabit 
'"hia, wbeia tbej itat until aome cmae no- 
""■'a* nsnaeRuBal caDi them u lift andao- 
■m^. <A ii. 571. (ML XT. S34.) Tbe crimea 



tune takea fiam bim qion wbom it ia prooomiced 
ill peace of Dund, deatnya the hap;rineaa of hit 
bmilj, and preToitt hit being bleated with ehil- 
dien. (Hand. ir. U9; Aeichyl fian. 835.) Aa 
the Enmenidea not only ponjihed Crimea after 
death, but daring life on earth, ihey were conMiTad 
alio at goddeaaet of fate, who, together with Zena 
and the Moenui or Panae, led auch men at weM 
doomed to tnfier into miaery and miifbrtmiea. 
(Hem. 71. ill. 87, Od. If. 334.) In the Bine 
capacity Ihey alio piennted man from obtaiuing 
too much knowledge of the fntnre. (/(. xii. 418.) 
Homer doe* not mentioD any paiticiilu nanwi 01 
the Erinuye*. nor doe* ha team to know of any 
definite nnmber. Hemod, who ii likewlia dlcDt 
npon Iheie poinli, (alia the Eriunyea the daoghten 
of Oe, who conceiied them in the drepi of blood 
that jell npon ber from the body of Uranut. 
{ntag. 18£i comp. Apollod. L 1. f 4.) Epimenidet 
called them tbe daughter* of Crona and Euonyme, 
and tiiten of tbe MuTae (Tieti. ad Lyopk. *W ; 
SchoL ad 6bp*. (kd-Oi i2)\ Aev^hylua (£^m. 
831) calli Ihnn the danghlen of Night j and 
Si^hoclea (CW. CU. 40, 1 06) of Sootot (Sukneia) 
and Qe. (Comp. Hnne other geoealogiei in Hjgin. 
A& p. I ; Serr. ad Am. tIL 337 : Orph. Hfrnn, 
69. 3.) The Greek tragediana, with whom, aa in 
the Enmenidaa of Aeachyint, the number of theae 
goddeuea ia not limited to a few (Dyer, in the 
Oan. AfawuM, toI. I pp. 281-S96 ; comp. Eurip. 
IfUg. Tamr. 970; Virg. Am. if. 469), no particular 
Erinnyt it yet mmliDned, but 



>t before 



They 



s tdenlkSed with the Poenae, though their 
a ii wider than that of the Poenae. 
ating up and peraecnting the cnned 
criminal, AeachylD* (Sua. 231, CAoqit. I0£5) 
calla them a^ei or ■i«'7>*Ti3«. No prayer, no 
Bcrifice, and no tean lan moTe them, or pmtect 
the object of their penecntioD {AeacL Agam. 69, 
Emm. 384) ; and when they fear leat the criminal 
ahonld tacape them, they call in tbe atualance of 
Dic^ with whom tbey are cloaely connected, the 
maintHunca of aUict jnadce being their only ob- 
jeit (Aeach. Eta*. Bl 1, 786 ; Orph. Argm. 350; 
PluLrJaEtif. 11.) TheErinnyta 



honoured and etteenied bim {E%m. 918, 1002) ; 
and they dwelt in the deep daikneaa of Tartana, 
dreaded by godi and men. Their ippaarancw ia 
deeeribed by Aeachylna at Oorgo-like, their bodiei 
GOTered with black, aerpentt twined in their hair, 
and blood dripping &om their eye* ; EnrijHdea and 
other later poett deacribe them ai winged being*. 
{OraLi\1,Ifl^ T!»ir.390; Virg. rfaa. )1L 848; 
Orph. Hgmm. 68. S.) The i^^earance theT hire 
in Aeachylna waa mora or loe retained by the 
pacta of later timn ; but tbey gradually aatraned 
the chancter of goddeaaea who pnniafaed ciimei 
after death, and aeldom appeared on earth. On 
tbe itage, bowBTer, and in woika of art, their ieiu^ 
fill appeanuice wai gnatly loflened down, lor ibey 



.4,„.=.otGoog[c 



92 



EUMENtUS. 






uidsiu of > gnvA lod lO- 
icimi mim, in tha riehl J adonwd Utinof baotmHi, 
with ft baud of lerpRiti Azwund their heads, uid 
■upenti DC tonhe* in their baiidi. Witii kter 
vriten, though net ilwayt, the nimiber of Ei 
Hide* ii limited to Ihna, and thtdt auaea ue ' 
phone, Alecto, ud limiBm, (Orph. Hyatn. 6B ; 
TuU. ad Lgagik. 406 ; Viiv. ^«. liL 84fi.) At 
Athan) then were Mtoe* of onlj two. (SchoL «' 
Oad. CU. 4Z) The neriScei which wen oSued ti 
them ctKiiiited of bliek iheep mnd nAphkUa, u e. I 
drink of houej mixed with witor. (Schol. L e. 
Puu. ii. U. S 4 ; AeMhjL Bum. 107.) ' 
the thiofp i*cied to them we hear of whit 
dorea, and the neniuoi. (Aeliui, H. 
EuitBth. ad Horn. p. 87.) They wen wonhipped 
M Athent, when they had a maOnarj sod a 
grotto D<*r the Aceioiiagnt : their ttatuet, how- 
BTer, had znthing fbimidahle (Paiu- i. 26. $ G)t 
•nd a faatital Enmeaideia waa then oelebnied ' 
their honour. Aoother aaoctiiaiy, with a gn 
which no one wm allowed to enter, eiiited M 
Colonua, (Soph. Otd. C-L 37.) Under the name 
of Horlflu, thej wan worah^ped at Megalopolia, 
(Pant. TiiL U. g I.) They wen alio wonhipped 
on the AaqiQiud at Cacynaia. (Pana. ii. 11. g 4, 
rii. 39. 1 4; eomp. Btfttiger, Fnriamaikt, Weimai, 
laOlt Hirt,M>daLKUi!ri.p.301,dK.) [L.&] 

EUME^IUS, whw work! an indndad in the 
ccQection whkh codunonly bean the title " Doo- 
itcaa Panegytid Vetetn" [DnaPAinns], waa 
natire of Autun, but a On«k by eitraction ; for 
giajid&thfT waa aa Athenian, who acquired a 
brity at Rome aa a teacher of rhetoric, and having 
■nbwqnently cemoied to Oaul, ptactiied hi* pnfe 
aion notil put the age of eighty, in the dty whe 
hit gnndflou, pupil, and lucoevar, waa bom. £ 
meuiua douriihed towardi the doie of the third ai 
at the b^inning of the fourth cenlahea, and i 
tained to inch nigh cepalation that he waa xp- 
poiuted to the office of mtagiiUr tocnu mtmonatj a 
aott of prirate lecntary, in the court of Conalantiui 
Chlonu, by whom he wai warmly eateemed and 
loaded with brourt. The prenae period of hii 
death, aa of hia birth, ii unlcnown, biit we gather 
Cram hia writings that he had, at all erenta, paaied 
the prime of hie. The city of aerea at one period 
clumed him a> theii towniman, and act np an an- 
cient italne, which they declared to be hi* effigy. 

The pieoea geneially aicribed to thii aothoc an 
tll« following. 1. Oratio fro ■■'iiaiiinrfii aslalu. 



of baibaiiao fbea, for half a century before the ac- 
ceaaiDn of Diodedan. During the reigu of the 
second Clandina, Autnn in paiUcular, afler nulain- 
ing a liege of aereu moDlhe, wai compelled to 
iuirender to the half aaTsge Bigaydae, by whom it 

having resolved to restore not only the buildings of 
the city, but alio to rerire its tooni Khool of rhe- 
toric, called npon Eumeniua, who, it would seem, 
had l^ this time ntired from public life and was 
enjoying hit dignitiei, to undertake the superin- 
tendance of the new seminary, allowing him, how- 
time doubling his saiaiy, which thus amounted to 
the large nm of 600,000 •eitenes, or about 5000JL 
per annuro. The principal, before entering on his 
duties, delivered (a.d. 29S or 297) the ontiun 
now befon us, in the presence of the piaeaei of 



EUlblOLPUB. 
Qallia Lngdnneniie, in order that ha mlghl peb- 
lidy acknowledge the liberality of the prince, migbi 
explain his own views as to the maiuiet m which 
the objecta in view could best be aceompliahad, ud 
might dedare hii intention of carrying time plans 
into eftct without any lax npon tbis poblie, by 
devoting one-half of hia allowance to the rapport of 
the eatabliihment. We find induded (c. I4) u 
intereating letter addnmed by CoDMaotini to Ee- 



pon the recovery of Biibiiii, 
delivered tonwdi the dose of i. D. 296, or the be- 
ginningof297. [Allktub ; CjLMunub) 

3. FateggritMB Coiutaatino Avgiuto diet^M, ]ho- 
noimced at Tnvea, a. D. 310, on the biith-daj of 
the dty, in the preeence oF Conataatine, containing 
an outline of the laner of the emperor, ta which 
all hia deeds an magnified in most outngtosi 
hyperbole*. Keyne it imwilling to belten Ihit 
Enmenius is the anthor of this dedamatian, which 
he conaiden altogether out of chaiaeta with Ibe 
modeistion and good taste displayed in his other 
compoaitiona. The chief evidence conaiiti in 
oertain eipreacioni contained in chaplen 22 and 
23, when the apcaker repreaents luiudf ai a 
native rf Antnn, and, in the language of a man ad- 
vanced in yean, lecommeDda to the patnuage of 
the aovenign hit fire aona, one of whom is ipokai 
of aa diacbaiging the duties of an ofBce in the 



4. GTvUammac 
limn aoBiim, The dty of Autun having ttfe- 
tienced the liberality of Conslantine, who ii 
conrideration of their recent raisfbrtnnes had re- 
lieved the inhabiBnta from a heavy load of taia- 
liou, aasnined in honoor of its patnn the ^ip^alion 
of fla«ia, and depnled Eumeniua to craiTry to Iba 
prince eipreiaiiHis of gratitude. Thia addnM WH 
spoken at Tnvea in the year A. D. 311. 

For infbrmatiou with regard to the gcKial 
merits and the editime of Eumenios aod the other 
panwrriita. see Da.p*NiDii. [W. R] 

EUMOLPIIS (Ev/uhnr), that is, " tbe god 
linger," a Thracian who is described aa having 
come to Attics either aa a bard, a warrior, m a 
priest of Demeter and DionyMU. The cODunou 
tradition, which, however, ia of iate origin, repre- 
sents him aa a son of Poseidon and Chiooe, I^ 
daughter of Boreas and the Attic heroine Ordtbfi. 
According to the tradition in ApoUodorni (iiL 15. 
i 4), Chione, after having given birth to Eumolpos 
in lecret, thnw the child into the aea. Poaeiiloa, 
however, took him ap, and had him educated in 
Ethiopia by hia dnnghler Bcnthesicyma. Wheo 
he had gnnn up, he married a daughter of Bei- 
theeicjmai but aa he made an attempt upon the 
chaitily of hit wife's aiater, Eumolpua and hia ton 

Thracian king Tegyrius, who gave hit daughter in 

marriaffe to lamamt ; but sa Eumolpoa drew upon 

bimaelT the tUipicion of Ti^riui, he waa agun 

obliged to take to flight, and came to Elentis to 

Attica, when he fbnned a friendship with Ibe 

cuiiniana. After the death of his son Isnanu. 

wever, he ntomed to Threu at the re<]ueit of 

ig Tegyrini. The Eleniininna, who wen inidved 

a war with AtbanH odled Eumolpua to their 



Eumolput ca 






The 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



I, Phottai ud Immandiu, 
■se ■Us. (TliDc ii. Ifi ; PlnL Jtfon p. 239 ; 
Innt. PmaO. T8 ; Pint. Pan^ Gr. et. A;«.20; 
SiM. ad E^ip. PImt. 834.) Pansuiiu (i. 38. 
I i) Rkm ■ tiHlitiaD tlut m the hitlle betveen 
ibe Qn^Dkni and Atheniaiii, Er«hlh«ai and 
iBBindu bD, ud tfaat thereupoa peau wu con- 
dodtd on conditHiD that the Eleaainisna Bfaodd in 
akr mpKt* be nbjnt te Athcm, but tLM tb<; 
ikv iluidd baTB the celebn^on of ^cii myitcrio, 
ud Ikal Egmolinu lud tb« dsngliten of Cckiu 
Mnid psricnn tlw auunuij ■urificei. When 
&«lpn diad, hu yanngtr vm Ceiyi ncceeded 
Ub is the piistlj office. Aecording to Hyginni 
(AL 4fii amp. Stnb. Til p. 331), Enmofpui 
nae id Atti^ with a colonj of ThAoin^ to claim 
ikc (Bntrji oa the pnpertf othi* bther, PMeidon. 
Unholagf npidi Enowlpiu u the fbaoder oF the 
E>iBua mjileiiei, and u die fiiM pri«at of 
Dfseln md KoDym ; the goddtn hn*«lt taught 
ka, TcipiEitemnt. Diocka, and Cdent, the ncnd 
no, Dit he ii tberefen HmetimeB dabbed u 
lin»f himitlf iavented the eulli™tion of the vine 
ni if buit^txrea Id generaL (Horn. Hipm, in 
(V. «« ; Plin. H. AT. TiL 63 ; 0». Afct t 93.) 
Bopwtiiig the pdnlegn vhich hii detcesdallti 
njiT^b Attica, ime DieLo/AmLi.v.SiiiaK'itaai. 
Ai EmolpD* ma regtidcd aa an andeat prinlly 
dud. pomi and wiitingi on the mjitnie* were 
hhiaied and dmlated at a later time under hii 
■>•■ One hexameter line of a Dionynic hymn, 
<niM lo him, i> pmerred in Diodoroa. (i. 11; 
!ad. t. 0.) The lejtnds connected him alu with 
Hfltdca, whom be ia aaid to hare initmcted in 
nac, m initiated into tie mjiteriet {Hjgin. 
f*. 273; Theoerit hit. 108; Apollod. iL S. 
S I'l) T^ diSereDce in the tiadiCiona about Ea- 
uipB kd HiiBe of the aneienti to loppOM that 
■■0 V thne penona of that Dasw oaghl to be dia- 
'agmAaL (Heaych. a v. E^fuArffiai ; SehoL ad 
M. Qi. 1051 i Phot. Lex. I. «. Etl/uXTOaj.) 
Tleumh of Eunwipu waa (hewD both at Elemii 
odAlhent. (Paoa. i. SB. $ 2.) [L. S.] 

EUUN ESTUS( t-iiirvrrm), laa of Soiicntide^ 
a Alheska Kolptor, about B. c 21. (Bockh, 
tW Aarr. L p. 430, No. 3fi9, cgmp. Add. p. 
HI.) IP. S.] 

EDNA'PIUS (EMum). a On«k aophiat ud 
tDHmni, waa bom at Satdia in a. d. 347. and 
"•■• to have IJTed till the reign of the emperor 
^t^ndmn the Yonnger. He nceired fail fint 
•^MaiieD tram hii kiniman Chi;uiilhiBf, a Kphiit 
■t 6udi(, who implanlcd in faim that loTe of the 
pipa ni that batred of tho Chtiitian religion 
nidi H Hrou^ marked hi) prodoctiani. In hii 
atMatb fta be went to Atheni to enltiTate hii 
*iaid avda the anipicea of Proaereiiai, who con- 
nind the gnatol eataem Tor the ToaCh, and lored 
^ like Ua own m. After a itaj of five ittn, 
k rnpBad lo trarei to ^Tpt, bat it wenld teem 
tU tbii {te waa not carried into effect, and that 
W *Bi caBed bMk to Phrjgia. He waa alaii 
dStd in the medical art. Daring the latter period 
rfkiiGfe,he leenii to hare been lettled at Atheni, 
■■4 eopged in leaching riieloric He ii the aothor 
rflwt-werki. 1. LiT«arSophilti(BJoi^iA4<rr(- 
♦— m «f«Ti»), which woii iittiU extant He 
'■^pMdiiatthereqDcataf Chiynnthiui. ItcoD- 



fhoitlj before him. Altlunigh tbeae tnogiapbiea an 
extremely briel^ and an written is an intolerably 
inflated atyle, yet (hey are te at an important aouRS 
of information reipeeiing a period in the hiatory of 
philoaophy which, wiUiout tbii wo^ wonld be 
bitried in otter obicurity. Eunajuni abewi him- 
m1( u enthniiaatic adminr of the philoHphy of 
the New Platoniila, ud a bitter enemy of Chria- 
tianity. Hii biographiei were fint Miited with 
a Latin tnmilBtioD ud a lift of Ennapina by 
Hodriioiu Junina, Antwerp, ]£6B, 8to. Among 

H. Commelinoi (Fiankfiirt, 1696, Sto.) and Pad 
SlepfaeDi. (Genera, 1616, 8to.) The beat, how- 
arer, which girei a mach improTed text, with a 
commentary and notei by Wyltenbach, ii that of 
J. F. Boitaonade, Amalerdam, 1823, 2 Tok 8ni. 
2. A continnatiDD of the htitory of Duippo* {Mm) 
^(nnnw -jifimie^ bropla), in fourteen boeka. 
(Phot. BiU. Cod. 77.) It begu with the doUh 
of Cbiodiiu Gothicna, in A. n. 270, and cairied 
the hiatory down lo a. d. 404, in irtiieh year 
fit. Chryioetam wai lent into exile, ud whieh 
waa the tenth year of the leign of Arndino. Thii 
aeeount of Photini [L c.) leemi to be coutiadieted 
bj a paaaage of the eiceipto (p. 96, rd. Bekket 
and Niebuhr), in which Eonanua apeak* of the 
aTarice of the anpreat Pnlchena, who did not ob- 
tain that dignity till *. n. 414; hot the context of 
thai pauage thewi that it vu only adigreuion in 
the work, and that I)ie work iUelf did not extend 
to A. D. 414. It wai written at (he requeit of 
OribarinKandPhobniiBw twoedilioniofit. In 
the lint, Ennapioi had given Tent to hii nbid leel- 
ingi againit ChriiCianily, eipecially agoinit Con- 
ttantine the Qieat; whereai he looked open the 
emperor Julian ai lome divine being that had been 
lent irom heareu upon earth. In the Kcond edi- 
tion, from which the eicerpta iliU extant aie taken, 
thsie paiaagn were onutted ; but they had been 
expnnged with lucb negligence and carele«De«s 
thatmuypartioftbeworkwerBTeryobacuro. But 
we cannot, with Photini, regard thii " editio pnr^ 

in ^ probability made by lome bookieller or a 
Chriatiu, who thni attempted lo remedy the de- 
fect* of the original The atyle of the woric, *a far 
ai we can judge of it, waa aa bad a* that of the 
Livei of the Sopbiiti, and ia lererely criticLied by 
PhotiuL AllwenowpoueHof Ihiiwockconiiili 
of the Excerpts de Legalionibut, which were made 
fiein it by the command of Conitantine Porphyrsge- 
iiitDi,and a number of fcagmenta preterred in Suidu. 
Thcie remain), ai br a* they were known at the 
time, were pnbliihedby D, H Hicbel (Ang»burg,1 603, 
4lo.), H. Fsbratti (Paris. IG48, fol.). and in Boii- 
■onade*! edition of the Liiei of the Sopbiita. (tdL 
L p. 4££, &c) A. Mai dilcovend conaidenble 
additions, which are publiihed in bii Scriptonm 
ret. A'nn CUIecfn, vol. U. i^ 247— 3 1 6, from which 
they are reprinted in toL L of the Cor^ia Scrgil, 
Hid. BjpanU edited by I. Bekker ud Niebnhr. 
Whether the rhetoriciu Bonapini, whom Suidaa 
(i. e. Kovmiraa) calli i! f ( *r>^i'a, a the lame aa 
OUT Eunapini, ii nnceitain. (Fabric B9i. Ortuc, 
vol. vii. p. 538.) [L. S.] 

EUNEICE (edrtlci)), a danghter of Neren* 
and Dorii, cuied the death of Hylai. (Hei. 
Tia^ 247 ; Theocrit. liii. 45.) [L. S.} 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



BUNOUItia. 

h» lopi^ ibt Oneki dnrisg liiair mr ■8*<k*' 
Troj wilh win*. H( purehmd Lyeaoo, ■ t^rajin 
prinner, of Patnchw lor * ulTar nm. (Horn. R 
TiL 168, oA 741, &c ; Stub. L p. 41.) Tha Ei>- 
ittidi*,abnKiiu&mil]>iifdthutt-plijaiiiiLiininiM, 
tiacad tb«it origin to £aaetu. (Eutath. ai Hoti. 
p. 1337 i SttjOi. 1. V. EdniW) [L. a.] 

EUNI'CUS (Eltursf), im Athenioi comic pool 
of the old comed J, oontomponfy with AriiUpboiwt 
and PhiljUioi. Only ooe Line of hit ii prcHrredi 
from hii play 'Aa-Two, whkh WM alw attiibatedlo 
Philrlliiu. The title ii takta btwo the caiirt«iD, 
Anteia, who iimentioned b^Demoilhenci (<.JV«ar. 
p. IS£I} md Anuundridei (<qt, Atiiam. it. p. 570, 
•■} Mid who WM ■]■] nuuie th< nabject of annedin 
bj Alexia and Antiphanea. Then wu slao a co- 
Dtedj, nitided lUx*it, whieli waa nrioaaljr awribed 
to AiiatophiDM, Pbilirlliua, and Ennicna, The 
nam* of thii poet it MoetioMa aiTcn Ineomctl; 
Afrurei. (Snid. i. B.Alnmi E(idoc.p.69 ; Theo- 
gfwataa, op. &Uer. .laaaAX. PL 1369; Athen. liL 
p. 86, &, It. p. 140, a., liii. pp. £67, e., SB6, «. ; 
Polltuc, z. 100) Meineke, Frap.Com. Onte. n\. 
Lpp.349, 250,ToLiLp.6A6; Fafarit;. AiM. Ortw. 
TDLiLp.444.} [P.S.] 

EUNI'CUS, a dittiiigniahnl itatnair and ulrei- 
chaaer of Mftilene, aenna, from the order in which 
he it mentioned bj Plin^, to bare lind not long 
belbn the time of Pompej the Qnat. (Plin. iniiL 
B.fcI9. IBS.) [P. &] 

aUTo of Da- 
Kiple of the 
mtical opinioQI he adopted, 
a man of far greater talent and 
acqairementi than Aetin*, and extended hit liewt 
•0 &!, that ha himielf beouno the tciunder of a 
•ect called the Ennomiana or Anomoei, became 
they tiot on]]' denied the equality between the 
Father and the Bon, but even the limilaritj 
[iiminit). EDnamiltt wat at lint a deacon at 
Antioch, and in ^ n, 360 be mcteeded Eleonui 
u biibap of Cyiiciu. But he did not remain 
in the enjoyment of that poet, for ha 
in the aame year by the command of me emperor 
Conitailiiu, and expelled by the bhabitanli of 
Cyaicna. (PhUoitoig. ii. S; TheodoRt, iL S7. 2S ; 
Soctat. IT. 7 t SoEom. ri. 8-) In the rei^ of Ju- 
lian and Jorian, Eunomiui lired at Conitnntinople, 
and in the rrign of Valent, be mided in the nei^ 
bourhood of ChalcedoD, until he wai deoonnced to 
the anperoT fer hai^uring in hit home the tytant 

Mauritania into exile. When, on hia way thither, 
be had reached Mana in Illj-rinun, the emperor 
oUed him hack. TheodHiut the Oieat afterwurdi 
exiled bim to a place ailed Halmyrit, in Monia, 
on the Danube. (Soiom. tiL 17; Niceph. lii. 29.) 
fiot being driitn away from that place by the 
baibtriana, he wat aeni to Caetaieia. Heie, too, 
be nM with no better reoeptiaii ; far, haimg writ- 
ten agaiBil their biahop, Baiiliiii, he wai halod by 
tbe dtiaena of Caemreia. At length, he waa per- 
mitted to return to bit natiie Tillage of Dacoia, 
where he ipent the mnalnder of hit life, and died 
at an adreneed age, abont a. d. 394. Entropiui 
Patiieiui ordered nit body to be curitd to Tyana, 
and thara to be entniiled to the care of the monitB, 
in otder that bit diK)[Jei mi^t not can; it to 






EUN0'MIU9(E<)i>diu , 
in Cappadocia, 

vhote bentical 



imain long 



EUNomua 

ConManliiwpks and buy it in the tame ttttb wilh 
that of bit tfacfaer ASDOt. Mil wotki wen or- 
dered by Imperial ediett to bo dettrojed. Hii 
contemponry, Philoitaigini, wbo hinaidt wu a 

whole ecdeeiaitieal hiitoiy hai not onjuitlj beta 
called an encamiam npon him. Philoilorgini wioie, 
bendet, a aepsraM enoomiom upon Eanomioi, 
which, howoTor, it loot Photini (bIO. OpL I3S], 
who giTei an abridgment of Philoatoigiu, ted 
Soerato* (it. 7) jodge 1«« bToniaUy of him ; for 
they ilale thai Ennomitu ^ke and wrote ia a 
verhote and inflated ityle, tai that he conttaolly 
repealed the eania thingi oTsr again. They Innher 
charge him with aophittry in hit mode of aisniiig, 
and irith ignorance of the Saiptorea. It ^ould, 
howeTer, be remembered that theta chargai an 
made by hii arowed enemiea, toch at Atbtsanit, 
Baailint the Gnnt, Oiegoriui Nananaannt, Orqo- 
riui of Nytia. Chijaattom, and otbeti, who attacked 
him not only in their geiMral wotkt im the hiatuy 
of the chnndi, bnt in teparata polemical tnalitai. 

Eonamiui wfou aaTcial woitt agaimt Ibt or- 
thodoi faith ; and Bnflnnt {H. E. i. 25) loniki 
that hit argumanti wen held in inch high ctteoa 
by bit followert, that they wete aet ahore the 
authority of the Scripturei. After hit death, edidi 
wen repeatedly iiaaed that hit wo^ ihoold ha 
dettroyod (Philoatoig, xL B ; Cod. Theod. xtI H), 
and hence moat of hit woika thenuelToa ba'e uot 

what ia quoted by hie opponent* for the puipoee of 
refuting him. llie following wotkt an known to 
hare been written by kim ; 1. A commantary on 
the EpUtle to the Romana, in aoTen ba<Aa, whidi 
li ceniuied by Soetatet (It. 7 ; comp. Snidaa, 1. 1. 
E^r^Wioi) for it* Terbote alyle and afaallowneit. 
2. Epiitle*. of which Pholiot (BM. Cod. 138) 
read about forty, and in which he found the «b» 
Jaultt ai in the other work* of Eanotnlui; bnt 
Philottorgiui (x. fi ; comp. Niceph. lii. 2S) pre- 
feired them to hia other writinga. S. An Expod- 
tion of Faith, which wat laid beCbn the emperor 
Theodoaiu at Conitantinople in i. D. SB3, when 
tereral biihopi were tummooed to that dtj to 
make declarationa of their bith. (Sociat t. lOi 
Soiom. Tii. 12.) Thit little work ia atill extant, 
and haa been edited by Valeaiut in hit nottt at 
Socmtea (J. c), and after him by Balux in tiie 
Nora OollKt. Canal, to), i. p. B9. The beet edition 
it that of Cb. H. Q. Rettbeig, in hit ManeBiiua, 
Ootting. 1791, Sto. 4. 'AnAvy^irit, w a de- 
fence of hii doctrine*. Thii ii tile bmooa InaliM 
of which Baailina wrote a refutation in fin booki, 
which accordingly contain a great man; eitradi 
from the Apaiafffitaa. The beginning and the ep- 
iogue are printed in Caia'a Hiit. LA. toL L p. 171, 
Su. wilh a Idtin irandation ; bat the whole it 
Mill extant, and waa pobliihed in an Eogliih trani- 
lation by W. Whiiton, in hit fnoHtmrmai 
AdnwiH, London, 171 I.Btd. The Qreek original 
ha* never been publiihed en^n. After the refu- 
tation of Boailiui had upeared, Eimomina wiota, 
b. 'K*a\iiyiiu 'KnXoyia, which, howoTer, waa 
not publiihrd till after hit death. Lika tha ipolo- 
j/etwit^ it wat attacked by aeveial orthodox writeit, 
whoae worki, except that of Qi^oriui of Nyua, 
have periahed together with that of Eunomint. 
(Orwor. Nyit. TDLiLpp.289,29B,&c«l. 163S.) 
See Fabric BibL Gnuc. vol ii. p. 307, Ac. i Cave, 
OMM. TOLL p. 169, Ac [L. 5.] 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



BUHONES. 
FDVOMUS (lAwn), ■ 
- •-■" " "■■itt. (Am" 
k p. 1900) 

UIBMIi Ll^ S'J 

EITNOHUS (Einvwf}, fifUi n dxtb king of 
Sfu^ ■ lb» Pndid liiM, u dacnM b; Pmam- 
BM, nundl, nd cil^en,M Ihetttbar of Ljcocgu 
■dPolrdwtH. Hsodotu, on itecootni?, place* 
Im a jib lat rfWt PolTdeelM, md Dionyinu of 

HilimiMniiigiiM llii III Ill 111 [iliiin ill utiinri 

■adLjtotgtagargnMd. Si[i»tiid«> fin^ ji nuksi 
IfnojDt ad EsDooB* thi cbildim of PiTtanU. 
li iD fntatali^, tlie nunc wu inTmUd with ra- 
dav U tlia LTOBigean E^nifiia, sod EnnoniDi, 
fM wUlj njectad, moit be ideatified witb Po- 
histn lu tlie Rtgn of EimoDiiu tai PoljdectM, 
Bji houiu, Spvta vwitpaea. (PlnC£9a2; 
FiB.iii.7. Ml Hend. TiiL ISl; See Clinton, 
r.B.Lf. \a, note i^ and p. SO, when the 
faoa it folly iliiiiMiil ; conpue HilUer, Do- 
iH. bnk L 7. f S. ud |6, Dobi L) [A. H. C] 
EITNOMUS (Efrofuu), an Athenim, »» 
Kit sot is eeoiinand of thirteen ibipa, 

I c na, to act iguDit the Lacedaemoc 
Goi|i|U, ne^dmiial of Hianx, and the Ae- 
putu laiTaleen. Ocnopas on hia ntoni f 
Efion, vhitW he had canned Antalci 

a hit ninioD to the Penian court, fell 
nl the •qoadnm of Bnnomiu, vhich chaaed 

II At^gi. Eononnu then wtSiti awfty after daik, 
ad nt pnmiHl by Oorgofna, who captnnd four 
W kii trinmei, in an engagement off Zoiter, ■' 
Ana, while tb« nat eaeaped to the Peine 
(la. aa. r.L a 5—9). Thie waa, perhapa, 
>>( ■>■ EnionDB whom Ljiiai nKntiana {prv 
' ■ ■(. pp. !SS, IM) aa one of 



nai im ao hr en maafii l, that Dionyai 

<it lUf which ba wai pieparing to deraatch 

^iidortbeUcedaemoniauk [E.E.] 

EITNOHUS (EinvuH), a dthain-pUyet 
Itn. in Italy. Out of the itringe at hia cithara 
Mif Itekta (w nina the tale) in a mnaicil con- 
ki> u Ibe Pyihim gamea, a dcada panhed on the 
wtmwil, and by ita uotea npplied the defi- 
iBny. Stiabo ttlla na there wia a atatoe of 
^■nau at Loeri, holding hia dthan with the 
dadi, hii frioid in need, upon it. (Stial 
f WO 1 Cnnb. oil loo. j Clan. Alex. /'nMpt. i.; 
•mr.AAHiAA-. T. 9.) [E. E.] 

EITNOHUS (Efnfioi). I. A Gnek phyutdan, 
■^ mat hare lired in or befbn the fint oestary 
t^ Chciit, aa one of hit medical fannulae ii 
ined by Anlepiadea Phannaeion. (Ap. Oalen. 

* (iiai^iiia Mtdiaam. tee. Gtn. t. 14. ml xiiL p. 
^ Ul.) In the puaaae in qoeHion, far Eln/uii 

• '^nX^iUifi Te ihonM probahiy read Efwjioi i 
'Anx^ndnoi, (bat la, a follower (rf Aaelepiadt 
tf Kthyu. who Und in the fint cenlniy B. c 

- A plijneian in the fbunh centuiy after 
(^■na, Beatiijoed in lidicole by Auoniita, £711^. 
Ii [W. A. G.] 

EUN0VE3, king of the Adoni or Aoni, with 
*^ the RoDana made an alliance in their war 
■P<n> Kitbridatca, king of the Boapomi, in B. c. 
H' nd at wbeae court Milhiidatea took refuge, 
■Ml he ma anablo any longer to hold out againi' 
■he Rrniaii, Einiaiwa, taking omifaaiion on hin 
*ntetalh*anpetDiClwidiii«ODhiabehat£ (Tac 
'» tills, IB, 19.) 



EUNUS. 9fi 

ETINOSTtJS (Unwroa). 1. AbaroofTui^n 
Boaotia. Ha waa > icn of Binna, and brought 
iu by the nymph Enmata. Odna, the daoghter 
of Colanaa, Ul in lore with him ; bat he aToided 
her, and iriwn the themqrai accotad him before 
her hrotheta of inptapar aaadncl towarda hei^ they 
tlaw him. Aftarwarda Oehne conftiaed that th* 
had falaely aceiued him, and thnw heneU down > 
rock. Esnoaloa had m aanetDaij at Tanagra in > 
iacnd grore, which no woman wat allowed to ap- 
pmocfa. (Pint QkobA Or. 40.) 

S. A goddaaa of miUt, whooe image waa aet np 
in mint, and who vaa ballered to keep watch orec 
the jott weight of Hear. {HeaycL i. e. ; Enatath. 
adttom. pp.314. 13SS.) [L. S.] 

EUNUS (EJnui), the leader of the Sicilian 
ala*ei in the eerrtle war which broke ont in ISO 
B. c He wat ■ native of Apaoea in Syria, and 
bad become the alaTe of Antigenea, a wialtby 
eitiun of Enna in Sidlj. He ficat atlraeted atten- 
tion by protending to the gift of prophecy, and by 
interpreting dreanu ; to the eflect of which be 
added by appealing to breathe flamei horn hia 
noDth, asd other timihir jngiletiea. (Diod. Bb. 
PkntiL rail. p.&26.) Ha bad by theie mean* 
obtained a great refatatioD among the iguoiant 
population, when he wu conaolted by the tlaret 
of one Damopbilot (a citiren of Enna, of immenie 
wealth, but who had treated hit unfortunate alare* 
with excnuTe emelty) coneeniiiig a plot they had 
fbmed againat their nuuter, Ennnt not only 
promieed them mcceea, but himielf joined in tiieir 
enlerprite. Ha*iag ■■■embled in all to the number 
of about 400 men, they mddenly attacked Enna, 
and being joined by their fellow-ilaTet within the 
lows, quidily made themielret maitert of it. 
Oreat eiceitee were commilled, and almotl all the 
fnemen pnt to death ; bnt Ennni interfered to aave 
tome who had previooily ibenn him kindnese ; 
and the danghter of Damophiiai, who had alwayt 
■hewn much gentlaneta of diipoiition and oppoied 
the crueltie* of her lather and mother, wat kindly 
treated by the alare*, and eecerted in HfeCy to 
Catana. (Diodor. L e. Eit. Yala. iTiir. p. GOO.) 
Ennna had, while yet a ilaTe, propheiied that he 
•hould become a king ; and after the capture of 
Enna, being choten by hit fellow-tlairet aa thek 
leader, he hiatened to aamme the royal diadem 
and the title of king Antiochua Sicily waa at 
tbii time (warming with nnmben of itaTei, a 
great proportion of them Syriani, who iocked to 
the atandard of their connOryman and lellow-bonda- 
mon. A teponte innurection broke out in the 
toath of the iiland, braded by Oeon, a Oilman, 
who aiaembled a bond of £000 anned ihiTe*, with 
which he laTaged the whole lenitory of Agiigen- 
tum ; but he aoon joined Eunnt, and, to Uie lur- 
priie of all men, lubuiitted to act under him at hit 
liealenanl. (Diodor. L c; Lir. EpU. lib.lvi.) 
The rerolt now became general, and the Romini 
were forced to adopt vigDront meamret ogainit the 
inenrgenti ; bnt the pmetort who fint led armiet 
againit them were totally detested. Sereral otheia 
loeceitiTely net with the tame late ; and in the year 
1S4 H.c it wa« thought neceuary to lend Che 
conanl C. Fnlriut Flaccni to inbdue the iniurreo- 
tion. What he effected we know not, but it it 
eTJdent that ha did not inecaed in hit object, a> 
the next year Calpnndni Pita wit employed on 
the tame aerrica, who delcated the leiVile amv 
in a giMt battle bmt Mtattna. Thia tnccaaa vaa 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



96 EVODIUS. 

toUowsd up the next yaa b; the omnil P. Rnp- 
lina, who iqcxeuiTeiy rednrad Taurameniam and 
£iuui, thff two great BtronghoLJi of the ioBurgentL 
On tha nunoder of Enna, Emmi fled with ■ f^w 
follower!, and took Khge in rocky 



•.but w 






curied befbra Rupiliui. Hit lifo waa ■pared by 
the CDnBOl, probably with the inteDtioD of carrying 
him to Rune ; bat he died in priioii at HDrjjuitia, 
of the diteue called nuirlnu pidiadanM. {Florni, 
iiL 20 ; Onaiai, t. 6 ; Diod. En. Pliotii, lib. 
xxliT., Emu. Vala. ii. ; Plut. SiO. 36; Strab. 
tL p. 27S.) If we may belieie Diodonu, Easni 
vu ■ roan of no talenti or enet^, not poueuing 
(Ten penorud counge, and owed hit elefatioii 
aolely to the aiti by which be worked on the 
aapenlition of the multitode ; but when we can- 
lider how long he maintained hii infioence orec 
them, and the great auceeiae* they obtained under 
bia mle, tbit appnn moil improbable. Some 
anecdote! an alio related of him, which ditplay a 
gCDemity and eteiation of cbaiactei wholly at 
larianoe with tuch a luppotition. (Diod. £lrc 
FhMii, p. S2S, Sxe. ViUkaHi, IxuiT. p. 113, ed. 
DindorC) [E. H. a] 

EVODIA'NUS (EMuutft), a Greek lopbiit of 
Smyrna, who Uied during the latter half of the ae- 
cond oentnry after Chiut. He wai a putul of Arii- 
toclea, and according to othen of Polemon alio. 
He WBi invited to Rome, and niaed then to the 
chair of profeetor of eloquence. For a ^e he waa 
■ppoinled to ■uperint^ or inttruct the actor*, 
<Tn)( d^ tir aiirmor tixplTai), which office 
he U Hud to have managed with great wisdom. He 
diatingniihed huuulf aa an otaior and etpecially in 
panegyric onlory. He had a ion who died before 
him at Rome, and with whom he deiired to be buried 
after hit death. No ipeciment of hit oratory have 
coniedowntout.(Philottr.rtl.&pl.iLI6i Eudoc. 
p. 164 ; Otann, /«cr^ Sylitig. p. 299.) [L. S.] 

EVO'DIUS, wai bom towanli the middle of 
the fourth centniy at Tagatte, the native place of 
St. Angnttin, with whom he maintained thimigb- 
onl life the cloieet friendthip. After fbUnwing in 
youth the tecular profeuion of an agtiu n> nim, 
abont the y«r a. d. 396 or 397, he became biabop 
of Unlia, a town not Sal fma Vila, wben he 
, re are told by St. Angnttin, many mi- 
■ by aid of tome relict of St. Stephen the 
Protomartjr, left with him by Onwiua, who 
bronght them from Palettine in 416. ETOdioi 
took an Bciive part in the contrDVertiei againtt 
the Donaliila and the Pelagiani, and in 127, 
wrote a letter to the monka of Admmetnm, with 
regard to lorae difierencet which had ariaen in 
their body on theie qBeitiont. AiW thii period 
we lind no tiacB of him in hittory, but the preciie 
date of hit death it not known. 

The worki of thia prelate now extant are : — 

1. Fonr e[Httlei to St. Augnitin, which vriU be 
fonnd among the eDnetpondence of the bithop of 
Hippo, numbered 160, 161, 163, 177, in the Be- 
nedtctine edition. 

2. An epittle, written in common with fotir 
•tber biihopa, to Pope Innocentiua I. Thii it 
contuied in the appendix to the 6th toIuou of 
the Benedictine edition of SC Auguttin, 

S. Fngmenta of an epittle to the monki of 
Adnnnelum nibjoined to Ep. S16 of the Bene- 
dictine edition of St. Augoitin. 

ETOdina ia aid by ^gibert to bsTC wiitlen a 



EUPEITHEa 
trcatiae, bow loit, on (he miraclet perfbtmed by 
the relict of St. Stephen ; but the l^ dmadtmt- 
raaJit & Sbpiami, placed at the end of the De 
CSeilaie Dei, in the 7th tdIurm of the Benedictine 
edition of St. Auguttin, waa not eompoaed by 
Evodiui, but uemt rather to hare been addretaed 
to him, and drawn np at hit reqneat. 

A tract, found in some HSS. among tha wril- 
ingt of Angnttin, entitled De Jidt ten Dt vmitaie 
TWatlafu coalFia MtaoAaat, hai been aicribed to 
Erodius, ia contidered a genuine production of St. 
Auguttin by Eraamnt, but rejected by the Bene- 

(Auguttin, Seraun. cccxxiiij. tn Oftra, ml. v. 
ed.Bened.deDinl.I>n,xxiLBj Sigibertaa OembL 
IM Script ecdet. ep. )£.} [W. R.] 

E'VOUUS (EMsi), the anthoc of two abort 
epignmt in the Qreek Anthology. {Brancl^ AitaL 
ToL iL p. 2aBi Jacoba. AmOi. Onue. toL ii. p. 
263,) Nothing more it known of him, nnleaa be be 
the nuns aa the epic poet of Rhodea, in the time tt 
Nero^ who it mentioned by Suidat (t. «.). There 
waa an Erodut, the tutor of Caligula. (Joaeph. 
Ant Jad. iTiii. 8.) [P. S.] 

BTODL'S (Uetat), a diatingniihed engTafei of 
gem* under the emperor Tilni, a. il 80. A beryl 
by him, bearing the head of Titnt't dauj^ter JatiBf 
it pietened at Florence. (Biacci, Tbi. 73 1 Miiller, 
CenbiL d. alt. Kiati, T. liii. No. 361.) [P. S.] 

EUPA'LAHUS {EJidAa^i}, one of the aigni- 
c...^ _j.i. ,_ jjjj hittory of ancient art 



[CH.n 






the Dnedalidt. [DA■DaLII^ Simon.] [P. S.] 

EUPA'LINUS. of Hegain, wat the anfaitect 
of the great aqueduct, or rather ttumd, in Samoa, 
which waa carried a length of aeren atadia through 
a monntain. The woric wat probably eiacaled 
under (he tyranny of Polycratea. (Miiller, Ank. 
rf.A-aa»*,Sei,nole.) [P. S.] 

EU'PATOR (EMraip), a tumame a*tnined by 
many of the king* in Alia after the time of Alei- 

a king of Boipomi in the reign of the empenv 
M. AureliuL Thit king ia mentioned by Lncian 
{ASamd. &1), who ipeaka at hit ambatandon 
bringing the tribnle which had to be paid to the 
Romana ; and hit name thonld perhapt be reitored 
in a corrupt paiiage of Cepitolinni. {CapitoL AntoiL. 
Pin, 9, where for cwmtoricn read £kpatorem.) 
The fallowing coin of Enpelor repreaenta on the 
rsTerte the heada of M. Anruliua and I^ Vema. 
(Eckhel, vol. iL pp. 378, 379.) 



EUPATRA (EiinlTfv), a daught« of JOthri- 
datea, who fell into the handa of Porapiy at tba 
dote of tha Hithridatie war, and walked with the 
other captiTe* before hie triumphal car at Roab 
(Appian, AfilAr. 108. 117.) 

EUPEITHES [KiwtUtis), of Ithaca, Stther al 
Antinoui. Once when he had attacked the Tbe^ 
proiiaoa, tha alliea of the Ilhwsiu, Odyaaana pn- 



4,i,.=.otGoOQ[c 



EUPHEMUS. 
tMi Ui froo the isdignatioii of the peopis of 
lAu. Wiea OdjHciu after bi» long wander- 
ap leliinHd iioiDa, Eopeilliei wanted to sTenge 
the inA of Ui BO Aatinoiu. vha had been one 
if Pmcliife^ iditHi and vu ilain by Odjueaa. 
Et Mnvi'mglj Led a band of Ithjicuu agui ^ 



».(Hm 



Od.x> 



a (M pniod of ti» tngic Pleiad. 
He HM the dudple of Eobolidea of Miletni, and 
IW kMaOot of Ant^oniu I. king of Huedonia. 
Hewnie Baoftngediea, which were well receired 
HikeguDei. He alto wiota a Terj higU J eiteent 
id mi, nfi PanXtlai, addreeaed to Anligoniu, 
md I UiUfT of hie own timei : he lived to a great 
■p. (Wcg. Ufrt. iL IID, Ul.) 1^< Enphantui 
■toe kiitnj u qooted by AChenaau (n. p. 231, 
L) Biut hiTe been a diffinent pemn, lince he 
■mioiied Plalan; 111. of EgTpt. [VoHnt, de 
Bit. Cne. p. 69, ed. Wenenaaiiti ; Wekkt 
dK Gf^A. jiaaaid. p. 1368.) [P. &] 

EUPHE'HE (EJ^ifrn,), tfae nuTKof ^e Muk 
•Ftluia then vai a ttaUie in the grore of tl 
Man war HeUcOD. (PaoL ii. 29. g 3.) [L. S.] 

EUPHE'HUS (EUtniwf). ■ eon of Powidon bj 
Enpe, the dinghter of Tityui, orbjHeeian' 
Ou, a duffater of Orioa or Euiotu. (Sch< 
fkd. P^ iT. 15 ; TteU. CM. iL 4S.) Aaord- 
if I( ihe one acajant be waa Ha inhabitaal of 
toKfm on the Cepbiinu in Phoda, and accord- 
>« IB the other of Hjiia in Boeotla, and afte^ 
nidi find at Taenant. Bj a l^emiuan mman, 
Knfitht, Halache, or Laniache, he became the 
hi^ of LcBcophaDM (ScboL ad PimL PgO. ir. 
tii; TiML ad LfOfk. SI&6) ; but ha wa< nuuried 
H LvBue, the (iner of Heraclea. Kophemi 
na ne af the CalydoDiaii hiuurt, and the bebn 
■m of the Tcaael of the Argonanta, and, by 
p4"a which hii father had granted to bim, he 
odd walk eo the H jut ai on Ana ground. 
(Apilioa. Rhod. i. 1B2.) He i* mention^ alu 
■ tht eocealor of Battue, the founder of Cjiene, 
•ad the faOowing ator; at once connecti him with 
tha nltBjr. Wh«n the Aigonanla canied their 
■hf ihraagh Libfa' to the cooat of the Mediter- 
BMB, Tiitaa, who wooLl not lei them . 
■at ihewing than aeme act of friendahip, ofiered 
■^ a dod of Libjan eaitb. None of the Argo- 
■ota *oaU aosept it ; bnl Eaphanni did, and with 
■^ rJod ef lanb bs nceind for hi* deacendanta 
^ right to rale om Libja. Enphemna waa 
■a ihnw the pece of earth into one of the chaama 
<f Tacnann in Pcloponneaua, and bia deacendanta, 
ai Ih* boiih acnemtion, were to go to Libja and 
tike it iato eBllintiDa. When, howcTer, the Ar- 
peaoa fBaee>l the ialand of Calliite, or Then, that 
>U b( earth bj accident M into the aea, and 
aibed bj the wbtc* to the cooat of the i^ 

^ cukiaatka of Ubja waa now topiaceedl 

IW, and although atiU b<r the deacendanta of 
rnfiiwia, jet aot tin the aerenteenth generation 
,»_j._ ._ .r.. enleenth deacendant 



EUPHOWON. 97 

a chariot and two bonea. (Pana. t. 17. i i.) 
There are two other mythical penonigeo of Ihia 
name. (Anton. Lib. Bi Horn. 71. ii. 846.) [L.S.] 

EUPHB'MUS (Ef^w»<)> ■'nt tent hj the 
Athenian commandert at Sjiaeuie in the vinto' 
of & c dl£ — 414 to negotiate alliance with Canu^ 
rloa, and wna there eppoaed on the Syracnaan aide 
by Hennoentei. Thucydidea giiea ua an ocation 

the mouth of each. The negotiation wa* nn- 
cceaahL (Thnc. tL 75— 88.) [A. H.a] 

EUPHORBUS (EiTfnpfoi), a aon of Poalboo* 
and brother of Hyperenor, waa one of the bnTeat 
among the Tnjani. He waa the Ural who wounded 
Patroelui, bat waa afterwardi (Uin by Menelana 
(Hom./fL itL 806, rriL 1—60), who Mibaequenlly 
dedicated the ahield of Enphorbui in the tenpls of 
Hera, near Myoanae. (Pana. iL 17. $ 5.} It ii 
a well known atoiy, that Pythageiaa oiaerted that 
he had once been the Trojan Euphocboa, that from 
a Tiojan he had become an Ionian, and from a 
wanior a pbiloaopber. (Philoati. Vit. AfdO. L I, 
HtnAi.\1\ KDg.LaA1. Tiii.4; Ot. jWM. it. 
161.) [L. S.] 

EUPJIORBUS (Ef^ofi(o<), phyaidan to Jnba 
II., king of Hauretania, about the end of the firat 
century B. c, and brother to Anloniua Muio, the 
phyiician to AogDatoa. [Mi;u.] Pliny aaya {H. 
a: IXT. 38), that Juba gare the name of Sa^iiorMB 
to a plant which be found growing on Mount Atloi 
in honour of bia phyndon, and Galen men- 
tiana [it Cow^nn. Mtdicam, lec. Loaa. ii. 4. ni. 
»iii. p. 27 1 ) a abort treatiae written by the king 
on the Tirtuea of the plant Salmaaina triea ta 
pioTe (Prolegom. ad HamoK. H^ latr. p. 4], 
that ihia atory of Pliny ia without fbnndatian, and 
that the word waa in oae mneb esilier than tb« 
time of Juba, at it it meutioned by Meleager. 
(Cam. i. 37.) It dace not, hoveiei, teem likely 
that Pliny wonld have been ignorant of a phmt 
that waa known to a poet who lired two hundred 
yean befon bim ; and beijdea, in the paaaage in 
qnettion, the commonly recnnd reading tn the pre- 
■enlday ianot t^(i«qi,bnt hfopCqt.[W.A.a.] 

EUPHO^ION (Eiftpi^). 1. The hther of 
the poet Aetchyliu. (Herod, ii. 156.) [An- 



14, 179; Herod, ir. 150.) According to Apollo 
ini Rhodraa (It. 1755), the ialand of Theta ilaelf 
lad aiiaa from the dod of earth, which Enphemat 
^tmij thnw into the tea. Eaphemci waa rt- 
fXMltd OB the t^*t of Cypadu at rictoiv with 



ja] 



a. The 



of Aeochylna, and himaelf a tngia 
poei- i/icetuVLIIII, toL L p. 41, coL I, lubfin.] 

3. Of Chakia in Eoboeo, an eminent giam- 
marian and poet, we* the ton of pDlymoelna, and 
waa bom, according to Soidaa (>. e.), in the 136th 
Olympiad, when Pyirhua waa defeated by the Ro- 
mana, kc 274. He betame, bat at what period 
o( hit life ia not known, a cxtiien of Athene 
(Hellad. ap. /-iot Cod. 279, p. 5S2, Bekker.) 
He waa inatructed in philoaopby by lAcydea, who 
Benriahed about b. c 241, and Piytania (camp. 
Athen. xi. p. 447, e. land in poetry by Arehebulna 
of Them. Though do wat mUdw, &t, and bandy 
lenad, be waa belored by Nida (or Nicaea), the 
wife of Aleiauder, king of Enboea. Hia aotoun 
ate refeired to in more than one paaaage in the 
Greek Anthology. (Brandt, Amd. "oL li. pp. 3, 
43.) Haring amaaeed grtat wealth, he went into 
Syria, to Aniiochoa the Great [h. c 231), who 
niade him bit hbratian. He died in Syria, and 
wa* buried at Apameia, or, according to etbera, at 
Antioch. (Snid. JL v.) The epigram (Branck, 
' — ' — ' ■- - '" which placee bia tomb at the 



.^aaf.TC 



i. p. 43), w 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



SB BUPUORtON. 

EEphorian wnts munsmu voili, both ia poMiy 
and prOH, nlUiag chieflj to mjtfaolggiail tiktorf. 
The foUowing wen poeiot ia heroic tctm ; — 
1. 'KaMet, the tnbJMt of vhieh caa onlf be con- 
iectond bom the till& Some mppoH it to hiTs 
beeD an ■gricultiuBl poem. Hophonon ii men- 
tioned imong the ogricaltunl wrilen bj Vun (i. 
1. i 9) and Calomella (L 1. § 10). (See Hcfne, 
Eic*n. iii. ad VirgiL BtoL ; Huleia, ad Fabnc. 
BiU. Graae. i. 5S*,.) % Hei^la, n called from 
ao old name of Attica, the legenda of which coon- 
ttj' leeni to hare been the chief lobject of the 
pMm. Fmm the Taiiety of iti cootenti, which 
Suidaa call! mijiiuyA Iv-n^u, it wai ilic odled 
'ATantTo, a title which »u beqnentlj giTen to the 
writing* of that period- 3. XiAUlSii, a poem 
written agajntt certain penona, who bad demanded 
Euphorion of monej which he had entnuted to 
theit can. It piobahlj d«iTed iti title from «ch 
of it( boidit conuating of a thoruand Tern. The 
fifth book, or xAi", waa entitled vepl j(piiaimii, 
and contained an enumeration of oradei which 
had been fulfilled ; and it ii probablj of thii book 
in particulai that the itatement of Suidaa concern- 
ing the object of the poem ihould be nndentood, 
Damely, that the poet taught hig dcfrsuden that 
ther would in die end lUlTer the penaltj of their 
bithleHneu. The sbore ttaa* the beat explana- 
tion of the paaaage in Suidaa, which ii, hawoTer, 
Terj corrupt, and haa been very variooilf explain- 
ed. (See eapeciallf Heyne and Harieaa, /. c^ and 
Meineke, fiftior. pp. 20—21.) To thne epic 
poema mual be added the following, which are not 
mentioned b; Suida*: — 4. 'tMiaytpat, which 
Meineke conjecture* to hsTs been addieiaed to 
tomsfriendof that name. (Staph. Byx.atL3^Aoi.) 
6. 'A'uit, ■ mythologirsl poem refiuringto Aniiia,thg 
aoD and prieit of the Delian Apollo. (Steph. Bji. 
FngnmiL p. 744, c^ ed. Pined.) 6. 'tirrrrpvfii 
wfit Otvpaar (Clem. Alex. ^nm. t. p. 343, ed. 
Sylb.), a work of which nothing further ii known, 
unleai we accept the not improbable conjectoie of 
Meoriiua and Schneider, who read Bfoti^iIIia' (or 
^HtflBia, and (uppMO that the poem wa* written 
in conltotertj with the grammarian Theodoridaa, 
who aflerwardi wrote the epitaph on Euphorion, 
which ia oitant, with aerenleen other epigram* bj 
Theodoridaa, in the Greek Anlbologj. (Biunck, 
^«iTol.iLH'.41-*S.) [THiODORmaa.] 7. 
'AnUJInpot, which Kcrni to haie been a mytho- 
logkal poem addreaaed to a friend oF tliat name. 

S'aeUea, AM. od Zjeopb-. 61 Si Schol. (Kf JpofliM. 
lod. L 1063; Suid. and Harpociat. (.r.'o ad- 
TwSti- tS/ial ! Phot. I. V. 'O KinOtr \iyoi.) 8. 
'Apal *| nmipuiKAjimit (Staph. Bya. t e. 'AAMti j 
8choL ad TitaeHt. ii. 2), an attack an'ume pervin 
who had itolen a cup from Euphorioo, which Cal- 
limachui imitated in hi* /fiu, and both were pro^ 
bably followed by Oiid in hi* /ik, and by Calo 
and Virgil in their Dirat. (Meineke, Enjiior, pp. 
30, 31.) a. 'AfrtiMupat, wobaUy a poem hke 
the Anoliodomi, (Steph. Byi. >. e. 'Aaai^y.) 
10. rjpanr, the lubject of which, a* well a* it* 
gtnnineneia, i* lery nncertajn. (Alhen. iii. p. 83, 
a.) n. Aivts«M>^t, the title of which Meineke 
eiplaina aa he doe* the AtanaitdtT, ApoUodom, 
and Arf«BNionu,and he conjectorei that the penon 
to whom the poem wa* addietaed wai Demoithene* 
of Bithnia. (Choenbaacna, i^. Beiier. Anted, 



BUPRORION. 

to Dionyna. (SchoL p. ad Odjm. it. b IK, cd. 
Bnttmann ; Staph. By*, it o. ■C(iiJ(ioip,^AiTii, Ai- 
>ra<(D> ; Schol. ad Aral. Fkatmam. ITS ; Tielle*, 
SduL ad Lmpb. 320 ; Btym. M<^. p. 687. 26.) 
] 3. 'EwmtftiM ill Vl(mTwy6far, an degy on u 
aatrologer uuned Pmtogoraa. (Diog. I^rt. ia. 
£6.) Thii poem wa* doubllew in the elegiac, ud 
not in the heroic Tene. U. epff, (Slqih.B;t 
I. e. 'Airftn-of, 'Ornuu ; Panhen. EfoL liii. p. 
3£, UTi. p. 6 1 .) 15. 'IttoiUSh*. (Tutcet, SM. 
adLgcopk^.*S\.) 16.Wn». (SchoL ufJ/iaUsa. 
I&Bd. it 354.) 17. noXux^t. {Elfm. M^ f. 
221 16 i Choenboacna. op. BtOtr. Annd-Ont. 
iiL p. 13B1.) 18. 'yiiaitai. (SchoL TieiKt. i. 
28 i Enatath. vt Horn. p. 283.) IS. Mkan^rDt. 
(Slobaeoi, Serm, Iriii, JU. liz. ; Tietxai, SdaL 
adLjcojAr.9\\.) 



p. 189.1 

They an both erotic ; and that mch wai the cha- 
racter of meet of hii epignmi, ii deal ftom the 
manner in which he it mentioiud bj MebagB, u 
well a* from the £ut that h* waa mong the poele 
who were imitated by Propertin*, Tibdfau, and 
OaUui. (Diomed. ill p. 482. 3) Probna, ad Vi^ 
Ed. I. 50.) It waa probably tfaia •ednctiTe ele- 
giac poetry of Euphorion, the popularity of which 
at Rome, lo the ite^ect of Ennin*, moTed the in- 
dignation of Cicero. (T)iB.i>o7i. iii. 19.) ItwH 
therefore quite nataial that Euphorion ihoold be 
a great bTourite with the emperor Tibehua, who 
wrote Oreek poemi in imitalioa of him {SoetMi. 
TWer. 701 lee Caaaobon'i note.) 

Some writer* hare auppoaed that Enpboiion waa 
alu a diamatic poet. Erneiti (Cti».Cto*n».aa.) 
and C. O. MUUer {ad Talx. SiiBL p. G5I) ay. 
that he compoaed tiBgediei ; but they gin no rea- 
•oni for the uiertion, and none are known. 
Fabricin* {BM. Graec ToL ii. p. 904) place* hia 
in hi* It*t of comic poet*, mentioning ai hii jdap 
the 'AwoAAJihi^t, which wat an epic poem (tti. 
nip.), and the "AiniJiJoiim, reapecling which there 
can bo no doubt that for Eu^opimr wa ahould read 
Ei^par in the paaHge of Achenaen* (li p. £03). 

Euphorion'* writing* in fvoae were chiefly hit- 
torical and giaramatioaL They were : I. 'lartpai 
ihawnt^iara. (Athen. ir, p. 134, c, XT. p. 700, i.) 
2. Hifj Tw 'AAfuS^r (Gem. Alex. Sirom. i-n 
389, Sylb.; SchoL Timer, ad Idyll in. 34 i Qointa. 
1.2), which Suidaa ((.T.''E^apat) attribute* ta 
[ha yonnger Ephonu, (See Meineke, Enfior. pp. 
39, 40.) 3. Hipl TW 'laV/iimr. (Athen. ir. p. 
182, e. HiJa.) 4. Uift KtKowoOir. (Athen. ir. 
p. 184, a.) 3. A gianunatical wolk of gnat cele- 
brity, wluch nlatod diiefly lo the langnage of 
Hippoerue*, and appear* to han been entitled 
Ai(it 'I r wai ipi r t vl. 

The character of Euphorion u a pi>et may be 
pretty elouly under*tood (rom the atatement* of 
the ancient writera, and from hi* eitant frsgnvnt*. 
aa well a* from the general Uteiaiy chnrafter of hi* 
tgt. He lired at mt time when the liteimture of 
the Alexandiian ichool had become thormghly 
eitaUiihed, when originality of thought and Tigoor 
of eipreMioD were all but eitincl, and, thongfa the 
ancient wHtere were man highly laloed, their (pitil 
wa* loat,and thechiefuaemadeof them waato hop 
together tiieir maleriaU in elabonbi com^ladwia 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



BOPHORION. 

Ui aimai th^ b; trind and b 
wUk :ka BoUe fetmi of Tens in which tbejr 
kd fiibiidied lluir tlioiigfati were made Ute vehi- 
da gf ■ nui oT nmlani* leaning. Henca die 
u nr JiiuU wbith the be»t nf wuceediog wriMn : — '- 
•f Of lAwcrii;, TttboeowM, and tediooDir 
Et^faoiiDB, CiifimachiUf PutbeDtDfef Lycophnn, 
»d Ihe gtha Aiet wnten of the long period du- 
al wioA the Alemidriui gnrnmaiiaUB raled the 
haaj woM. (Clem. Alex. Strvm. T. p. 671 ; 
Qt&i)H.iL64; Laatn. de CowerO. Hit. 57, 
iLi.f. Si.) Theae fiudt* K«m U h>Te been 
orried to exw ia Enphorion, who wu perticn- 
krii dirtiipiiibed b; u obecnrit;, which uoes, 
nnrdiiig (o Heinle, from hii choice of the moM 
■«<ftlBW^iiihjecta,fram the cmohnKU laming 
•idi riirl be crreiloaded hii pooni, from the u- 
liBiiT chnm which he made in the connnDii le- 
fB^ hn hit dieice of obeolete wordi, and from 
^mesl ordjnny word* widi a new racwiing of 

'■'■'^■■nf jadgnienta concerning him ta in an epi- 

pa bfCnte* of Halhu (Bnmck, AnaL, ToL iL 
f. IX Ixaa which we leam that he wai a great 
•didia of CHoeiihia [CuoiaiLUi, ToL i. p. 697, 
^1, utwiihslanding which, however, the frag- 
■oOi of hii poetrr ihew thai he alu imitated 
AaiBJchni. Meineke conjectnrea that the ejri- 
ion of Cratea vaa written while the conteat about 
miiiiig AnlinuKhna or Choeritoi into the epic 
mmwaiuite height, and that aome of iheAlel- 
odnm graiBmaiiana propoied to confer that ho- 
■BF sa Eophoiion. In the Bine epigram Eupho- 
nai ii olltd 'OfnijiuJs, which can onT; mam that 
k adannred, howerer umceeMfully, la imitate 
Bmi.-^t &el which hia bagmenli omfinii. 
{<Jaf. Ck. di Dm. L e.) That he alu imitated 
HoM, aaj be inferred from tlie &ct of hii writ- 
ii| > poen entilled 'Hnejai ; and then ii a cer- 
ini unDaritj in the cimmulanca irf «ch poet 
'^oaf a pfraimal wrong the foundation of an epic 
pm,— Hdiod ia tlie '^Zpya nl 'tWfW, and Eu- 
r^ia ii the XihuBf i. 

Ai ibmi italed, Eaphcsiop wa* grcMl; admired 
^ B*aj of the Rtmiuu, and aome of hit poem* 
*m iaitaled or tianilaled by Comelini Gallui ; 
te tbe Bzgnmestta by which Heyne and othoi 
liH iltHupted to decide what poenia of Enphorion 
an m tranalaUd, are qaita inconclnain. (Toa- 
■1. <Jc Hal. Gmc jif. H2, 143, ed. WeatCF- 
■Bil Fabric. BiLCfrate. toL L P.S94, Aci 
lio^ d( £^rl(irwHi ClalddaaiMVltailSsr^ 
■i,Celu. 1S23, in which the ftagmenla are col- 
^■M ; a sew edition of Ihii work fbnna patt of 
Xnache'i AaaUela AUiamlrima, BeroL 1813 ; 
CSmdd, fW. HtB. tdL iii. pp. 31 1, 313.) 

t. (XChaaone am , an anthn of that kind ofUeen- 
^■iBpHliywhidiwBa called TTputrna, ia mentioned 
^ SejUanAim (da Melr. xr. 69), who giTca three 
*n>a, whiih do not, hawcTer, appal to be conie- 
■■tit, bat are probably ungle lenei choten ii 
Vaaaa rftbe metie. Bat yet wme infbnoatioa 
^ bt leaned fiiim them, for the poet refert lo 
Ms bi bonaor of the " young Dionpna," cele- 
k(M at PdaoDm. Hence Mnneke infere that 
u KiFbonDii wai an Wilian Oreek, and that 
«QaBDcaQaof iriiieh be waa a luitiia wai the 
«T if Ihtt Bane Dcai Alaxmdiia. He aba cod- 

"wjwa' 

'<iptaa,c:23t It b prob^ that the pii*^ 



EUPHRANOB. 99 

in Strabo (riii. p. SSS) refen to thia EnpfaoiiDii. 
and that Ef^riai in that paii^e ii an emr for 
Ed^aplMT. Then ii an emmple of the nme c&n- 
fouoD in Athsnaena (kl p. 495, c). That thow 
who make thii Enpboiion the aame ai the Chald- 
dian are quite wrong, ii proved by the &cl that 
the linea an n«ther heometen nor elegiaca, bnt 
in the priapnan metre, which ii a kind of anti- 
•paatic. (Meineke, Amleeia Attaaadruttk, Epim* 
i.J [P. S.] 

EUPHOHION (EJ4H>p(w), a Oreek phyu- 
dan or grammarian, who wrote a connnentanr on 
Hippociatei in lii booka, and mnit hare Uved 
in or belbn the fint century after Chriat, u be 
ii menliotied by Erotianui. (Qlm. Utppoer. p. 
13.) [W. A. O.] 

EUPHO'IIION, a diitiiigmahed itataary and 
ailTer-ehaier, none of iriiaae work* were extant in 
Phnj"* time. (Plin. iiiiT. B. a !9, § 23.) [P.a] 

EUPHBADES, THEHI'BTIUS. [THKMta- 
Tica.] 

EUPHRA'NORCEJfipibwp). 1 . Of Selencria, 
a diiciple of Timon and a foUower of hii aceptical 
•chooL Eobului of Alexandria wai hia pt^iL 
(Diog.Laert.ix. 115, 116.) 

2. A ilaie of the philoeopher Lyeon, who ma 
inBnamiltedbyhiinuuter'>wi11.(Djog.LaSrt.T. 73.) 

3. A Pythagorean phileaopher, who iimentioned 
by Alhenaeu (JT. pp. 1S3, 184, lir. p. 634) ai the 
author of a «otk on flute* and Sale playeia. (IIi|>I 
aixit and wepl aikiftit.) It ii not impouiUe 
that the ETsnoi mentioned by lamblichni {Yit, 
Pylh. 36) among the Pythagoreana, ii the nme ai 
onr Euphranor. 

4. A Greek grammarian, who waa upwatda of 
one bnndnd yeara old at the time when ApioD wat 
hi« pnpiL (Suid. i. p. "AtW.) jL S.] 

EUPHRA'NOR{E%«in>p). 1. One of the 
ateit maitera of the moit flonriahing period ^ 
tcan art, and equally diitingniihed ai a ilatuar; 

da painter. (QnintiL xiL 10. S 6.) He i 

tire of the C ■ ■ " ' ' ' 

hia art at Athe: 



he painted the battle of Mantineia, which 

fought in OL 104, 3 (a. C 36f ), bnt the liit of 

fail woiki ihewt, almoat certainly, that he flouriihed 

alter the acceuion of Alexander, (b. c 336.) 

^■ a ilatuaiy, he wrought both in bnmie and 

marble, and made figotei of all aiiea, from coloaaal 

etatne* to little dnnkiog-cupa. (Plin. hit. 8, 

40, § 2fi.) Hii meet celebrated worki were, a 

Parii, which expreaaed alike the judge of the go^ 

deeiei, the lover of Helen, and the dayer of Adiit 

lei 1 the Ten beoudfbl lilting figure of Paiia, in 

marble, in the Muteo Pio-Clementioo ii, no doubt, 

copy of thii work : a Minerva, at Rome, called 

le Catulian, from it* having been let np by Q. 

lUtatiu* Catulni, benfalh the Capitol : an Agathi^ 

umon (limulacrum Boni Evenlui), holding a 

patera in the right hand, and an ear of com and > 

~ y in the left : a Latoua puerpera, carrying the 

ita, Apollo and Diana, in the temple of Con- 

; there 11 at Florence a very beaotifiil relief 

!9enting the aame lubject : a Key-baier (CU- 

duchui), remarkable for ill beauty of form : coloaaal 

latuea of Valour and of Greece, fonning no doubt 

group, perhap* Gitece crowned by Valour. (MUl- 

ler, ArdMii. d. Kvul. g 405, n. 3) : a woman 

wiapl in wonder and adoratinn (admirantem at 

.i.^oqIc 



100 



EUPHRANOR. 



■dmuitsm) : Alciuidtr ind Philip riding in Soai- 
honed dunoU, uid other qmuliigme and bi^M- 
(PUn. zuir. S. 1. 19, $ Ifi.) The itatui ot Apollo 
PatrolU, in hit Umple in the Cenmeieai M Athenii, 
wu by EuphnnoT. (Pun. L 3. $ 3.) Uatljr, hi* 
itBlue of HephiMtoa, in which the god wu not 
laar, ii mentioned bj Dion Chiyioitom. (Orot 
p. 4S6, c) 

At a painter, Euphnuioi *i«eut«d m>nj great 
worka, the chief oE which were teen, in the time 
of Pauioniu, in a poreh in the Cennuticni. On 
the one tide wen the twelve godi ; and on ibe op- 
paiite wiIL Theaeiu, wiUi Demociacj and Demoi 
(Afi^Kparla Tf jukJ Aj/idi), in which picture 
Theaeiu waa repietented ai the fbonder of the 
equal politj oT Atheni. In the mine place wai 
hii picture of the battle between Vie Athe- 
nian and Boeotian csralif U Haatineia, contain- 
ing portnili of Epanunondai and of Gryl- 
liu, the ion of Xenophon. (Paiu. L 3. g 2, 3.) 
There were alio ume celebrated pictuiet b; him 
at Ephmu, Dame!;, Uljue*, in hit feigned nud- 
neea, yoking an ok with a hone (it ii difficult to 
nndentand the next wordi of Plinj, " et palliati 
cogilaate*") ; and a conunander iheatliing lui 
■word. (Plio. xuT. 11. a. iO. g 2S.) 

Euphranor alio wrota woika on proportion and 
on coloun (dt Sfimitna tt Coloribu, Plin. H c). 



heroea, hj the propordont he gSTs to their iCatuei; 
and Hirt oheerrei that thii itatement ii confirmed 
by theeiiitingcopfofhiiPaiia {GeMck. d. Bild. 
EtaaL, p. 208.) He made the bodiei lamewhat 
more ilender, and the hade and limba larger. Hii 
■jil«n of prDportion wai adopted, with aome Taria- 
tioo, bj hia giest contemponrj, Lyaippoi : in 
painting, Zeoiit had alreadj piactiied it. It waa, 
DO donbt, with reference to prDportton, aa well at 
colooring, that he uaed to aaj- that the Theieua of 
Panbaaini had been fed on rova, hot hii on fleali. 
(Plin. L c; PIilL de Glor. Al],. 2.) In hia great 
picture of the twelie godt, the colouring of the 
hair of Hen wu particnlarif admired. (Lueian, 
Imag. 7.) Of the lame picture Vaierini Maiimna 
lelalea that Euphranor inieated Poaeidon with 
focb tutpauing majealj, that he waa ouable to 
give, at be bad intended, a - -'> - — ■— -- 

of hia Zeua waa at length anggeated by lua bcAring 
a icbolac redte the deaciiption in Homer : — 'Afi- 
(^w> IT Ifa xlura^ && (Enttath. ad ILL £29.) 
HUller believed that Enphnnor merely copied the 
Zeui of Phidiaa. (AnO. d. Kwat, g 140, i ' ' 
Plutarch (f.c}, lunidit much pruH of the pi 
of the battle of Muiiineia, leyt that Euph 
painted it under a divine intpiration (edit in 
giiarmi). Philottntua. in hia rhetorical ityle, 
awribet to Euphranor r6 tSmaBr (light and ahule) 
Koi tJ tffwwui' (expreaeion) ml ri tl(r^o» »• ml 
•£'x" (penpeetiTB end torethortening). ( PB. Jpot- 
lom. iL 9} Pliny (I. c) laya that Euphianor wa«, 
above aQ men, diligent and willing to lean, and 
alwaya eqnal to himiclf. Hia diadplea were, 
AntidoIuB (Plin. /.eg 27), C:annanidn (ii. 
g 42], and Leonidat of Anthedon- (Steph. Byi. 



3. An Bichited of little note, who inote de 



EUPHROK, 

{Vitrav. rii. Pnet g 
■I tP.s.1 

EUPHRA'SIUS (Ei)^pdv»t), a New Plaiouin 
i a diacipte of lambUchua. [ £nn({>. Vii. Sapi, p. 
21. ed. Hadrian. Juniua.) [US.] 

EUPHRATES (EO^vKErqi), an eminent Sloic 
philoiopher of the time of Hadrian. According to 
Philoatntu) ( Td. &pl. i. 7, VU. ApolL I 13). hi 
wma a nadre of Tyre, and aecording to Stepbaniu 
of Byiandom (i. e. 'Zwifdrva), of Epiphaoeia in 

Sjlisi whelesi Eunapiua (p. 3, ed. Bi ' '' 

calla him an Egyptian. At the ti 
■'■e younger aerred in Syria, ho bt 
Lth Euphmtea, and leema to hav 
ate £riendahip with him. In o 
[Epid. i. 10) he givet ni a detwied account of the 
nd talenta of Enphralea. Hia great power 
lor ia acknowledged alao by other contem- 
(Arrian, Diaert EpItteL iii. 15, iv. 8; 
M. Aurel. X. St), though ApoUoniua of Tyuw 
:harget him with avarice and aervile fiatlery, 
When he had arrived at an advanced age, and 
wot lind of life, he aiked and obtained bom Ha- 
drian the permiauon of putting on end to himadf 
bypoiaon. (Dion (Daia. Uic. B.) [I^S.] 

EUPHRON (Ellfipw), ■ dliaen of Scyw, 
who held Che chi^ power then during tlie period 
of ita lubjectioo to Sparta. In B. c. 368 the city 
woB cmnpelled W Epsmeinondat to join the Theban 
alliance ; and, thongh ita conitilutian appean to 
have remained unchanged, Che infinence of Eu- 
phron wai no doubt conaidemUy diminiabed. In 
order, thenfotc, to regain it, he took advantage of 
the diiiatit&ctiDu of the Arcadian* and Argivea 
with the moderation of Epameinimda*, in leaving 
the old oligarchical govenmenta undiatorbed 
[EpAUXTNONDAfi], and, repreienting to them that 
the aupnmncy of I^cedaemon would aunly he 
lutoled in Stcyon if mallen continued aa they 
were, he auccoeded, througb tbeir aeaittance, m 
eatablithing democtacy. In the election of gene- 
rala which followed, he himaelf waa choaeo, with 
four colleaguea. He then procured the appoint- 
ment of hit own ion, Adeai, to the cammand of 
the mercenary ttoopi in the tervica of the re- 
puhlic ; and he further attached theae to hia catue 
by an unaponng uie, not only of the public money 
and the aured tnaaurea, but of the wealth alu of 



Hi* a 






hinuelf of hia colleaguet ; and having effected thia 
by the exile of aome and the murder of the real, 
he beams tyrant of Sicyon. He w«a not, how- 
ever, entirely independent, for the citadel wst 
occupied by a Theban harmoat, aent there, Bi it 
wonld leem, after the democntic nvolatioD ; and 
we find Euphron cD-operaltng with that ollicei 



linit Phliut, 



C.365. 



inafampaignagainil 

Not long aiUr thit oligarchy waa again ewan- 
liahed in Sicyon, by Aeneini, of Stymphalua, the 
Anadinn general, and apparently with the con- 
currence of the Theban barmnit. Etq>lmn opon 
Ihii fled (0 the hacboui, and, having v;nt to Co- 
rinth for the Spartan commander Paumeluo, deli- 
vend it up to him, making many profeaaioD* at 
the mme time (to which little credit aeema to have 
been given] of having been influenced in oU he 
had done by attachment to the interetta of Iacc- 
daemon. Parly-atrife, however, aliU continuing at 
Sicyon, he wu enabled, by help from Athena, to 
regain poueuiou of the city ; but ha waa Aware tluit 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EUP0LEMU9L 
brtHUnol luld it in the bee of ■q>po>Uion tram 
tht IMu Airiiao (Uft nj noUiing of hi< buring 
DO* dtcaiidj innncd the aurity of Sparta), ud 
It ikfrfoR (Mask himHlT to Thebes hoping to 
■Us, bj nmqXiaD ud iutrigae, thg banishment 



rfUl R) 



d thg 



rer, followed 
im tlulkcr, lad wben they fonnd that he waa 
iidiel admdiig lowaidi ibt ■ttainmenl of hii 
■^Kt. &7 mrdend him in the Cadmeia, vhile 
m cgandl waa actnaUy (uemblad ihac. Bnig 
BiBttd and bnxi^t belore the conncU, they 
tiaiti thtir came boldly, jnitified their deed, and 
•St aagintifd. Bnt Eaphnm^ pattiiana wen 
■OKisBi at Sicyon, and haring broogfat hoioe hit 
Mf, ther boned >I in the Agora— tm nuimal 
bmar (ae PluL JraL 53) — and paid woiaUp to 
ha Ha hero and »6raiiAa(' ^x ''iyi' " l')- (Xen. 
a4Tii.l_j; Diod. 11,69,700 [E. K] 
EUPHBON'— ■ • •■' ■ 



!W camedj, whoaa pi 



^pntakm lafgely rf the chaneter of the middle 
Bwdy, Wa haia tba lidM and lome coniider^ 
iUt hagBHoE* nf the foUowing playt : — 'A3<Ai^( 
*Jrcf^ 'AaaMa Otfa (aacoiding ta the eneeOent 
Mtaditiix of Meimke, Elffw Ibr Eiipoftir, 
Al^HL o. PL £03, a.), AHi^uu, Swr 'ATvpd, 
9mri, Main, nB,Mliti>*a>^ (or, a> Meineke 
AaitLi it ihoold periupa Ixi, H^xKJiIi^iJn), which 
b [k> laie of I play of Antiphanet), Suri^H. 
(Slid. I, K ; Athen. puieii ; Stohonia, Flor. xt. 
'^ iniii, II, icriii. IS; Meinflke, Frag. Oim. 
Crmt. Til. L i^ 477. 178, lol. i*. pp. 48G— 
IMi Yitric BM. Grate. toI. ii. p. 444. J [P.S.] 
EUPHKO^IDES (EdffxoOq'}. of Corinth, a 

■whtnif Ariataphaneaof Bjaantimn. (Svid. J-e. 
•tf-n^im.) [Is. 3.] 

EUFHRCyNIDES, a italoaiy, omtanipoiBty 
nk Lyiippo* and Alexander the Oitat, OL 1 1 4, 
icKM. (Plin. nriT. a. 1. 19.) [P.&l 

El'PHItCKNIUS. [EUPHOBUH, Na.4.] 

EDPHRffSYNE. [Charitm.] 

EITITHIUS (EJaffltfi), an Athenian grem- 
Bnia, the antbor of dm t^^fma in the Gnek 
AKhiiogy (Brnnck, ^W. toI. ii. p, 402 ; Jacoba, 
AA Craac. tdI iii. p. 110), which conlaint all 
TV bm of faim, and &9m the eontenti of which, 
■ nD ai frem ita title in the Vatican HS., tu 
'n£wrn 'nir itaMAn, wa latrn that Enpithint 
M ^oit modi grammatical hboDr on the pntKtu- 
•M and aceoitiiation of the MfcAw^ wfoat/Sim, 
«4aal4ika»(BCTJX^)ot HeiTKiian. Hendian 



('I•Bl^ Jaa.OnH«;TaLx.tip.]B6, 187, *oL nil 
yKi- Pabric.i(W.C™»tTiJ.iT.p.47S.) [P.8.] 
EUPLITS (UtAoh), an engiBTer of genia, 

■ w« CO a gem of Lote lifting on a Dolphin. 
S™« lake the tancriptign ETnAO, not for the 
°M rf the aniit, but for an allnuim to the nib- 
rad-iKgna. (Biwxi, 7ii(^72-) [P.S.] 

EUPO'LEHUS (Efcfofpu). I. One of the 
rmb of Caawidet, waa aent by him in 314 
L c- la imde Carta, bat waa aoipnaed and taken 
I™*" I7 Plokny, who comnuuided that pn>- 
■ice far An^oDBa. (Mod. xa. 68.) He mnW 
we bco libnalad again directly, at tha next 
Tar WF find him com ma nding the fbrcei left by 
*^M(iidtr IB Gkke, when he mored northward 
•piM AoiiiooaL (Diod. JOi. 77.) 



EUPOLIS. 101 

2. An Aetotian, one of the eommanden of tha 
Aetolian auiliariai, who leiTed in the amy of 
Flunininiu againit Philip, king of Macedonia, b. e. 
187. (Polyb. iriii. 2, 4.) 

3. A general of the Aeloliana, who defended 
Ambtacia againit the Roman amy nnder M. 
^^lriu^B. C.189. (Ut, jtxxriii. 4— 10.) When 
pmce wai gnnted to tha Aetoliana, he waa (arrisd 
off a piiioner to Roma, together with the AetoUan 
genetal-iD-chiet Nicandcr. (Polyb. iiiiiL 4.} It 
ia not imprabaibte that this waa tha urns penon 
with tha preceding. 

4. A citiien of Hyinla in Tfaeiaaly, at the lime 
it waa (ubject to the Aetolian leagoe^ He wai the 
leader of ona of tha parties in that nty, and baring 
induced hia chief UTenariea to retnm from exile 
nndar a promiie of aecnrity, bad then all put to 
death. (Lir. xlL 25.) [E. H. RJ 

EUPO'LEHUS (EMxtfWi.) I. Umenlioned 
by Anian and Aelian in the introductioni to their 
woib on tactica, aa on author who had written on 
tbe military ait ; but he ii otherwiEe unknown. 

5. A Gieek hiitoiian who Ijred pnriaui to tbe 
Cbiiitian aeiB and wrote KTeral work* on the hia- 
tory of the Jewa, of which tha fdlowing an known 
by their titlea : 1. Ilffil rmr It rj "lauBoff $airi- 
AJH*(Cleni. Alex. STrouhL pp. 146,148.) 2. nfpl 
Tilt 'HAlaa rpofniTitai ( Joaeph. e, Apim. i. 23), and 
n^ T«r T^f ^Affoi'pJai 'loi/iolvr, lE baa been 
nppoaed that Eupolemui waa a Jew, but &om the 
manner in which Joacphua {L c) ^Kalu of him, we 
mnrt infer that he waa not * Jaw. (Comp. Euaeb. 
Pra^ Evamg. x. 17, 30 ^ Hiaronym. dt iiimlr. 
Scrf4.S8\ CHiron. Aleiandr. pp. 148,214 ; CO. 
A, Knhfaney, EvpaisadjTifffmmtii proitffom. et com^ 
meniar. wfriKAi, Beriin, 1840, 8ti>.} [L. 5.] 

EUPO'LEMUS (Edrdhi^iai), an AigiieareU- 
tect, who bnilt tha great Hereenm at Mycenae, 
after ita deitmction by fire in B. c. 423. The 
entablature waa omomenled with acnlptorei repr^ 

iting tha nan of the godi and gianta, a; ' ' 



Trojan war. A full deacription of ihe other w 



jPau- 



**EnpoliR,alqneCiatinni, Ahitophaneaqne poatae," 
aboTe all the 
..." alii qoonm luiiea camoedia Titonim eat," 
a judgment which la conGnned by all wa know of 
tha worict of the Attic comoediina. 

Eupolift ii aaid to haTe exhibited hii firat dntraa 
in the fouitb year of the 87 th Olympiad, n. c 42f, 
two y«n befoie Ariitophenet, who wai nearly of 
the aama age aa Eupolia. (Anan. deGm. p.iiiT.; 
Cyrill. cJiiliaH. I p. 13,b.; SyncalL Cinm. p. 
2£7, c) According to Snidaa (1. c), EopolU waa 
then only in the aeienteenlh year of hii age ; ha 
waa therefon bom in a c 44|. (Rapecling tba 
luppoaed legal miUBitmit of the aga at which a per- 
•on conld produce a diama on tha ataga, aee 
Clinton, Fan. HeU. toL iL Intiod. pp. lii.— Wii.) 
Tha dale of bii death cannot be to eaiily fixed. 
The common atoiy waa, that Alcibiadei, when 
■ailing to Sicily, threw Enpoli* into the lea, in 
reYcnga for an attack which he had made upon 
hira in hi> BirroJ. But, to my nothing of tha 
improbability of eren Aldhiadei Tenturing on lucb 
an ootn^B, or the atill stnngec bet ^ it ~ 



4,i,.=.otGot>^Ic 



103 EUPOLia. 

bona illadad to bf Thncirdidca tt laj Mho tnut- 
mnuiT hlMoriu, tkc tnMwa sf Cisan ii condn- 
tin, that EntiMlbanN mentioiwd pUr* ptodneed 
by Eapolii iha the SicOiiD expcdiUan. {Ad JU. 
TI.1.) Th«te ii itil] ■ &^;inant cMuit, in which 
the poet ■pplie* ths tide arfcmffi* to Aiiitarehiu, 
whnn ws know to haTo been arpannrii is the 
year >. c 41^ that u, fbnr yean Utet than tlie 
data at which the eimaooa itory fixed the 
death of Enpolii. {SchoL Victor, ad. ISad. liii. 
BaS.) The odI; diacarenble fomdation for thia 
•tory, and proh^y the me acBnnt of the poefi 
deatlL, ii the itatenwnt ef Smdaa, that he penihed 
at the HeUeBimt in the war igainal the Laeedae- 
noDiaaa, whieh, aa Haneke obacrrea, rnnat lafer 
•ilherlo the baltborCynB<aama(B. c 411), orto 
that of Aegoepotmi (ik c 405). That be died in 
the fbnner bMlIe ii not impnbable, mwe we uerel 
hear of hii eihilnting aflet B.C41!; and if 10,11 
ii T«y likely that t^ (oeaiiet of AldUadea mi^t 
chane him with takms adTantage of the eonfhnoD 
of the battle to gntuy hie mrenga. Meineke 
thiowi oat a copjectan that the Moiy m^ Iuto 
aiioca boat a mimnderitaDdiiig of what Lyfiao 
ayi aboal ths y(niigAleitriadei(L p.fi41). Then 
BR, howerar, other acconnU of the poet'a death, 
which are altogether diSeRnt. Aeliu (N. A. i. 
41) and TietMt (OU. ir. 245) nlate, that he died 
and wao buried in Aeaina, and Pioianiai (iL T. 
I 4) nyi, that ha law hie banb in the territory of 
Sicyon. Of the puioaal hiitoiy of Enpoli* nothing 
men ie known. Aelian (L e.) telli a pleannl tale 
of hi* bilhful dog, AiigeB*,uid hii daie Ephiallea 
The chief ohancteriftic of the poetry of Enpolii 
aeemt to ban been the lireliiieii of hu fancy, and 
the power which he poaeetaed of imparting ita 

' N to the BodieDcd Thia chaiactariatic of hla 

d hii chtrica of mbjecte, a* well aa 
1, ao that be not only ap- 
" ti which other poeta 
natiuns, bit we are 
eiiwenly told that be wnoght into Aa body of hia 
playi thsae aeriona poblial Tiewa which other 
poeta eipoonded in their panJxaa, a> in the 
AilfiM, in which he lepteeented the legitlaton of 

atate. To do diia in a genuine Attic old comedy, 
wilbont oonTerting the comedy into a leriona plii- 
loiophic dialogue, moat have been a gnat trimnph 
of dramatic ait. (Platoa it Da. Ckv. p. xxti.) 
Thia intnductiim of daceaied paivNU on the atage 
appan to have giren to the play* of Enpidia a 
certain digniw, which wonld baie ham inconaialent 
with the comK i^irit had it not bean idiered by 
the moat gracdbl and darer mafrimmt. (Platon. 
J. B.) In elegance he ia iud to ban *mx nr- 
paaaed ArwK^hanea {Ibid.; Macrofa. SafriLB), 
while in Evttn jeatuig and peraonal lUnue he 
emnlated Cntinni. (Anon, dd Cam. p. xxix. ; 
Pen.SW.L124) Luciau. Jbs. Joi. tdL ii. Pl832.) 
Among the Dfaj|ecta of hia Mtira waa Socialea, <m 
whom 1m made a bitter, though leaa elabnate 
attack than that in the Ctoaib of Aiiatopbanaa. 
{SchaLad.Jn<Upl.Mii.97,tSOjEtym.M^.p.l& 
10; Lueian./^ic. ToLL p. 595.) Innocence aeema 
to hare afforded no aheltei, lot he attacked Anto- 
lycoa, who ia ud to hare bean goil^ d no crime, 
' ' I only known aa having been diatingoiahed 



EUPOMPIDAS. 
afauaa, (orthMeara itiD aitnl aoBt lina rfhi>,n 
whidi CimoD ia naat nmnidfidly toiated. (Ftni. 
On. ISi SdioL ad AriMd. p.5i5.) ll ia 
hardly neeeaaaiy to ebaem that theieattacia vera 
mingled with mddi obacanily. (SehoLotf JriMfil. 
Poc 741, 1142, N^. 296, 541.) 

A clou rdation aibaifted between Eapolia and 
AritlDphanea, not only aa liiala, bat aa imilaten 
of (ach other. Cratiana attacked Aiiabnhaon te 
bomwing fnm Enpdia, and Enpolia in hia Btarm 
made the Bsie chana, eqiedally with nfaeace ta 
the KmigUt, of which he aayi. 



The SdutiHtB ^iea^ ibe laat Panhaaif of tha 
f enUa aa bvnwtd froa Eopidia. (SduL ai 
. ... . „...». j28g^ Mi 644, «L) On 



AribpLS 
the other b 



le playa of Eupoba, 



third) edition <tf the Cbada, feUMa npon Bs- 
pdia tha dnga of inhating the Knigilt in bit 
Afonooa IfM. I. «.), and tannta him with the 
farther indigniqr ef seating <m hia linlV baldncaa. 
Tlute are oAer enmplea oif the attach! of the two 
poeta npoD ooa another. (Aiirtoph. Pat, ISi, 
and fichcJ. ; Schcl ad Fn^ 1020; SduA. mi 
Plattm. p. 331, Bekkerj Stobaena, Ant. v. p. 
5S.) 

The omnber of the playa of Enpolia i* atattd by 
Smdaa at aeTenteen, and by the anonymoni wrrta- 
at foDitaeD. The extant tlUea exceed the greater 
of theaa nnrnbera. bnt aome of them an nrj 
donbtfuL The fbilowii^ fifteen an conaidtnd tqr 
Meineke to be nnniaa ; A^t, 'AoTfukwrii f 
'ArtpffT^aw, AMAutoi, Birrw, &4f>as Aiarn*. 
EtWni, ii\MUt, Uifocit, Vmiaf^ ai*.ta. 
OftrwikTiM, tailapxti, 'TtpurcUim, X^>«w 
T^m. An anal^ of tfaeea idl^ BO br u their 
aabjad* can be aaceitained, <nll be fbnnd in iha 
wo^a qnoted below, and etpedally ii 
Meineke. The foQowing are the playi 
the datea of which are known :- 
B. c 425. At the LcDaes. NovpiriiB. Third 
Priaa. tat. Ariatophasea, 'Axaf''- 
3nd. Cratinna, Xeyat^m. 

„ 423 or 422. 'Atvfdnirroi. 

„ 421. Mofuai. Probably at the Lenan. 

„ „ KjAoHf. At the great JKonTNa. 
Pint Priaa. 2nd. Aiutopb. Etfin. 

„ 430. AMXvkoi. 

Enpolia, like Anatephanea and other oonic 
pacta, bioii^t aome of hii playa on the alage in 
the name of another penon, Apollodoma. (Athm. 
T. B. 216, i.) 

HephaeatiaD (p. 109, ed. Oaii£) mentiani a 
peculiar chorianibic metre, which waa called Et- 
polidean, and which waa alao need by the poet* if 
the middle and of the new aanady. 



(Fabric. BSI. Orate. ToL Ii. pp. 446— 4*8; 
ISmttkt, Png. Chm. Croaa. toL L pp. 104 — 146, 
ToL iL pp. 426—579 ; Beigfc, QiMiiml. de Brlif. 
Com. Aa. AoL pp. S32— 366 ; Clinton, /W. 
/rattiB. TOL ii. aai mam.) [P. S.1 

EUPCKHFIDAS (EinvnAi"). •™ °f Daima- 
chua, one of the conmiandera in Plataea during ili 
uege ^ the lAcedaamoniani, B. c 429 — 8. He 
with iTLoaenataa, a ptwhet, in the winter iidlow- 
ing thia aecond year, dariaed the eelebfirtad plan 
br paauDg tbe liiiea of drenmnllatioii, vAich, ori- 
ginally intended for the iriiola number a( tbe bc- 

D,4,i,.=.otCot>^[c 



EURIPIDAS. 
Kfei, tm in At ad iDaceKfaU; eiecnlcd b j 



■alenpnwj ofZeoiii, PvTbadiu,aiid'nmintbn, 
led ih* imCnicUir gf Puapbiliu, the muter a 
ApellH. Ha >u lleld in uch ntmn bj hi« con- 
tenponnHi that a Dew diiinaD wu made of tfat 
kIkiiIi «f art, and lie «nu jimad at the Imd dI 
■F li Ibcm. Fannerij only two «hiwl> had been 
M^BBcd, the 0«k Propn or HcDadic, and the 
Aouic I bat tbe &aK of Euponpiu kd to the 
cmi(B<i(aiicirKlMiol,t]ieSic7<niian, at a branch 
rfiLt HeUadic, and the diriiion (hen adopted waa 
6t Utaa, the Sieronuui, md tbe Attic, the lait 
rfiUch had. no doubt, ApoUodoraa for iU head. 
Aspthar ■"■*■'"■ of the iuflueoce of Euporopoi ji 
ki> gfclitated annnr to Ljaippoi, who, al the be- 
loiaigaf hnonR-, aikedthe great painter whom 
k ihoild take tor faia model ; and Enpompui 
■Bvend that be cnigfat to imitate natnie faenel( 
Bd a> angle anitt. The onl; woric of Enpompn* 
•kah ii mentioned ia a ticuv in the punea curj- 
iifipahn. (PHn. zniT. a 1. IS. $ 6, iixt. 9, 
lU.iJ6.«S,7.) [P. 8.] 

EITFREPES, celefanUd in tbe taring annali of 
Bar M haTing eanied off 782 ehapleti of Tictoij, 
-a enalcT Dnmber than any nngle indindnal be- 
ki iiii tiaie bad e>er von. He wu pnt to death 
*itB aa old mm, upon the i t am oD of Cancalla 
(i-a.2n), becasae the eolonn which he won hi 
thi ami were different ban thoae patroniied bf 
Ac prince, wbo fanmied the Bloea. (Diaa Caaa. 
luriL 1.J (W. R.] 

EtlRlTIDAS, m EDRITmES (£l^»>tu, 
t iftifl w ), an Aetolkn, who, when hk conntry- 
■o. with the help at SeerdMdaa the IIlTiian, 
^ guwd pnweirien of Cjraetha, in Arculk 
(lf.^), wai at Gnt vpoiiiled goTemoc of the 
Wu : bat tbe AetoliuB toon after aet fin to it, 
iviat the aniial of the Haccdoniaa mcconn Ibi 
■iidi Aiatu had ^sfilied. In the next year, B. c. 
DIS. bong aent ■• genoal to die Eleani, then 
&d with Aetdia, be ranged the landi of Dvme, 
Kuae, and Tritae*, defeated Miccna, the lieii- 
<'n•a^gBmI of the Aehaeani, and leiied an 
■bait itninghDld, named Tcichoa, near Cape 
AiUH, wbena he minted the enemy'i temlory 
■« tftctmOr. In the winter of the laine year 
k adiaDced from Pasphii, in Arcadia, when he 
M hit bad-qnarteiB, to iniada Sicjonia, haTJng 
>nk him ■ Iwdj of 2200 foot and 100 hDne. 
Dniiig the idght he paaaed the enompment of 
tk MacedDniaoa, in the PUiaBan teiritiny, wilh- 
aa being awan of duir vicinity ; on dilcaTeting 
■bh £ram aonw fangeti in the maming, he 



-III". 
9 of Uoonl Ape- 
'■lu, betwe en Phlioa and Slymphalna, he baael j 
'■"ted hit tnnpa, and made hn etcape to Pu- 

t^ with a tmall nnmber of honemen, while 
■fant an tbe Ekao* were either cat to pieeea b; 
At Marediaiiim, n peiiabed ammra the moon- 
<■>■. PhiGp then adnncad on Piophia, and 
ompellcd it to apitnlate, Enripidai heing allowed 
u man in aletj to Aelidia. In B. c 217 we 
fad him acting again aa geiwral of the Eleane, who 
W reqBiMed tint he m^ht be tent to lupenede 
f Jiddak He langed Achaia in thii ompaign. 



EURIPIDES. 103 

bnt WM pinned and defeated b; Ljreua, the 
Ijentenant-genenl of the Achaean*. (Polyb. iv. 
19, 69. 69—72, T. 94, 95.) [E. E,] 

EURITIDES (Edpiraiii). I. A tragic poet 
of Atbeni, ie mentioned b; Soidai aa having 
flonriabed eariier than bit more celebrated nanw- 
aake. He waa the anther of twelTe playi, two of 
which gained the prize. {Said, a s. EifatSiii.) 

2. The diitinguiibed tngic writer, 6f the Athe- 
nian demu of Phlfa in the Cecropid tribe, or, aa 
other* ttate it, of Phyle in the tribe Oeneia, waa 
the eon of Mnemrcbni and Cleilo, and waa bom in 
a C 485, according to the dale of the Arundel 
marble, for the adoptiim of which Uaitang eon- 
tendi. (Bur. Ralilhtui, p. S, &C.) Thi) teeti- 
mony, howerer, la ontweighed by the oiher 
atatementa on tbe anbject, froa which it ap- 
pear! that bia parent* were among thoae who, on 
the iniaaion of Xenea, had fled &om Athena to 
SalamiB (Herad. tIL 41), and that the poet WB* 
bom in that iaiand in B. c 480. (See Clinton, 
aubanno.) Nor need we with M'liller [(Irnt 
IMenOmt, p. 3fiB] aet it down at once aa a mere 
legend that hia birth took place on the very day of 
the battle of Salami* (Sept. S3), though we ma; 

oontriTcd to being the three gteal tragic poet* of 
Athena into conneiion with the moat gkrioua day 
in her annalt. (Hartung, p. 10.) Thua it haa 
been said that, while Euripidea then first aaw the 
light, Aeechylni in the maturity of r 



ictoty. If again we fallow the 
dale of Emtoalhenea. who repretenta Enri- 
pidea a* 76 at hi* death in B. c 406, hi* birth 
muBt tie aaugned to B. c. 461, aa Millter plaee* it. 
It ha* also been aaid that he recoTed hi* name in 

took place near the Euripna not long before he waa 
bom, and in the aame year ; but Euripidea waa 
new rmme, and belonged, aa we hare Been, 
oilier tragic writer. (See, too, Thnc. i!. 
.) With leapeet to the ttatioo in life of hia 
I, we tnay aafely reject the account giren in 
Sloboen* (lee Baroe^ B<tr. Vit. \ 51, that bia 
bther wai a BaeotiaI^ baniihed from hia conntnr 
for bankruptcy. Hia mother, it i* well known, u 
repreaented by Ariatopbanea aa a heib-aellEr, and 
not a Tery honeal one either (JoL 454, Tham. 
387, 466, 910, Eq. 19, Rm. 839 ; Plin. nii. 22 ; 
Said. (. HI. XnMif, )iair«ir8wlir||f ; Hetych. i. f. 
SacMi^) ; and we find Che aame itatement made 
by Oelliua {it. 20) from Theopompua 



1 neopompuB, aee nut. £st. 30 ; 
AeL V. H. iiL 18 ; Ctem. Alex. Slrim. L 1 ; 
Joaeph, e. A^o». i 24; C. Nop. Ale. 11), nnd 
they are contradicted by lea* erceptionable autho- 
ritiea. That the femily of Euripidea waa of a rank 
&t from mean ia aiaerted by Snidaa (i. c. ) and 
Moachopulua ( YiL £ar.) to ha*e been prored by 
Philochom* in a voA no lougei citant, and aeema, 
indeed, to be home oat by what Athenaena (i. p. 
4'24, e.) reporta fnan Theophraatua, that the poet, 
when a boj, wa* cup-bearer to a chom* of noble 
Alheniana at the Tharaelian teitiTal, — an ofGce for 
hich nobility of blood waa requinte. We know 
*o that he waa taught rhetoric by Prodicut. who 
a* certainly not moderate in hia temii for in- 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



104 EURIPIDES. 

(ntni tdia ni, of Kcking hit pupili among fontlii 
of high nok. (Plat. Apd. p. 19. r, ; Slallb. ad 
toe.; AriiL Abf. iii. 14. § 9 ; Phn«ti. FtL ScpJi. 
Prodieut.) It ii aid that tha fdtiira diilinctjon 
at Eoriiadn wu pndictsd bj an oracle, pramiging 
that he ihontd be crownad with " lacKd gulanda," 
in canMqnence of which hii &thar had him trained 
to gjmnBBtic cxeTciiea ; and Vfl leom tfaat» while 
vet a boy, ha won iha priie at the Eleiuinian and 
Th*Mueanlttnt(Me DicL i/AM. pp. 374, 964), 
and oflned hineelf, when 17 jeui old. u ■ can- 
didate at the OljBipic pmee, but wai not admitted 
bemua of aome danht aboat hit ag& (Oenom. op. 
BiaA. PriKf. Eva*, r. 33 ; Oell. n. SO.) Some 
tnce of hit tarij gyinnutic pnnoiti it remaned 
h7 Mr. Keble {PraeL Aead. iiii. p. G0£) in the 
detailed dcKiiption of the combat between Eleodet 
and PolTnicei in Uie PhoeniHae. (*. 1392,&c.) 
Soon, howeTBT, abandoning thete. hs itodicd the 
artofpaioiingfTbom.Mag. fit JSw. ,- Soid. it^). 
not. at we learn, without iucceaa ; and it haa been 
obierved that the Tfl:Ied figme of Agamemnon in 
the IjMgtHeia of Timanthat vaa probablj in^ 
gettad bj a line in Euripidet' deemption of the 
tame icene. (/pi. u A<U. IfiSO ; Bamea, ad loc; 
comp./Dit,)83,&c) To philoHphf and litentore 
he deroled bimielf with nmcb intemt and eueiyj, 
ttndjing phjnci under AnangnTae, and rhetoric, 
aa we haTe alrefdy aeen, under Prodicna, (Diod. 
i. 7, 3e ; Stmb. ot. p. 645 j HeiacL Pont. Atbg. 
Himtr. % 23.) We leain al» &om Athenaeni 
thai he wai a gnat book-collector, and it ii re- 
corded of bim that he comniitted to memniy certam 
treatieea of Hemcleitoi, which be fbund hidden in 
the temple of Aitemia, and which ha wat the fint 
M> introdnce to ihe notica of SocraleL (Athen. i. 
p. S.a.1 Tatian, Or.e.Orntc. p. 143, b.; Hartung, 
jEkr. And. p. 131.) Hit intimacy with the latter 
ia beyond a donbt, Ihough we miul reject the 
Uement of Oellini (/. e.}, that he nceiTed in- 
o monl idence, lince gociatea 
c 468. twelre ;tan after the 
biith of Enripidea. Tiacea of the teaching of 
Anaxafforaa haTe been remarked in many putagea 
both of the extant plan and of the fr^menta, and 
were impieMed etpeoallj on the loit tiagedj of 
Mtlaappa tit Wim. (Ottf. 54G, 971 ; Pon. 
ad he ; PlaL A/xJ. p. S6, d. e.; Trvad. 879, HiL 
IOU;/>ii^.A/c<n^ip..ed.Wa(nier, p.SAfiCic. 
TWo. Diip, i. S6 ; Hartang, p. 109 ; Bamei, ad 
Jmt. Hmd. ms ; Volck. Dialr. c. 4. Ac.) Tha 
philoaopher ia alio auppoied to be allnded to in the 
Aleata (t. 935, &c ; comp. Cic Tmte. Ditp. iU. 
14). -Wa do not know," taja Miiller (Grw* 
Xttarnton, p. 358), " what induced a penon with 
anch lendenciea toderote himaelf to tragic poetrj." 
He ia refeTiing appaientlj to the oppoaition be- 
tween the pbilotajAical coniiclinna of EnHindea 
and the mythical legeoda which foraied the mbjecta 
of tragedy \ otfaeiwiae it doea not dearly appeal 
why poetry thonld be thought incompalible with 
philoaophiol pnrtatta. If; however, we maytrtiat 
the account in Gelliua (£. c), it would teem, — and 
thia ia not unimportant for our eatimation of bit 
poetical character,— thai (he mind of Enripidea 
vat led at . a >ery early period to that which 
afterwaidi became tha buajneta of hia life, unce be 
wrote a tragedy at the age of eighteen. That it 
waa, therelbn, eihibited. and that it wia ptoba- 
Uy no othH than the Rhetut are pointa nnwar- 
ranlably concluded by Huluug (p. 6, Ac.), who 









EURIPIDES. 

aaciibea alio to Ihe Mma date the conpoaiticii «( 
the Yakd Hmotylui. The npreaenHtion of 
the Peliada, Ue Snl play of Enripidea which 
wBi acted, at lout in hia ova name, took place ii 
B. c 455. Thii atatenwnt nata on the authority 
of hia anonjmooa life, edited by Elmalcy frooi a 
MS. in the Ambrotiao library, and compand aith 
that by Tbomaa Magiitei i and it it coaGnned by 
the life in the MS& of Parie, Vieiina, and Copen- 
hagen. In B. c 441, Eoripidet gained forlhefint 
time tha lint priie, and he continued to cihibit 
playa until B. c 40H, the date oC the Omla. 
{See Clinton, aub annia.) Soon after thii be 
left Athena fbr the eonit of AnCHiLAUa, king of 
Macedonia, hia reaiona fbr which itep can eal; be 
matter af conjecture. Traditionary icandal hut 
aacribed it to bit diigntt at the iDtrigue of hii 
wife with Cephiaophon, and the ridicule which wu 
ahovered upon bin in conaequence by the mnic 
poett. But the whole ttary in (loettion hai been 
aufficiently rented by Hartnng {f. 165, Ac), 
though abjectiont may be taken tc ' 

author of the life of Enrijudea reporu l 
married Choerilhi, danghtar of Mneulochut, and 
that, in conaequence af bar infidelity, he wrote the 
mppaiytm to tatiriie the tex, and dirorced htf. 
He then manied again, and hia aecond wife, 
named Melitto, proied no better than the Gnt. 
Now the Hippolftf vaa acted in B. c 42S, the 
TieiriKplioTiaxiaai of Ariatophanta in 414, and 
at the latter period Enripidea waa atill nurried u 
Choerilla, Hneailochua being apoken of aa hit 
rrfitaTil with no hint of the eonneiion hating 
ceaaed. (See nam. 210, 2B9.) Bat what can 
be mora onlikaly than that Enripidea ahonld haTe 
allowed fourteen yeara to elapte between hia dia- 
coYery of hia wife'a infidelity and bii divorce of 
her P or that Ariitopbanet ^ould hare made no 

piorianuat t It may be laid, however, that (he 
name ChaetiUa it a miatake of the grammtriana 
for MelittD ; that it vat the latter wboae iniidelily 
gave rite to the tUppolyba ; and that the ut- 
trigneof the fbrmerwith Cephitopbon, nhaeqnent to 
414, occaijoned Enripidea to leave Atheni. Got 
thit it inconiittent with Chocrilla'i age, according 
to Hartung, who arguea thnt : — Euripjda had 
three aona by thia lady, the yonngeat of whom 
muit have been bom not later ban 434, for he 
exhibited phip of hia father (?) in 404, and mnat 
at that time, tberefore (?), have been thirtr yean 
old (comp. Hartung, p. G ) ; oanie<iaently ChoeriOt 
muat have become the wife of Enripidea not later 
than 440. At the time, then, of her alleged adul- 
tery the mnat hare been upwarda of ^y, and 
mnat have been married thirty yoart. But it may 
be urged that CbceriUa may have died toon afler 
the repRfentation of the Tiamtfltohasiaat (and 
no wonder, taya Hartung, if her death mu hul- 
ened by ao atrodona an attack on her hnabmd and 
her bther 1 ), and Enripidea may then have married 
a yonng wife, Helitto, who played him h* 



inavered, that it 



IT from the f^fifft 



alt. however, the ailenea of Ariitopbanei it the beat 
reAitalion of the calumny. [CiFuiKirHoH.] With 
leapect to the real teaaon for the poet'a mnoval 

Aichehiilt, at vhoae court the higbott hoooun 

D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EURIPIDES. 
uvnd im, natd hn< mndi lunptttion for one 
EbaleduEmijidcmaal Athnu. TbeBltacka 
rf AniUftaatt nd oUmt* bad pnlMblj not bna 
wiiiidi tbtir cflbct ; lb«n wn > itrDog, noUnt, 
nd BDicnpiiloDi puty apiiut bun, wboM m- 
ffiM ad iuftiHi B ven uptweitt in the nanlu 

ncsnj ef Vum {i^ ci^. iiii. 4), he wrote IS 
tnjirdH Bid pined the jsue oulj £td time* i ac- 
adisi lg Thcou Uigiilcr, IG of bu f1>7> oat of 
K ■« HKBHfoL AEla lua deUh, indeed, bi> 
tfi f«tial nwriU ■ecm to h>Te been taUj and 
pvnilj nopuud ; but lo hira btta thaw of 
Vardinnh unoD^ ounelTee erm in bji lifetime ( 
■ad jn ta tb« poemi irf bolb, the ^■wtb nrt- 
TM (f Pbdu it t>ab>p* «ped^7 Bpplieible. 
Einpidn, iffOB, miut haTs been awim that bia 
ptiliiophia] leoeu were ngarded, wbetber jsilly 
w H, arith eonaidenble nupidiui, and he hud 
•iRBij boa *—■'—' with a charge of impielj in a 
■angfjiialiBeiaB the gnHmd of the well-Juiawii line 
ii lb /%ia^ (607), aup|»aed to tx upnw 
nrfBdtal Rwntion. (AriM. AieL iii IG^S.) 
Ht did Ht lire hing to ecijoj the honoon and 
jlatmt al the HKcdonian CBurt, u hii death 
wk fJKc in B. c 406. Mott teatimooiei agrw 
a natUg ibu h* «u toni in pieco by the king' 
*^ vlu^ aBconling to 10010, wen Ht upon biE 
>kn(h aiTj bj Aniiidani* uid Cmteuu, Iw 
mil piea. Bat eiea with the actount of bia end 
mM baa beea busy, reporting that he met it at 
U* kodi of women while be wu going one ni^t 



a mixtnre of the 



In abmniEa with ropect 

tkina and bia hMnd of the feinale aex. jus 
JuSuna tent to atk for hit remaina, bat Anhe- 
bii nfaaed to give (hem im, and boned them in 



pMet fat bia death ii 



Then„ 
10 hai^ been ao | 
ID of hit next play he 
._„__-r»d. (Ael. r.ai; 
I>i>d.InLl03; Oell. IT. 20; ?Ba>.i.20 1 TboED. 
Uig, rd.£v.,-Suid.t.ii.EJ;>»IIt)iiSteph.B;L 
ar. K ffi ln i ii ; Enr. Ani, ed. Wagnn, p- HI; 
■n &nea. VO. Emr. § 31 ; Bajle, DiA HMor. 
!■ (■ Etr^ijit, and the aatboiitiea there re- 
fandbi.) The 
BAtbaiiiamaiiionedb;Pantaniat(L21}. The 
"ffaiwira felt for him by foreignen, even in hit 
iifcta^ Bay be iUnatratHl not onlj by the patro- 
»p af ARbeUiit, bat alto bj what Plutarch 
■tarda {Sic 29), that itamr of the Athenian 



•Ul into their barbonr an Atbeaian al 



■'•d t? pintea, allowi 
(■odih^meoftbe 



1 iey 
cnw (DBjd npeM bigmeuta 



Wt bate almad; btinMed thai da ao 

■Utb ve find in Atbcnaena and otbera of the pro- 
^Mj- of Eoriindet are mere idle acindal, 
lonAj mtbj of aerioua refutation. (Athen. 
K^U7,t.603,e.; camp. Snid.J.c,- Alitt. Am. 
IW; GeboL adloc) On the utbority of Alex- 
■dtt Aftolsa (<». OaO: XT. 20 ; conp. AeL V.H. 
^ 11) we )aam that be waa, like hit maal 
paa, of a aerioiu temper and avene 
rtfttrtt ml imnyiKit); and though am 
tOa it iadeed hj no cuwu iscMnp»tible 



BURIPIDES. 105 

with Tldoot haldti, yex it ia alto one on which 
are very apt to arenge tbemtelTeg by ttporta 
inainnationi of the kind we are alluding to. 
Ceitainly the calumny in queition leema to be 
conttsdicted in a nvHt meature by the apirit of the 
which the here it dearly a great 
lie with the author, and &aiD wbicb it baa 
nferreil that bia own tendency waa even to 
Iim. (Keble, PratL Acad. p. 606, &c} 
It may be added, that a iptcuitltia character, like 
that of Euripidei, it one oyer which aoch lower 
temptationt hare ntually leat power, and which it 
lialile rslher to thoae of a apiriloB] utd inleUectual 
kind. (See Butler'a A<aL put iL c 6.} Ha 
doea there appear to be any better fbundation for 
that other char^ which baa been breiuht agnintt 
him, of haired to the female lei. The alleged 
infidelity of bia wife, which it commonly adduced 
to teeonnt Etc it, bat been diacutaed nbo*e; and 
ve may perhapa laiely pau ma the other atata- 
ment, fbuud in Oelliua (it. 201, where it it attri- 
buted (0 hit htTing had two wiyea at once, — B 
doable doae of matrimony I The charge no doubt 
originated in the BuMent; of bit tamper and de- 

Uinly he who drew anch chancten at Antigone, 
Iphigeneia, and, aboTe ajl, Alcettia, waa not blind 
10 the gemleneit, the ttrong afleclioii, the Kit 
atwndoning de'otedntsi of women. And if hit 
playa contain apedment of the tti &r di^rent 
from thete, we mutt not forget, what baa indeed 
almoti patted into a proTerb, that women an both 
better and worae thm men, and that one eipedal 
charactariatic of Enripidea wat to npreient honian 
nature oi if u. (Aritt i^iel. 46.) 

With reapect to the world and the Deity, ha 
tecma to htTi adopted the doetriDet of hit matter, 
not mimiicd apparently wi^ panUieiatic riewL 
[Ahaiaookai.] (Vakk. Diatr. 4—6; Hartlmg, 
Eur. FaL p. 9£, ftc) To clatl him with alheitt^ 
and to ipeak in the nme bteath, it Sir T. Browne 
doet {Rd-Mtd. J 47), of "the impietiet of Lndan, 
Euriindet, and Julian," it nndoubtedty nnjutt. 
At the laine time, it muR be confetied that we 
look in Tain in bii playt for the high £uth of 
Aetchylut, which CTer recogniact the hud of Pni- 
fidence guiding the troabled coorae of erenta and 
orer-mling ihem for good ; nor con we &il to ad- 
mit that the pnpil of Anoiagoiaa could not lymp*- 
Ihite with the popular ndigiout tyttem around him, 
nor throw bimielf cordi^y into it. Aetchylut 
indeed rote aboTe while he adopted it, and fonaally 
retaining itt kginda, imputed to them a higher 
and deeper motal ajsnificaocs. Snob, however, 
waa not the cue with Enripidet ; and there it 
much truth in what MiiUv taya {Grtdc Littrabat, 
p. S5B), that " with reipect to the mythical tndi- 
tiona which the tragic mute hod aelecled oa her 
nbjectt, he ttood on an entitety difiermt faoting 
from Aetchylna and from Sopboclet. He coold 
not bring bia philetophical conrictiont with regard 
to the nature of Ood and Hit relation to mankind 
into honnony with the cnnlentt of theae l^endi, 
nor conld ha peat oTer in ailence their ineongmi- 
tiea. Hence it ia that he ii driven to the atranga 
necetnty of carrying on a lort of polemical dijcua- 
tion with the Tery maleriala and aubjecia of which 
be had to treat." (HtrcFwr. 1316, ISir.^wfniti. 
113B, Ontf. 406, /oa, 44 5, Ac, Fragm. Btllrr. 
ed, Wagner, p. 147 ; Clem. Alex. Fnlngit. 7.) 
And if we raaj icgard the Baeeiat, written to- 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



106 EURIPIDES, 

mrd* tka dow d[ hii life, u ■ aort of mantatMa 
irf that Tiawi, ud ■■ an iTowal th&t rdigimu 
mjiteriet m not to be lubjected lo Ifae bold teni- 
tiD7 of nawo (•» HiiUei, Or. LU. p, 379, Smm. 
$ 37; Kcbld, iVwf. vfovf. p. 609). it ii bat m ud 
[Bctnre a{ ■ mind whieb, veuied with Hxptidim, 
■nd hiTing no ob)«tiTe lyatfloi of tinth to HtJifj 
it, mjnieacu in what ii dlabliibed u > deodcmjig 
lelief fram frnitlu* iptcnlation. But it WH not 
swrI]' wilh rnpBct to tb« natnn uid MtiibittH of 
the godj tbM Euripidca placed hiouelf in oppou- 
tian b) tbe tociant lexendiL, irhieh m find him 
■Itering in the ntiiil ubitruy minner, both M to 
BTenti ind choncten. Thu, in the Omlm, Hf- 
■uliOa eomei before u u a lelfiib cowtri, mi 
Helea lu • wonUeM wanton ; in the Hilaa, the 
notion of Steeichcnu ii adopted, that tba heroine 
WM neret euiiod lo Tro; at all, and that il w» a 
tnoTB ^ttitkm of bet fia which the Grseki and 
Tnjana fought (comp. Herod. iL 112—130); 
ADdmnaehe, the widow of UectoT and ikve of 
Neoptskmna, aeema almoat to forget the pait in 
kec qnaml with Hennione and the peiila of her 
pcMmit litDBlioa ; and Electim, muried bj the 
polkj of Acgiithiu to a pounnt, acolda her bui- 
Wd fin innting gneati to dine without regud to 
the iH-prepBied alata of the hider. In ^ort, with 
Earipidea tiagedy i> bnught down into the iphFre 
of OTeiy-daj life, ti1 almia itpiyiiara, iXt x/ni'^, 
olr (inaiioi (Ariit. Ran. 967) i toea an npre- 
■ented, aceoTding to tha miiark of Aiiitotle ao 
often qooled {PoU. 46), not aa Ibejr onght to be, 
bvt aa tbej an ; under tha namea of the andent 
benea, tiw chancten of hia own time are act b»- 
fon na ; it ia not Media, or Ipbigeneia, or Alomtii 
that ia ipeaking, aaji Mc. Keble (Prvtl. Atad. 
p. S9S), bat abattactedlj a mother, a daughter, or 
a wilig. Al] thia, indeed, gare fbllet acope, perhapa, 
for the BihibttiDn of uuiion and (at thoae acenei 
of tendemeaa and pathoa in which Euripidea eipe- 
dailj excelled ; and it wiQ aerre alao to acconnl in 

rt meaanre far tlie preference given to hii playa 
the practical Socnlea, who ia aaid to hare 
noTer entered the tbeotn nnleaa when the; were 
aetad, ai well aa for the admiratioii feh for him b; 
the piwta of the new eaauAy, of whom Henander 
pnfeaiedlj adopted hini foe hii model, while Phi- 
lemon declared that, if he could but beliere in the 
oonaeianaDaaa of the eonl after death, ha would 
cartainlf hang himadt to enjoy the aight of Euri- 
pidea. {Schlefiel,Z>nui.£iL leeLnL; Aelian, r. 
/r. iu 13; Quint. /lit. Or. 1. 1; Tboou Hag. ViL 
Burip. ! Heineka, Fragm. Cam. Onte. i. p. 3S6, 
It. p. 48.) YM, enn a* a natter of art, incfa a 
pcoecaacanhardljba jnatified: it aeemi to partake 
too aincfa of the bnlt oondanmed in Boilean'i line i 

Peindie Caton galant et Bintua dameiet ; 
and it ia a gnTa qnealion whether the moral ten- 
denc; of tntgedy waa not iaptdied by it, — whether, 
ix the abaenoB capecially of a fixed eitemal atan- 
dard of mocalily, it waa not moat dangenna to 
tanqMT with what might nip{dy the plue of it, 
howerer inoflectnalh', thrDUgfa the medium of the 
imagination, — whether indeed it can arer be afe 
to lower to the eamnon level of hnmanity charac- 
tera hallowed by aong and InToited by traditioD 
with an ideal gnodenr, in taaea where they do not 
(and by the power of inTeteiate aaaoctatton to 
eslaar oi couiiteDaiice eril. And there ia anotber 
ebrioua point, which ihould not be omitted while 
we arc ipnkiBg of the moral eflect of the writiiiga 



Td £u> f4<) 



EURIPIDES, 
of Eoiipidal, Tia. tha anarating imirntj (tUi 
exhiUtioni of paiiion and i tein g, btrofnl ai 
Ibey aic, and well aa Ibey merit fat Ub baa 
Aiutotla tha piaiae of beii^ "the moM ti^ieaf 
poeta." {PcKt. 2G.) Tha philoacfher, howem^ 
qnalifiea thia commendatiDn by the remark, that, 
while he prOTidea thna admirably for the eidte- 
ntent of pity by hia cataatrophea, 
arrange the rert well" (af •"' ~ 
oUoav^caT); and we may mention m ooncioHoa ua 
chief objectiona which, artiatically apeoklug. Iutb 
been bnoght with juatice againat bia tiagediH. 
We need bnt allude to hii couatant (oploymmt 
of tha " Daua ex luachina," the diaconneiiia ef 
hia choral odn from tbs nbject of the play (Ann, 
PotL 32; Hor. ^. ad Pit. 191, &c), and Uu 
eitnmely awkward and fbimal character of hU 
ph>loguea. On theae pointa aoma good nBiazki 
wiU be (bond iu Hullu (Onei LU. pp. 363-KO 
and in KeUe. (PrwL Aead. p. S»0, ftc) Another 
aariooa defect ii Iba freqoent inlmdnetioa of fiipl 
Ttifat and of philoaopbical diiqaidtioDa, making 
He^ talk like a aopbiat, and Hecuba like a 6k- 
thinker, and aiming lather at BobtiHy than um- 
plicity. The poet, monoTS, ia too often loM ia 
the rbetoridan, and long daclamationa meet u, 
equally tinatnue with thoaa of Alfieii, They an 
then but dnbioua compliment! which an paid him 
in tefneuce to theae pointa by Ciceio and by 
Quintilian, tha latter <rf whom aayi that he ia 
worthy to be compared wilh the moat doqoml 
pleaden of the forum (CicotfAaL iri. S;Qu>il. 
huL Or. I. 1 ) 1 while Cioefo ao admired bim, tbil 
ha ia aaid to han had in hia hand hto tragedy i^ 
Medea at the time of hia murder. (PtoL Hephaett. 

T. S.) 

Euripidea haa been called the peat of the ■>■ 
phiita,-— a charge by no meana true in ita full «■ 
tent, B> it f^peart that, thoogh he may not ban 
eacsped altogether the aeduction of the aophiitiai 
apirit, yet on tat whole, the pbiloaophy of SooaUi, 



1 apponi 



tof the 



«p.. 



mefl^ 



(Hartung, £W-. AK. 
p. 128, At) 

On the aoma principlea on which ha brought bit 
iiib)ecta and charactara lo the level of ccmmon tile, 
he adopted alao in hia atyle the erery-day mode of 

apeaking, and Artitotle (ftie*. iil 2. J 6) cc '- 

him aa haTing been the fint to produce 
by the akllful employment i£ worda &um we v""- 
uary langu^e of men (comp. Long, dt SM. 31), 
peculiarly fitted, it may be otiaerred, lor the ci- 
preation of (he gentler and more tender feelingi. 
(See Shakspcars, Mmi. y ran, act t. ac I ; 
nHnp.MUller, Gnat LU. p. 366.) 

According to eome aocounta, Euripdea wrote, in 
all, 75 i^yi ; according to othen, 92. Of thesP, 
18 an extant, if we omit the JUow, the gnuine- 
neaa of which baa been defended by Valer and 
Hortnng, while Vulckenaer, Hrnnann, and MuUer 
hare, on good greundi, pronounced it apuriout. To 
what anlhor, howcTer, or to what period it ahonld 
be auigned, ia a diipuled poinL (Valcken. i>iii»'. 
9, 10 ; Hemiann, de RitKi tragBaOa, OjmK. Tol. 
iii. i H'liller, Gr. LU. p. 3B0, note.) A liat ia 
■ubjoined of the extant playa of Euripidea, with 
iheit datei, tacettained or pnbable. For a fnllrr 
Bocount the nader ia refenad to Holler {Gr. LU. 
p. 367, b.) and to Fabriciui {B»L Graee. toL iL 
p. 239, &«.}, the latter of whun girea n catahigue 
alao of the kiatdramaa. 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EURIPIDES. 
AlMlk. K c 438. TUi fkj mi bran^t ant 

■ tke Jul of ■ tMologj, aul atood Ihcrdbn in 
tin jifaig if m atjac dnma, M vhidi iodwd it 
ban, in ■■» puti, great nmiladly, putknlmilj 
IB ibe npaaiMtuo of Hocoln in hit cni*. Thii 



m other gro 
Imhlt. (8« Hcnn. DiiMrl. d* Evip. AlcaL, 
fn«ud ta Hook'i editioD of 1837.) WMle, 
Wvtn^ m msgniae tliii ncjric charactor in tbe 
Jlii^ ■« BiiiM cbdJhb that wa ouuwt, >* Utillar 
dn, H a jllmig bidcal in the amlmdrng Mena. 

JUh.i.g.431. Tha fnir pl^ npnaaoMd 
B lUt ;eat t^ Bmipidai, wka gauwd the thiid 
pb^ ven lUeJea, PUhelilk, Dklfh and Jtf» 
tm tt O t f u r i ut , u ntjiie dnma. (Sm Haitnng^ 
Ew.Bed. pf. SS3— S7i.) 

If r iia^ Ganm^. *. c 438. In tliii year 
fan^ltt prisHl tbe fint pnie. For Ihi nann dT 
Uk Dtig Cdnmifir (cTtfaJiif j p ot). Ha TT. 72, b:. 
Thn wu in oUo plaj, imllcd tb« FciiM Hrpo- 
'^'1. M kngcr citBDt, on wliich ths pmcnt 



EURIPIDES. 



!« 



Qdop^ of nncotain d«tB. It ia inleraMiag ai 

tha only aitant ipeameD of tlw Oieak n(;rio 

Hiillei pawM on it. 

Beaide* the fUjt, than are ertant Gn letteta, 

pDiportiDg to hara baan writtcoi by Enripidai. 

Tline of tham an addioaed to king Arcbdaili, 

and tlw o^iei two to Sophodea and Cephiaophan 
rtivoly. Bantlcy, in a Icttu to Bane* (BtMl- 
a»n.ivmhmu, ad. Wordiw. toL I p. 64). 
ona what lie conaidan tlia internal pPxA of 
tpniioiuDeaa, loma of wbich, bawetar, an 

drawn from loma of tbe Uaa or doubtful itala- 
I with napacl (o tha Hfs of Eoripidea. But 

«• bare do baMtation in Httiiig tlwiB down aa 



Bplywiiii 
•Uckibaoin 



id by beiwlf boUly and wilbouE natcaint. 
Fvikttaajcetual maoni of the title KoAvrnt- 
^aai^ wtiad *" tlii* hnnar dnma, aeo Wagner, 
'r^B. JWih p. 330, fta.; Valdun. Pra^. u 
IHhi^ (p. 19, 20 ; aomp. Uaitnig; Evr- AA 
1^ 4l, Ac, 401, *c 

ihada. Tbk play moat liaTe been exbibilad 
Mk i^ c 433, aa AriilsphaneB pacodiat a paa- 
■fiif itin tba Cloaii (1148), which ba brought 
w ia tlial year. HBlleT nyt that the paaMce in 
■^ Htaia (64S, ad. Port. J, rrnm ti nai ra 
'■■'.i^' attoa to refer to the miifiirtDnaa at tfaa 
^tntoit al Pyloa in b. c 425." Thii ia ottainly 
t"^ ; and, if it it tbe oaa, wa may fix the »- 
puatkn 1^ the play in B. c 424. 

SmrUJat. UiUler lateri it, bj onijactBn, to 



TrttJa. B.G.4I. 

a«m, a^gned by M'liUcr, 
^ iatoMl eridewa, to tba pcnod of the Skiliau 
•Tt^UiaD. («.c4I5~m3.) 

JUaa. a c 412, in tba nme yai with the 
1« pky of the .diadrnawilB. (Sdtd. od AriM. 
nw. U12.) 



■.C40S. 
.-t^. The exact data ia not known ; but 
<ta flay «H soe of tbe laat eihihilad at Athena 
^oiaathor. ^Sah^ ail.dnaL An. £3.) 

Btdat. Tba plaf vaa a^arantty wiiuen for 
'■^•anttatiaa in Hicedonia, and tharrfiva at a 
■«T bM pariod << the lifa of Eoi^idea. Sea 
•bn. 

fr^jmiii ^ AJk. Thia play, together with 
<b> Baaim and iha Alenatim, wu bni«ht ont at 
ttWaa, Att tbe poeft death, by Iha Tonnger 
EmfifM [No. 3.] 



miiMi^ and aa th 
if mt iytt, thoogh I 



ad MiMMri^ to Bantkg 

g who deniaa tbeii nm 



Toe aditio nmcepa of Enr^idaa conlaina Iha 
JUadao, Hipp^flat, Abulia, and Jadnauc^ in 
capital letteta. It ii witbout date or printer'a 
namo, bnt ia inppoaed, with mncb probability, to 
baTB bean edited by J. Laemia, and printed by 
De AlofBL, at Florence, towardi the end of the 
ISlh centuiy. In 1503 an edition waa pnblilhad 
by Aldniai Venice: it containa 1 8 playi, including 
tba ittenw and omitting the £Mni. Auolher, 
poUiibed at Heidelberg in 15S7, contained tba 
Idttn Teruon of Aeniil. Portni and a fragment of 
the JAbkhc, for the firat time, from aome andant 
MSS. in the Palatine libiary. Another wai pab- 
liahed by P. Stephana, Osnara, 160S. In tiial of 
fiamaa, Camlndga, 1694, wb^eiai he tbe dafeeU 
of Baniea aa an sdiler, mnii waa done towaidi the 
corraclioa and iUuatratiou of tba text It containa 
alao many fiagDiaita, and tbe qmiioua letten. 
Other edition* are that of MugraTa, Oiferd, 1778, 
of Beck, Laipaig, 1778—88, of Ual^iiae, Leipai'g, 
1813—39, in 9 Tola, with the Sehoiia and tnf 
maata, and aTaiionun edition, puUiihed ai OlaigA 
in 1821, in 9Tola.8TO. Tbo fragmeuu ba?e beoi 
recently edited in a uparate Conn and lery latia- 
btorilybyWagner, Wratiilaw, 1844. Otteparala 
playa than haTa been many editiona, a. ff, by Por* 
BOO, Ebn>lay,ValckanBar, Uonk,Pfln^ and Har- 
mann. Tbeie are lite nmnaroua tnndatlon* of 
different playa in aemal langoagai, and the whola 
worki hare been timilatad into En^iA Tarae by 
Potter, Odbtd, 1814, and into Oaman by Botha, 
Berlin, 1800. The Jeeatla, by Oaacc' 
"at OrayH Inn 



being added, omitta . 

3. Tba yoan^eat of the Ihna aoni of the abora, 
according to Soidaa. After tbe death of hia father 
b* bnoght out thna aC hii playa at the great Dio- 
nyna, til the AbimagiM (no longer extant), the 
/ptynoB ol Aaiu, and the Baakat. (BchoL ad 
AriiL Ram. 67.) Snidai mentiona alvi a nephew 
d tba gRst poet, of tbe aama name, to whinn ha 
aacribea the anthoiahip of three iriayi, Mtdta, 
Orttlgt, and yoiyatna, and who, he telta ni, ^ined 
a priiB with one of hu nnde'i tiagediei after tbe 
doatb of the hitter. It ia pnbable tiiat tbe ion 
and tba nephew hare been confmnded. Ariito- 
I^ianea loo (Eaii». 835, 826, 829} mentiana a ear- 
tain Enripidea who had abortiy before proposed a 
pr^MTtj-taiafafottietb. The grepoaal made bim 



10» EUKYANAX. 

■t Ant TtTj popular, bat Ibe nKunre w» thrown 
oat, and he beauDC {nnhvith the ohj«t of a gena- 
nl oalct7, atHnt B.C. 394. It ii dooblfnl whether 
be it to ba identified irith the toa oi the nepheir 
ot the poet (See BOdcb, FM. Sam. </ Alia 
W. 49S, SOS, iSO.) [E. E.] 

KURO'PA (E^iitni), Bcanding to the Itiid 
(liT. 321), • daoghtar of Phoenix, hot according 
to the common tiadition s diuighterof Agenor, wu 
duried off br Zeui, who had inetauiiiiphoeed him- 
•elf inta a bull, bom Phoenicia to Crete. (Apollod. 
iii. 1. § 1 ; MMch. iL 7 t Herod. L 173 ; Pan>. 
Til i. % I, it 19. g 1; Ot. AttL iL B39, &t 
Comp. AoKNOB.) Inrope, ai a port of the world 
WBi beliered to hare recOTed it> name from thii 
UralODi Phoenician prirKeei. (Hum. Hymn, n 
JpaU. 351; Hsrod. ir. 4fi.) There are two other 
mjthieal pemnagM of tlui name ( He*. Tiag. 
3S7 ; Find. PjlA. it. 46), which occoti ■!» ai a 
nniaiDe of Demeta'. (Pui. ii. 39. | 4.) [L.8.I 

EUR0TU9 (Upinit), a ion of Macedon and 
Onithjia, the dai^ler of Cecropi, bom whom the 
tawm of Eannu in Haeedoaia wai behered to 
lia*ereeu>«diUnima.(8le^B7i.Ke.) [L. S.] 

EUROPS (EffM^), the oaine of two mjthiol 
prnomgea, the ime a ton of Aegialent and king of 
Sieyon, and the other a aan of Phoroneu. (Paul, 
ii. 5. S fi. 34. 1 J5.) [U 8.] 

EUROTAS (EdfWnii), a eon of Mjhii and 
giandaoa of Lelei. He wiia the father of Spaita, 
the wife of Laeedaemon, and ii laid to hare tatried 
the WBtcra, nagnating in the plain of LtKadaemoD, 
Into the aek by meana of a eaiuU, and to haTt 
oiled the riw which aroae thtrefrom after hij 
own name, Eorotaa. (Pane. iii. 1. § 2.) Apollo- 
donu (iii. 10. g 3) calle him a aoa efLelei by the 
llfTDph Clcochareia, and in Stepbanaa of Bymndum 
(i. n. TaSyrrtr'l bii mother ii oJlcd Tajgete. 
(Comp. Schol. od Pimd. Fytk. ii. IS, «. Ti. 46, 
ud iMBpk. sae.) [L.S.] 

EURY'ALE (Edpu^n), the name of three nj- 
thical being!. (Hee. jiag. 276; Pind. F^ 
xUi. SO; ApoUod. I 4. §3; Val Flacc t. 312; 
comp. Orion.) [L. 8.] 

EURY'ALUS (tipiaxot). I. A »n of Me- 
ciitena, ii mentioned by Apollodorua (i. 9. § 16) 
■moog (he Aivonsnt*, and wa> odo of the Epigoni 
who took and deitiayed Thebea. (Pane. ii. 20. 
M) ApoUod. iil7. §2.} He wai a bnve war- 
lior, and at the funeia] gamea of Oedipiu he con- 
qoerad all hia eompetitota (Hma. It. xxiiL 608) 
with the exRptioa of Epeiai, who eicellod him 
m wimtling. He accompiuiied Diomedee to Troy, 
whan he waa one of the brsTeii heroes and alew 
aerecal Tnjana. (IL iL 56h, tL 20; Paaa. iL 30. 
g 9.) In the painting of Polygnotst at Delphi, ha 
waa repreaented a> being Bounded ; and there waa 
■lao a atatae of him at Deljdii, which atood betireen 
thoM of Dioroede* and Aegiideiu. (Pank k. 10. 
S 2, 2S. i 2.) 

2. One of tho auitan of Hippodameia. (Pane. 
*L 21. § 7 1 Bchol. ad PiKL Ot. L 137.) 

3. A MD of OdyaacoB and Erippe, alao called 
Doiyctns or Leontophron, wm killed by Tele- 
machoa. (Paithen. Bvl. 3; Eoalath. ad Hant. 
p. 1796.) There are har other mythical per- 
lonagn of thii name. (Apollod. L 8. g 5; Horn. 
OL liiL 1 IS, &c; Vitg. Jem. ix. 176, &c ; Paoa. 
ir. 20. g 3.) [L. S.] 

EIJRVANASSA. [PiLOPa.] 
UlUKY'ANAX (EJpubBf), a Spartan of the 



EURYCLE& 
royal honee of the Agidk He waa the «on of Do- 
lieoa, and waa one of the commanden of the Iwc- 
daemoniana at the bottle of Plataeae, a c. 47!). 
(HemL ii. 10. £3, SS.) [See DoHnua, ti^ L p. 
1067, a.] (C.P.M.] 

EURY'BATES(EJp«*iTin). 1. ByUitinwiileii 
oUed EriMti, waa a eon of Teleon, and one of 
the Aigonauta, He waa akilled in the medical 
an, and dreiaed the wound which Oileui maind 
from oneof the Stymphalianbirdi. (ApoUon.Rbod. 
i. 73, iL 1040 ! Hygin. f<A 14 ; VaL Flacc. L 
402.} 

2. The herald of Odyeeeua, who fallowed hit 
muter to Troy. He ii bumiToaily deecribed ai 
hnnp-bscked, of a bnwn complexion, and wiik 
early hair ; but be wai hononred by hit maiter, lina 
he wai kind and obedient. (Horn. IL L 319, iL 
184, ii. 170, Od. lii. 246.) {L. S.] 

EURY'BATES {Ztpijeinit), an ArgiT^ the 
commander of 1000 Tolunteen who want to the 
aaaiitance of the Aeginetan) in tfaeir war with the 
Atheniana jojt befine the Peivan ioTauim. H* 
had pfBctiaed the pentathlam, and challennd fonr 
of tttt Atheniana to lioRla combat. Tfan* he ilew, 
but fell bimaelf by the hand of the foaitfa. (Hemd. 
tL 93. ii- 7i.) tC P. M.] 

EURY'BATUS (ElfrMm-oi). 1. AUamiui. 
who waa rictor in the wreatling-malchi, in 01. 18, 
when Ihia nedea of conteat waa £nt intndictd. 
(P««.,.B.|7.) 

3. An ^heaiaa, whom Croeana amt with a 
large fan of nxmey to the Pelopomwaai to bin 
meicenaiiei tor him in hi* war with Cyrna. Ha, 
howoTer, went orer to Cyroa, and betrayed the 
whole matter to him. In ooaieqnence of Ihii 
tieachery, hia name puaed into a proreib amongit 
iheOneki. (Diad.£;n»7)<.ifa ^rttl ViLf.bi3; 
Ulpiao, at Dent, de Conm. p. 137 i Ae«hin. ■ 
Qa. c. 43 ; Plat. Fralag. p. 337.) IC. P. M.] 

EURY'BIA (EVui), a daughter of Pontu 
nd Oe, who became by Criaa the molbei d 
Litraeua. Pallaa, and Petiea. (Hea. Tlueg. 37S : 

rillod. L 2. g 2.) There are two other mythi- 
penonagea of tlut tumte. (ApoUod. ii.7. g Sj 
Piod. IT. 16.) [LS.J 

EURYBI'ADES. [Thwhstoclw ] 
EURYCLEIA (EjpJuAtia). 1. Acoirdiif la 
TheHalian tradition, a daughter of Athamaa and 
Themiito, and the wife of Melaa, by whom the 
became the matber of Hjperti. (SchoL ad Pi*d. 
PytK IT. 221.) 

'^ A daughter of Dpa, waa pnrchaaed by I^Atci 
ninght up Telemachoa. When Odywai re- 
turned home,- ahe tecogniied hun, though he waa 
in the diaguiK of a beggar, by a lor, and afler- 
warda the faithfully auiated him againit the 
■ a. (Horn. Od. L 429, 4t, iT. 712, it, lii. 
385,^0., ixii. ixiiL) [L. S.] 

EURYCLEIDAS (EdpucXel&u), an Athenian 
ilor, who, together with Micon or Miejon, poi- 
•caaed much i^uence with the people, whid th^ 
need unworthily, a> the Athenian* nndcr tbeir 
guidance launched fbith, aicoiding to PolyUoi, 
into the moat unnatrainad flattery towardl the 
kinga, whoae (aTOur they detit«d to gain, cape- 
dally Plolemy IV. (Philopator) of ^pL Pau- 
- ' lella ua that Philip V. of Maodon canard 
both to be remored bypoiton. (PolyLi. I IK; 
Pan*. iL 9.) [E. E.] 

EURYCLE9 (EJpvraiii), a Spartan an^ilart, 
who built the fincal of the bathi at Coiiath, and 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



iM : liu nigo w 
4 tin fint U«i 



RDBTDICE. 
timd it whk Ixutifid BwrUn. IPtm. ii. 8. 
ti) IP. 8.] 

EITRTCLES {tJpm\»i). b Onak phjiieiaii 
« punarim, win miut bHn li*td in or bdbn 
tk fait astuy tHa Chiiit, M he ii meotiimed 
bj&ntkiiB. (Oho. fffywr. p. SDB.) He sp- 
pEVi to b*v writtn A cannmtuy on H [ppocnlei, 
* ItikJk. wUA dna not DOv eiiit. [ W. A. O.] 

EUitY'CBATES(i:Jrnfic(n|t) I^ini th« lllb 
liif e( SpvlB ia ik aW hi 
udnt with ibc (Dndnnoa 
■in nr. (Puu iu. S. | 3.) 

11. Qtndm of the titan, aBed iIm (Herod. 
<i »4} EBTycntidH, ra 13th of the nine line, 
nd leipicd during tlw eutiet *nd diawtmu put 
rf Ik nr with Tegn (Hend. i. 65), which hi) 
Inodvn Am^udxidei bnmght to m happj imie. 
(rnL ill 3. 1 S.) [A. H. C.J 

EL'RYCVDK. [Endtkion.] 

El.'ET'DAHAS (Edp*Hw)- 1. A Km of 
In ml Prwuiiiii, wn nw of the Aijonuita. 
(HjgiD. Fai. U.) ApoODDin Rhodiiu (L 67 ; 
to^OpLJry. 164)alli him ■ md of Ctimeniii. 

Z Oh of the nittn of Peuelopr, who WM 
IM br Odjwu. (Hum. Od. xnii. 297, ixiL 
^1 Tlicn u« tTo more mythiot penopagee 
<flUiiiwe(ApoIkid.iL1. gj; Horn. /i.T. ItD), 
>UOTid(n. 131} BMUBnunmie of Hector 



tV.. ti^ofSputi. At (he deiib'af hie bther 
chihL Acooniiiig to Peaiuiiu, he 
b; CleeoMoaa wi[h the auiitina of 
isd tha rojid power of hi> &milj 
hi* btotber EucLddei. The truth of 
Ail iMt i^ howerar, qneetionehle. (Pwu. ii. 9. 
i 1. iii. It. g 6 ; Mweo, ^urlo, Tol. iii. 3, p. 
IJfi-) [C P. M.] 

EUHTDICE (E%»»M). The itioH celebnled 
<t thi Bujr Dijtfaiial pereonega txating thii 
•■•■iiEerjdicc, tliewileorOtpheiu. [0«pii«iis.] 
IW in iinii olltei* beeide, lii. ooe of the D>- 
•Bda (AinUDd. a 1. g S), • du^ta of Adiu- 
taBd mbcTof laomediM (Apollod. iii. 12. g 3), 
> duster of Laeedaemai uid wife of Acriiiu) 
i-iyM. ii. 2.g3, iii. 10. § 3 ; Pau. iiL 13. § 6), 
tjnfkutef ajmeniuuid wife of Neetoi (Horn. 
(A a. U2), the wil^ of Ljciupii end mother of 
MtiHiH(ApoUod. i. 9. ^ 1 4), the wif^ of Cieoo, 
H if Thibei (Soph. ^iI^bh). uid, MEording to 
At "(^TtiB,~ the wife of Aineiu (Pane. i. 26. 

DUSY'DICE CUfKicn). 1. An nifrkii prin- 
^wifa of Amjntu II., king of Hecedonia, end 
W of the hneoe Philip. Aeraidiiig to Jiulin 



EUBYDICK. 



109 



with I 



(■ii. 1, i), ihe ennged in ■ tnupinc; i 
^maat tpiatt the lib of her huboid 



ifitf the deUh of Ihe luier (b. c 369), hii eideel 
■1. <hiiiriii, who ncteeded him on the throne, 
*■* Bunktcd tfya * ehort reign bj Ptolfmj 

^'■tla, nd it ■ I prohahle that Eorydica wu 

Montd in tbie jiM alio. Fnim > c«npnri»n of 
^ ■iwmiiili of Jnnin (lii. 5) and Diodaru (xt. 
lUIT.Tn.!), H wugild eppenr that Ptotonj wu 
'*' leniiiiur at whoae initlgatioD Evrjdice had 



mother pretender ti 
wu joined bj the greater part of the MHcedoniue, 
ndoced Burrdics to gnat diffienltiei, and led hei 
to inToke the anitlance of the Athenian geneml 
Ipfaicratea, who readilj eepoiued her caute, drore 
out "-——-. and reiutated Eurjdita and Plolemf 
in the full paueuion of Uaodonia, the latter being 
declared r^eal for the joaag king Perdioaa. 
(Aeechin. <la Fait. £^. 93 6, 9 ; Com. Nep. /jri>- 
crai. 3; Snidai, i. e. KAfaroi.) Jnitin repreaeDta 
Eoijdicfl u baring nibaeqaentlj joined with 
PloEeoIf in patting to dath Peniiccai alu ; bnt 
tbii i> certain!)' a reiitake. On the eontrarf, Pei- 
dieeu in bet pnt Ptolen; to death, and tucoeeded 
him on the throne : what part Eorydtce took in 
the matter we know net, anj more than her eul> 
aeqiWDt &te. <Diad. ni. 2 ; SjncelL p. 363, b.) 

2. An lUjiian b; birth, vile of Philip of Mace- 
don, and matber of Cyiana nr Cynna. (Airiao, op. 
Pint. p. 70, b. ; Kahn, aH AiliaK. V. H. liii. 86 i 
Pan*. T. 1 7. f 4.) According to Dicaorchu [ap, 
Alha. liiL p. S57, c), her name wu Aodala. 

3. DauKhlar of Amj^tae, ion of Perdiccu III„ 
king of Maoedonia, and Cfnane, dangler ti 
PhiUp. Her real name upean to haie b*eD 
Adea (Aniin, op. PI^^V- 70, b.) 1 at what lime 
itmichatlged to that of Euydicc we are not lidd. 
She wu btODght op b; her niDiher, and uemi to 
hare been earij ■eeuitomed hy ber to thoee maecu- 
line and martial enrdiH in which Cynane henelf 
delisted. (Poljien. riii. 60 j Athen. liil p. 
560.) She aceompanied her mother on her duing 
eipedition lo Aua [CthjIHi] ; and when Cjnana 
wu put to dtath by Aleeta*, the diKontaat ex- 
pmaed by the troopi, and the ropect with which 
they looked on Euijdioe u one of the »urriving 
tnemben of the royal faonie, induced PerdicCM not 
only to ■{•re her life, but to gire her in nwiriaga 
to Ihe onhappy king Arrhidaeui. [Airian, ofi. 
PlaL p. 70, b.) We hear no men of her during 
the life of Peidiccu j bat after hi* death her acliTa 
and amtHtioiu ([uril bn>ke forth ; ihe demanded of 
the new goveman, Pilhon and Airiiidaene, lo ba 
admitted la her doe (hare of aatheiity, and by hei 
iatriguea igainet them, aod the &>aar ihe enjoyed 
with the army, ihe ucceeded in eompelliag them 
10 redgn their office. Bnt the arriTal of her mortal 
ensmj, AnCipater, diioonoeited her project! : iha 
took an BCliTe part in the proceedingi at Tripaia- 
deiaai, and eren delivered in penon to the awem- 
bled aoldieryan hazangue agaiut An lipaler, which 
bad been tatnpoud fat her by her •ecnlaiy Aicla- 
piodenu ; bol all ber effort* were nuiniling, and 
Antipaier wu appointed regent and guardian of 
the king. (Anian, i^ Pliol. p, 71 i Uiod. rriiu 

accomiiaaied ber huibaud and Antipater to EoriHie. 
Bnt IhadeathofAntipklerin 319, the more feeUe 
character of Polyiparchon, who ncceeded him u 
regent, and the &ulure of hii pnterprieee in Greece, 
id above all, the fanxiratile diu 






wilhbi 



toward! Olympiaa, detennioed her amin 
an active pan ; ihe eonchided an wliani 






he wu wholly occupied with 
the a&in of QKeci, ihe henelf uumbled an ann 
and took the field in perMO. Polyipeicbon ad- 
vanced againtt her bim Epeiraa, anompanied by 
Aeacidei, the king of that country, and Otjmpiu, 
u well u by Rouoa and her infiul ion. Bnt 
the pmence of Olympiu wu alone lufficient to 
decida the ooutut ; ' " ' " 



D,4,i,.=.otCoog[c 



11Q BDRTLEON. 

U fight igBiait Iba Bolher of Almndar, and went 
ant to Mr ud& Smjiiet Red from Uta Bdd of 
batti* to Amphip^ but wm xnad uid nude 
pcnaner. She waa at fint eonfined. together with 
tier hnebaod, in a namw dni^oon, and lantil; 
■uppUed with food ; but lOon OLjinpiai, becoDUDg 
alaiined at the companion excited among the 
Idacedoniana, deteiminod to nt rid of her riTai, 
and KuC the f oong qoeen in ner priaon a iwoid, ■ 
rope, and a cup of hemlock, with orderi to choooe 
her mode of death. The ijNrit of Eorjdice n- 
mained unhroken to the lait ; ihe itill bnathed 
defiBiKe to Olympiaa, and prajed that ifae might 
■ODD be nqaited with the lihe gtfttf then, baring 

dai veil aa the conld the l*M dniie* to her 
and, eha put an end to her am life br hang- 
iagi without giving waj to a tear or word of 
hwientatioD. (Diod. xix. 11 ; Jiutin, xit. 5; 
Athen. liii. p. S60, L ; Aelian, V. H. liii. 36.) 
Her hodj wai alterwaid* nmofed bjr Caoaiider, 
and intened, together with that of ber bailaod. 
with TOjal pomp at A<^ae. (IKod. xix. 63; 
Athen. i*. p. \6i, a.) 

4. Daoghter of Antipater, and wife of Ptolemj, 
the eon of Lagni. The period of ' 



hable that it loo'k pUce ihartlj after the partition 
of Tripaiadeiiiu, and the appointment of Antipater 
tothengencj, B.C 321. (See DmjKn, (Tool. il. 
Nael^ol^, p. I£4.) She wm the motber of three 
aoaa, Tii. VuAaaj CenuinDii Meleagei, who ino- 
ceeded bia brother on the throne of Micedonia, and 
a third (whoM name ia not meolioned), pot to 
death hj Ptolemy PhiladelphnI (Paaa. i. 7. M) i 
and of two daughten, PtolemaTi, afterwarda ma:~ 
ried to DemetriuB Palion»t«t (PluL i)mw(r. 32, 
46), and Lyaandra, the wife of Aoathoclea, aon of 
Lftimachiu. (Pana. L 9. ^ 6.) Itappean, how- 
erer, that Ptolemjr, who, like all the other Greek 
prinoea of bia day, allowed himielf to haie KTeral 
wiTea at once, hUterlj neglected her for Berenice 
(Hnt Pfrrk. 4) ; and it wai probably from ntent- 
■Bent on thia account, and for the preference (hewn 
w the childien of Bereoica, that ibe withdrew from 
the ooDit of Egypt. In 287 we find her re- 
aiding at Miletai, where ahe welcomed Demetnna 
Patiorcetei, and gare bjm her daughter Ptcdemau 
in matiiage, at a time when each a etep could not hat 
be highly otfcnmie to Ptolemy, (Plot, Dmdr. 46.) 
t. An Athenian, of a family deacended from the 
neat Uilliade*. (Phit. ZJemdr. 14; Diod.rx. 40.) 
Sbx waa fint married to Ophelliu, die conqueror of 
Crnne, and after hie death returned to Athena, 
where At manied Demetciua PoUorcelea, on oe- 
<MioD of hie lirat riail to that city. (Plut, Demttr. 
14.) She ia aaid to hare had by bim a eon called 



S. A daughter of^ Lyaimadine, king of Thrace, 
who gave her in marriage to Antipater, ion of 
Caaaander, king of Macedonia, when the httei 
mraked hi* aaautance againit hia brother Alexan- 
der. (Jnattn,TTi. I; Euieb. Ann. p.lS5,) After 
the murder of Antipater [aee ToL I p. 202, a.], ahe 
waa condemned by her blhei to perpetual m>- 



^ (Jual 



i2.) 



7. The uter and wife of Ptoteipy PhilopBtor ia 
caHed by Jnitin (xot. 1 ) Enrydice, hut her ml 
name waa Arnnoe. f AiuiiNOa, No. £.] lE.H.B.] 

EURY'I.EON (Ed)tu;vJ.>>'), iaiaidtohaTebeen 
the original name of Atcaniua. (Dionjai. 70; Ap- 
pan, it tbg. Ibm. i.) [L. S.] 



EtTRYLOCRUa. 
EURVLBON (EdhA4a»-) 1- Owofthiaa>- 
paniona of DoiieBB, with whom be went out to eoa. 
bliah a Colony, Hendeia b Sicily. Nearly bD Ihe 
Spartan calonitta, however, were alain by the Car 
tli^iri.n. and Egeataaane. Evylerawaatheaaly 
one of the Itadera irbo eacaped: he galhoed tha 
renmanta of IbeLacedaemoniiniand took poii e iiioB 
of Hinut, a ealony of Selinn^ and aKited Ihe Se- 
linnntiani in getting rid of their tyrant Pdlhagom. 
(Hend T. 4G ; comp. Doriiuk) 

fint war againit the Heeatniaoa. He waa of The- 
han eiCractioa,andadeacendaatof Cadaiua.(Paai, 
i». 7-4 8,) [LS.] 

EUHY'IX)CHUS (EJfJAoxH), oae of tbeno- 
paniona of Odneeoa in bia wanderinga. He wai 
the otdy one that eacaped from the bmue ef Ciras 
while hu friend* were melamotphoaed into awiac ; 
and when Odyaaan* went to the lower werid, Ea- 
rjloehua and Perimedea perfonDod the pnaoibed 
aacriSce*. It waa on hia adnce that the com- 
paniona of Odyaaena carried off aome of the OKS 
of Helioa. (Hom. (ML i. 20S, Ac, iL 23, Ac, 
xtL S39,&c.) Another petaonaie of the aane aanie 
i* mentianed among the aona of AeBjptna. (Apri- 
h»iU-l. as.) [L&] 

EURY'LOCHUS (iVoxet), a ^la^n con- 
mander, in the uxth year of the Peioponneiiaa 
war, n. c 428, wai aent with 3000 heaTy-amed 
of the alliea. at the reqneat of the Aetotiana to ad 
with them againat the Heaaeniana of Naapactua, 
whan Demoalbeaea, whom they had recently de- 
feated, wu etill remuning, but withont any fon*. 
Euryiochna aaeembled hi* troapa at Ddphi, re- 
criTed the aubmiadon of the Oiolian Loenana, and 
adTanced through their country into the diatrict of 
Nanpnctna. The town itielf vsa aaTod by Acar- 
nanian aucconn obtained by Demoathenea, on ihe 
introduction of which, Euryiochna retired, but 
qnarten among hi* aeighboaring allies 



with a eevert dtaigu ir 






! Ambn 



the Amphilochian Argiiea, and A 
Aftw waiting the reqnitite time he aet hii 
motion from Proaebinm, and, by a well- 
choaen line of march contriring to elode the Ai^ 
pbilochiana and their alliea, who were atationed to 






with hi* 



Olpae. Here, on the aixth day feUowiog, the 
enemy, nnder Demoathenea, attacked him. Enty- 
lochua took the right wing oppoeed to Detnoethoie* 
with the Meaaeniana and a few Athenian* ; and 
here, when already taking ibem on the flal^ be 
waa nrpriaed by the aaauilt of an amboacade in 
fata nti ; hia tnopa were routed, himaelf alain, and 
the whole army in conaequence deieated. (Thne. 
iiL 100—102, lOi— 109.) [A. H.C.] 

EURY'LOCHUS (E^XeX"). I- A natiie 
of Lnaiae in Arcadia, wfaoae name ia freqnexitLy 
mentioned by Xenophon in the Auabasia. On one 
occaaion, when the army waa marchiog thnngh 
the lerritoiy of the Cardncbii, he protected Xcne- 
phon, wboae thield-btarer bad deterted him. He 
waa one of the depntiea aent by Ibe army to 
Anaaibina. Afterwarda we find him coonaetling 



he owed then 



(Xen 



D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EURTHBDON. 
mJa (Uiplioa by Kcepdiif woaej (nun him, or 
w le bk bout (ii. r" '" " "' 

EURTIUCHUS 

h (Pbu. -n. SI. I 6), ■ pnuEe of tin 
FU^ra rhs MiKked and dMtnnd Theba iflar 
ikt datb of AmphioD and Zctbu (Etutatii. od 
"— . 11.933), ami of Tk<uio(Puu.x. 27). ud 
aoftteniUnof PsDakpa. (Ham. Ol. L 399, 

it.iiii.ra.) [La.] 

EURrMACHUS {Tirif^x"), gnodton of 
■Mlef Emyiudnu lud •on of IiHotiadeii th< 
Tktan --—■--*" ■■ Thmnopylu, who led hi* 
■n na u Xcnn. Haradoliu ia hii Kanint of 
it bWi (DodDct nbm, th&t ttu kd in after 
tbc n kiOcd bf the PlaUuaDt, when at the 
Idd of fbnr hnndred mim and oecupjing their 
it]. (Ussd. TiL 233.) Tiiii it, do douht, tbs 
HI efa» vbicb ThDcrdidei (iL 1—7) ncocd) 
•■ it fint oTut act of the PekipcmDMiaii mr, 
L(-1II. IlwDDBbacafnwnwiibTbkacomuit 
■ff > Enb nm tbao tbna hnndnd, aot wM Eni;- 
■■bii tbe actoal f-h™— ■'"i bnt tbe enleitinie 
U \tBt MgDtiatod bj paitiea id Pbtaca thioogh 
ka, u4 lb coadnct of it vmild Iherebra no 
^k ka nitnutcd nry mnd ta him. The 
kaijj wB dearij one of the gnat ariilocratia] 
)mmt. Thncjdidaa (ii. 3) all* EDijiBKhni ■■ ■ 
HmflbeinateilpoverinTfaebc*.'' [A. H. C] 

EUKYMTDE <EJp.>f>4>>t). tlie name of two 
■jiUal ponoagaa, [Ol^dcub ; Milbaqu.] 

EURI'MEDON (EJpif.tfM'). 1. A Cabsinia, 
I m of He|ih«nnn and Cabriro, ud a brother of 
ilcDb (Nirai. .ZMmjk xiT. 33 ; Cie. «l« NaU 
Ar. aL SI.) 

2. Ow If tbe atloiduiu af Nsloc. (Horn. R. 
nL lit, xL 630.) 

i A lec of riiiliiiaiiiin. and cLariotaa of Ag>- 
■naoD ; bia Icaab wa* >h«wn al Hf canaa. (Ham. 
A SI. 228; Paua. iL IG. g 5.) Tbai* ais two 
HI Bjibical penomgia of thii name. (HaiD.ai. 
•iU: Apolkd. iiLl. §Z) Enjmedon ngnifiea a 

if ■Frenl dinnitKa, neb aa Poaeidaii (Find. Oi. 
^ 31), Powiu (ApoUoa. Rbod. i>. loUV and 
Bbdm. ( Hajch. a. «.} [I.. S.] 

Ei;RY'HEDON{Ej,»)J>w),aiaoofTliDcle*, 
■ AilMmao HWial in the Pelapacneuan mr, 
Ud in ila fifth year, K, c. 128, the conunaod of 
■i>T ihira, whidi the Alheniaiii, on hearing of 
tht inwifiiMi ttinblea of CoKja, and the uoTe- 
wal (f tba Pdopmuwaan fleet under Alddai and 
iaaiit ta take adiulage of Ibam, baadly ds- 
^wbtd to maintain tbaii mtarait thara. Thia, it 
*» iiai, had almdy bacn aecnnd b; Nicoitia- 
^ nth a ioaD aqoaton baa Naopacloa. Eiuy- 
Mte, bovmr^ look lb* chief aoomand : and the 
■RIB ii]t Hi hw (U J at Conjn war* mariied b; 
tke nkW troaltiea inffieted by the eoamODi on 
ilk ftblitai oppmwnla. Tbtaa were mo doabt 
•HBMd by Iba preaeMS of M large an ' - ' 
fcM ^ W> far tbay w«te par«xially MDCl 



11.111 

b taa Utawiog mmBcr he waa miilad with 
Sftmitn is ———-J of tbe wbola Atbtoian 
™ ^ lad, and, co^ptnting with a Beat nnder 
"^t, maged the dietrict e( TasMa, aitd o 
taej iBfidedt nnaa orer aama ThabMM ai 



EUHTHEDON. 
At the end of thii csmpugn, be wa* n . 
one of the cwmmanden of the lu^ rnntneementa 
deitined fbi Sadij, and early in B. c 42£ Mt aail 
with forty ihipa, acGompamed by hii colleague 
Sopbodea, and by Demoathenee alio, in a piiiata 
o^iuity, though allowed to nu the ihip* for any 
purpoaa he pleaasd on the coaat of Pelopouneeua. 
They were ordered to lanch at Corcyia on thetr 
way, and infbnnation of the aniial there of a Pe- 
lopanneaian equadnui made the commanden to 
anxioua to haiten thither, that it waa againit their 
will, and only by the accident of itormj weather, 
that Demoatl^iiei sontnTed to executa hii project 
of forti^iug Pyloa. [DaiiosrBxNn.] Thii haw^ 
erer, once completed, had the e^ect of recalling 
the enemy from Corcyia : their lixty ihipa paiaad 
unnoticed by Enrynwdoa and Sophoclea, then in 
ZacyDlhu), and nude (heir way to Pyloa, whither 



Coieyia to eiaeMa tiiair original a 
radadng the oligarchitsl eiilaa, by whoae wai&tv 
fiom the hill latooe the dty waa aaffeiiDg HToely. 
In thia they iDeceeded : the exilea were driven 
&om their fbitificationi, and mnendend aa condi- 
tion of being judged at Atheni, and remuning, till 
icmoTal thither, in Athenian ctutedy ; while, on 
the other hand, by any attempt to eacapa they 
ihould be oonaidered to forfeil all tenna, lolo 
luch an attempt they were tracheronily inrai^ed 
by their eoantijnwn, and banded oTar in eonae- 
qnena by the Athenian geneiali to a certain and 
cruel death at the bandi of their betmyen. Tlua 
abanieful proceeding wai anconraged, ■> Thncy- 
didea expieaaly itatea, by the erident ralactance of 
Euiymedon end Sophoclea to allow other handl 
than their own to piaaent theii priiea at Athena, 
while they ahould be away in Bidly. To Sicily 
they now proMttded; but their mononenta were 
pieaently pnt an end to by the general padSeation 
effected under (he inflnence of Heimoeialea, to 
which the Athenian commanden IhemaelTea, with 
their aUiei, were induced lo accede. For thia, on 
their return lo Atheiu, the people, aaaibing tba 
defeat of their ambitiou) tchemea lo corruption in 
their officera, condemned two of them to baniah- 
ment, Tiaiting Eurymedon, who perhapa had ihown 
mare reluctance than hia coUeaguee, witii thenuldci 
pnniahment of a fine. (Thnc iiL 116, it. 2^^ 
13,46—48,65.) 

Eurymedon ia not known to hare held any other 
command till hia appointment at tbe end of 8. c. 
414, in conjunction with Demoathenea, to the com- 

himaelf waa aent at mce, altar the receipt of Ni- 
ctaa'a letter, about mid-winter, with a lupply of 
moaeyaDdthenewaof tbainlani' ' ' ' 
ipring he retnnwd to m 



ioua to Ntdaa of the neceanty 
for iiutaut departure. Hia career waa ended in 
the firtt of the two aea-Ggbla. Hia command waa 
on the right wing, and while endeaTauring by 
the eitennon of hu line lo outflank the enemy, ha 
waa, by the deleal of the Athenian centre, cut off 
■nd aoiTounded tn the recaat of the harbonr, b 



.4,„.=.utCk)C)g[C 



na EURTPHON. 

ihipi opttiRd, md hinuelf ilaiiu Diodonu, »til- 
ing peitiapi from Ephorna, relate), that AgiUhaictaoi 
vu the Sjnciuan general appi>K<t to bim, and 
lepretenU the iiSal si hsring began with Eory- 
medon'i diviiion, and thence extended to the cen- 
tra. (Thuc. TiL 16, 31, 33, 42, t», 49, 52 ; Died. 
xiiL8,ll,13i Plat. A^tciai, 30, 24.} [A.H.C.] 
EURY'MEDON (Eif>iW««.) 1. Of Mji- 
ihiuui, a fKend of Plato, who, in hi> will, appointed 
him one DThiiexeenton. (Diog. Laert lii. 42, 43.) 

2. OfTaienlani.apTthagoMnphiloeophornien- 
tiDDcd hj lamblichuL (Vil. P^ 36. ) 

3. A pf non who WHi Inbomed bj Demophiloi to 
bring an accuiatian of impiety agalnit Ariitotle for 
(peaking irreverentlj of Hennei in a poem, which 
!■ pmerred in Athenutu. (it. p. 696.) [L. &] 

EURY'NOME (EJ/jwiffin), 1, Adaughterot 
Oceanua. When Hephaeilu wai expelled by Ht 
from OljmpuL, EuTjnome and Thetti receired h 
in the bourn of the lea. (Horn. II. iTJii, 39S, &i 
Apcllod. L 2. g 3.) Pieviooi to the time of Cronot 
and Rhea, EnTynome and Ophion had ruled ia 
Olympiu oTei the TiUna, bnt ^r being amquered 
by Cronoi, the had Mink down into Tartirut or 
Oceaniu. (ApoUon. Rhod. i. MS, Ac ; TecU. od 
Lynapk. 1191.) By Zeni ihe became the mother 
of the Charitei, or oF Aaopnl. (Hec, Tkiog. 
SD8 ; ApoUod. iiL 12. { 6.) . 

3. A lutname of Artcmb al Phigatea in Anadia. 
Her nuctoai; which waa tncroiuided by cypiewet, 
mu opened only once in erery year, and ncriitcet 
were then offered to her. She wai repreeented 

" ■■" *i.M-) 



There are four mora mythical 

name. (Horn. Od. iTiiL 168 \ Apollod. m. H. 9 

2.) CAdrahtus, AaiNoa.] [L. S.] 

KURY'NOMIIS (EitfRinuot). > ^semon of the 
lower world, eoneemjng whom there wa» a tradi- 
tion at Delphi, aicording to which, he deionred the 
Seih of dead human bodies, and left nothing but 
the bonei. Poljgnotui repreiented him in the 
Leeche at Delphi, of a dark-blue complexion, ihew- 
ing hii teeth, and tilting on the ikin of a raltore. 
< Pant T. 2a. 3 4.) There are two other mythi- 
cal perunaget of thii name, one meotioned by 
Ond [MtL m. 311) and the other in the Odywey 
(iL32). [L.a] 

EURVPHA'MUa or BURYPHrMUS (EiL 
fi^aimt), a Pythagorean phtloKipliei of Metapon- 
tnin. (limblich.(J>Fd.f>fA. 90,36.] Lyna wai 
till feUow-pupil and hi* Guthfal friend. Eurypha- 
nn* wae the author of a work Ilifil fibv, which i* 
loat, but a coniideiable fragment of it ii preeerred 
it Stobeeni. {Serm. tit. 103. 27.) [L. S.] 

EU'RYPHON (UpKfw), a ceUbraled phyii- 
tiao of Cnido* in Carta, who wai probably biun in 
the tbimer half of the fifth oentniy K. c^ a* Soianni 
<nea/rHfw«-. inHippocr. C^Hrmnl. iiLp.SSl) 
■ty) that he wai a eoBtemponij of HippocrMca, but 
dder. TbettUMwritemytthalheandHippacratee 
wen nminoned to the eoort of Perdiccaa, the ion 
of Alexander, king of Macedonia; bat ihii Moiy 
ia coniidered Tery donbtiiil, if not altogetbei apo- 
cryphal [HiprocBATKi.] He ii mentioEwd in a 
corrupt fri^enl of the comic poel Plato, prenored 
by Galen {Commal. h H^ipocr. -AjAor." riL 44, 
nLiTiii, ptlp. 149), in which,initeadafan>i», 
Meineke nada irirfof. He 11 eeTeral time* qmited 
by Galen, who laya that he wai coniidered to be the 
anthnr of the ancient mrdical work entitled KfAIioi 
Ffiiim (Cbuwat n H^jna: " D* Mart. Vtlgar. 



rir 



EURYPVLUSl 
39. vol. xrii. pt. i. p, 886, where for Silaa 



lid nad KnSfait), and alio thai u 
attributed to him leTeal worki included in the 
HippocrUic Collection (Qwunflif. n Umoer. "Di 
prooem. toL xtL p. 3), ria. thoee enti- 
tled n<pl Aiafmi 'Ty<*i/V', de SaUtri Vtcta Ibt- 
tiom (Commad. is Hippocr. " Dt Rat. Fid. a 
Mori. Aa*L' L 17. ToL rr. p. tSi), and Htpl 
AialTDi, d« Victai FatiOM. (Dt Alimtat. Fatall. 
i. 1. Tol tL p. 473.) He may periupi be the au- 
thor of the lecond book Htpi ttaicitr, Di Mortii, 
which fbrmi port of the Hippociatie CoUectian, 
bnt which ii generally allowed to be fporioiu, ata 
pasHga in thii worit (toI. iL p. 2B4J i* qnoted by 
Oaleii [Ooanuml. w Hfpocr. ' De Moii. VtA/ar. 
VI." I 29. vol. iTii. pt. I p. 888), and atUiliDted 
to Eoryphon (lee Littr^^ Hippocr. loL L pp. 47, 
363); and in the lame manner H.Ermeiini (Hip- 
pocr. de Rai. VieL n Mori. AaU. pp. 368. 369 ) 
conjectarei that he Ii the author of the woit tlifil 
rwauiiliK *iiTiet, de Nalmra Mulkhi, ai Soranni 
^pean to allnde to a pateage in that treatiie (toL 
ii- p. 533) while qooting the opinioru of Earyphocu 
(De ArU Oittilr. p, 134.) From a pan^e in 
CaetiuiAarelianu>(ifeAfoM.CSinM.ii. 10.p390) 
it appeon, that Eujyphon wai aware of the differ- 
ence between the arteriee and the veina, and alio 
coniideted that the fonnei Tesieli oontwoed blood. 
Of hit worki nothing ii now extant except a few 
nnleu be b« Ihe anther of the tnatiee* 



bntedCohim. [W.A.G.] 

EURYPON, Dtberwiie oiled EURYTION 
(Ed^vnw, Ejpin-lwr), gnndun of Pnclea, wai tha 
third king of that home at Sparta, and ihencefoF- 
ward gale il the name of Eurypontidoe. Plataieh 
talk) of hit huTiog relaxed the kingly power, and 
played the demagogue; and Polyaenot relaic* a 
war with the Ajcadiani of MantioNa under bia 
command. (Pant ul 7. ! 1 i Pint. /*6. 2 ; Pdj- 
aen. iLlS.) [A,H.a] 

EURYTTOLEHUS (EdfwirJXipu). I. Ons 
of the &mily of the Alcmaeonidae, Ihe un of 
Megoclet and &ther of Iiodita, the wifa of Ctman. 
(Plut. amon, 4.) 

2. Son of P^aanai,and oonnn of Aldlndea. 
We find him coming forward! on the ectaiion 01 
the trial of the Tictorion* generali after tho bKttlft 
of Ar^none to oppoie the illegal proceedingB in- 
ttituled ogainit than. Hit ijieeeh on the oauion 
i) quoted by Xenophon. He atked that a dar 
ih<mld be granted for the lepaiate trial of eadi 
priMiDer (Xen. HtlL i. 7. I 16, du.) 

3. Another Euryptolemtm, of whom nothing elaa 
ia known, iimentionedby Xenophon u baring been 
tent a* ambaModor to the Peiiian conrt. Ha cnnld 
not have been Ihe nme with the coutin of AJdbiadea, 
ai he bad not returned Erom hit miition wbeu the 
latter wa> at Alheni ready to wekome bit cotuiu 
on fail reCnm from baniibmenC (HtIL i. 3. 8 13 ; 
4. i 7, IS.) [C. P. M.] 

EURY'PYLUS (tipinKn.) 1. A aon if 

Euaemon and Ope. (Hygin. Fab. 81.) Hs ap~ 

peait in the ditJerent tradilioni about him, aa a 

hero of Ormenion. or Hjiia, or ai a king at Cy~ 

ne. In the Iliad he ii repreiented ai haling led 

e men of Ortnenion and other plaoea to Ytvy 

ith forty ihipi, and he ii one of thoee who sffer 

to fight with Hectfl 

nuny a Trojan, am 

b; Pari*, he wai nnned and cuted bj PMmclna. 



i. 167.) He alew 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EURTSTHENES. 
(n HI, IT. IM; camp. Apollod. iii. ID. $ 8 ; 
H-jbi. «i 97 i O*. Mtt iriii. 357.) According 
toi ganlngj of tbe Iwnes gf Ormenian hs mi 
itaari Hjpwqc h ia, uid the &th« of Onnenui. 
(SchoL a^ /^.i. M TiL 4S.) Among Ibe henwa 
k Bira, ha ia nwntunwd u 1 dni of PoKidDn 
adCdiKwi, md went to Lib)i bclbn Cmat who 
kjbi igdut tlw liiHi that attacked hii flocki, 
mi in Libja be becamn connected witb the Ai- 
KIU14. (SchoL od Apollim. Rjuxt. it. 1£61 ; 
iiOiail^a^Wi.) He ii Bid to havs beoD 
tatiicd te Slenipe, the daaghtel of Ilelioi, bj 
ibm k btewDc the h.Caa of Ljeaoa and Leu- 
offu (Sehi^ <i>J nHf. i^yjL IT. £7 ; Tceti. od 
Ifofk. S8G.} The tndition which connecU him 
nk Ibe legeudi aboal DioDjgus, it giien tmder 
ApTmiTH, and EnripjlDi a> connected with 
Ihxjnu, dedieatHl « wictDarf to Soteria at Fa- 
nr (Piu. riL 21. f 2), vhidi al» contained a 
■■CBvcnt of him, and when lacniicfli wen o&red 
B liBi enn jtar after the fntiial of DionynH. 
|<i la, 4f 'l, 3, iz. 41. f 1.) From Panwiiai 
n lore tliai EdrTpjIu waa odled by aoma a aon 
dlhaamaiaa. (Conp. UiiUer, Ordam. p. 341, 
IcSaddlit.) 

I .\ Ba of Poandon and AgtjpaJaea, na king 
■f Cm, and wa killed by Hendea who on bit re- 
in bna Tiof landed in Coa, and being taken for 
1 fiiate. waa attacked b; ita inhabitanla. ( Apal- 
U.iL7. H 1, 8.) AcCDTding to another iradi- 
ta Hnadea attacked the iiland of Cot, in aider 
a vblsia iiiiaimiiiii of Chalciope, the daughter of 
Eorpjina, whetn he loied. (SchoL ad Find. 
^«.n.tO;coaiFLHoiD. /J.U.676, xi>.350&c, 
f.iS.) 

L A tan of Telephni and Attjocbo, wu king 
i Xoeua oi Cilicis. Earn>7lni wai induced bj 
it ptnenta whkli Priam tent to hi* mother or 
iA, Id aaaiat the Trojan* againil the Oneka. 
lznfj]ia killed Maehaon, bat waa binaelf ilain 
h NBfKdennia. (Hjgin. Fab. 1 12 ; Stcab. liiL 
^ M; Fana. iiL 26. f 7 i Diet. Ciet. i*. U ; 
UadLoJ Horn. f.isa7.) There are three athei 
Bjiiai penanagea of thia name. (Apollod. ii 7. 
Hi-J.itl>.B.§3.) [I.8.] 

EETKYTYLUS (CifiwBf^tt), ii nfeind to ai 
■ uikor hj AthcBBena (iL p. 603), but ia othsr- 
■M Boknon. [L. S.] 

Et'RYSACES (Ufwf^i), a tan of the Tela- 
B«ia Ajai and Tetmeaia, wai named after 
<W broad thield ef bia father. (Sopb. AJ. S7fi ; 
lutixii. mJ Horn. p. S57 i Serr. ad Am. i. 633 ; 
nio^Hira^ It. 3.) As Athenian tradition 
••iuei, that Eiajmm and bit brother Philaeaa 
Ufimi op to the Athenian* the iilind of S^ 
1«^ wUdi tliej had inberited from their grand- 
bAit, and ibst the two brother* received in return 
ih AOk ftawhiic. One of the brother* then let- 
lidat Bonnn, and the other at Helite. Eurj- 
■e-« na bownnd like hi* father, at Athena, with 
niltar. (nut. SoL 10 i Pana. i. 35. i 2.) [I-S.] 
El-'HYJTEBNOS (EJp&rrepwf), that i., the 

-JJ -.^ _ ._._, ,.._. !. _ ^ ^ Q^ 

near Aegae in Achaia, with a 

St) [L.S^] 

EL-RrSTHENES lUpvatin,,), and PRO- 
(^US lOfmicXih), the twin toot of Ariatodemna, 






EURYTUa IIS 

itoiy. after their &tber*t retnra to Peloponnean* 
and occupation of hit allotnient of Laconia. Ha 
died immediately after tba birth of hi* cbiidrea 
and bad not even time to dedds which of the 
two ahould ancoeed him. The mother jTofeiaed 
to be anable to name the elder, and the Lacedae- 
moniani in embaimHrnent applied to Delphi, 
and were inatructed to make tfaem both kingt, 



a the elda 



The 



diiBcully thua rema 
the niggeition of Panilea, a Meiaenian, by watch- 
ing which of the childnn waa lint waahed and M 
by the mother ; and the fint mnk waa accordingly 
giren to Eurytlhenea and reUinrd by hit descend- 
ant*. (Hetod. Ti. 51, S3.) The molher'a name 
wu Argma, and her brother Tbeiaa waa, during 
their minority, their joint-goardian and r^ent. 
(Herod. It. U7.) They were married to two aia- 
ten, twin* like themaelKt, the daugbteia of TheK 
aander, the Honeleid liing of Cleonae, by name 
Lattalia and Anaxandn, whoae tomba wen to ba 
•een at Sparta in the time of Pauaaniaa (iiL 16. 
i 5). The two bivtfaeta an nid to hsie united 
with the aon of Temenut to rettare Aepytiu, the 
ion of CnHphonte*, to Meaaenia. Otherwite, tbey 
were, according to both Pauianiaa and Herodotua, 
in continuo] atnfe, which perhap* may give a mean' 
ing to the atraniieitory related in Polyii£nu*(i. lOX 
that Proclet and Tempiiui allaeked tba Euryathei- 
dae then in occupation of Sparta, and wen lucce**- 
fal through the good order preierred by the flute, 
the benrfit of which on ihia oocoainn wa* the origin 
of the well-known Spartan pnctice. Epbanil in 
iSlrabo (Tiii. p. 366) alalea, that they maintained 
thcmielTE* by taking fonignert into their •errice, 
and theae Clinton dndertlandt by the name Eu^a- 
theidae ; but MUller conndert it to be one of tba 
tranifeta made by Ephom* in ancient timet of the 
enacom* of hia own. acera (iJe Die. il 43) tella 
na, that Pncle* died one year befbn hit brother, 
and waa mnch the mon bmooi for hia achieve- 
menta. (Compaie Clinton, F. H. vol. i. p. 333 \ 
Mailer, Dor. L 5. 4} 13, U.) (A. H. C] 

EURYSTHEU3. [HaBiCL.t.] 

EURYTION {Zipyfrim). 1. A aon of Int 
and Demonaaia, and a grandaon of Actor, it men- 
tioned among the Argonaala. (Hygin. FiJk 14 ; 
Apolton. Rhod. L 71.) Atcording to alhen ha 
waa a ion of Actor, and he it alao called Eurrtua. 
(Apollod. i. S. $ 3; T«ti. ad Lyopk. 175.) 
When Pelena wa* expelled fnm hi* dominiona, ha 
fled to Enrytion and married hi* daughter Anti- 
gone ; bnt in ahooting at the Calydaniiin bear, Pe- 
lena inadvertently killed hi* fathe^ia-law. (Apol- 
lod. iii. 13. i l.&c.) 

2. A centaur who took to flight durn« tbe figbt 
of Ueraelea with the eenlanr* ; but he waa aflei> 
ward* killed by Henclea in tbe dominiona of Dei- 
amenna, whoae daughter Eucylion wai on the point 
of making bit wife. (Apollod. iL 5. ( 4, &C. ; 
comp. Diod. iv. 33 ; Hygin. FoIk 31.) Two other 
mythical per*oiuiget of tbit name an mentioned by 
ApoUodonu (il 5. § 10) and VirgiL (.4«>. t. 495, 
*c.) [L. S.] 

EURY'TION, tEuHYPON.l 

EU'RYTUS (Eupino(). 1. A ion of Mela, 
neua and Stratonice (Schol. ad Soph. Track. 36B), 
waa king of Oechalia. probably the Tbeaaalian 
town of tbii name. (MUtler, Cor. ii. 11. g 1.) 
He waa a ikilfnl arehar and married to Antioche, 



.,...Xji"ft>gk 



lU 



EUSBBIUS. 



MDlitm or DbTgo, Cljtint, and Toxmu. (Diod. 
37-) He WW pnmd o! hii ikill in aiiog tht bsw, 
and ii flTfln aid to hare iniCniGlod Hezulca Id bii 
■It. (TheocriU iiiT. 105 ; ApsOod. ii. 4. g 9 ; 
Sopb. L c) He ofiered tui daugtilH Iol< ta pri» 
to him who •honld eonqncT him and hii uiu in 
•hmtiiig with the bow. HtruJe* won the priic, 
but Euiytui and hii htu, with the exaption of 
Iphilai, refined lo give ap lole, becaowi tbey 
feand lett ho ihould kill ths cfaDdnn he might 
haTB br h«i. (ApoUod. iL 6. 3 1.) Handca ao- 
tordinglj maiched againiE Oecholia with id armf : 
he toolt the place and killed Euijtiu and hia toDL 
<Ap<ill<>d. d. 7. § 7.) Accoiding to a tndition in 
Athenaena [li. p^ 461) he pat them to death be- 
caoiathejlud denandcd a tribute Croin the Enboe- 
ani. According to the Homeric poenu, on the 
other hand, Borytni waa killed bj ApoUs whom 
he prenuoed to iJTal in neing the bow. (Od. Tiii. 
226.) Th« remaina of tb* bod; of EuTtm were 
beliered to be pmerrad in the Camuian grore ; 
and in the Heuenian Oechalia lacriBce* were of- 
fered to him ereiy jear. (Pam. it. 3. | 6, 27. § 
4, S3. 8 S.) 

2. A un oF Actor and MoUone of Eli*. (Hon. 
H iL 621 ; Apnllod. ii 7. § 2 ; Pmu. iL Ifi. $ 1 i 
Eurip. Ipk. Aul. 27a) {HoiioNaa.] 

3. A ion of Hermei and AnEianeira, and bn> 
ther of Echion, wag one of the Atitonaota. (Apol- 
lod. i. 9. g 16 ; Hjgin. Fab. 14, 160 ; Val. Ftocc 
I 439.) He ii umetime* alM called Eirtnt. 
(Find. Pyti. ij. 179; Apolloo. Khod. L B\ ; 
Otph. Arg. 133.) There an two nutc mythical 
peraonagei of thii name. (Apollod. iiL 10, j G, L 
6. § 2.) [L. S.] 

EU'RYTL'S(El^oi),an eminent PTthagareui 
philoM^htr, whom lamblichni in one puaage (o' 
Fit Pflk. 26) deKcibei ai a naliTe of Crotei 
while in another (ibid. 36) he ennmerata hii 
amDng the Tarentine Pythagoreani. He wiu 
dieciple of Philolatu, and Diogenet Idertiu* (iij. ( 
viiL 46) mention) him among the tnchen of Plato, 
though Ihii italement ii Teij doublfid. Il ii 
certain whether Euiytui waa the aothor of 
work, ntilea we lupoOM (hat the bagment in 
Stohaina (P^. Ed. I. p. 210), which ia there 
ascnbed to one Eurytoftj belongi to our £nrjtu>- 
(Ritter, Gaei. dtr Pglliiui. Fhlot. p. 64, ftc.) [L.S.J 

EUSE'BIUS (EilffJSun) of CiiaAHUA, the 
father of eccleaiaatical hittorr, took the lamame of 
Famphili, to comraemorata hii deToled friendihip 
for Pamphilut, biahop of Caeaareia. He waa born 
in Paleitine abont a, d. 264, towaidt the end oF 
(be reign of the Empenr OallieDui, He ipent hia 
youth in inceuant itndy, and probitblj' held tome 
office* in the church of Caeuireia. In a. n. 303, 
Diocletian^ edict waa ianed, and the peiaccution 
of the Chiiftiana began. Pamphilua waa impri- 
toned in 307, and km moat aSistionately a^ 
tended on by Eiuebiiu lor two jeara, at the end 
of which time he anfiered martyrdom, and Eoae- 
biua fled to Tyre, where he waa kindly received 
by the biihop Paalinaii but afterwardi he re- 
moTed to Egypt, and ma impriaoned there in the 
conrtg of the peneentdon. After hi> releaae he 
xetumed to Caeaareia, and anoceeded Agapiua aa 
biahop of that aee about 315. He waa anmmoned 
la the council of Nicaea in 3S7. and waa then ap- 
poJDlad to recuTC ConelaatitM with a panegyiiial 
oration, and to *it on hi* ri^l hand. 






apimegj 






oich other. 



' of which cai 
Thui 



™ljbe 



he qwaka of the Son ai 

rrd nvrd, S/ioioi jrvr* ohtur. In llw 
Emig. it. 3, he deniei that the 9oa 

Father dxAiii dnui; for (he add*) d 
nsrjp wHilnEpx" Toii Tloi ml T^t ytriftMt ad- 
raS wfnifiimiiit j only the Son i* not created, 
and ererythuig peHahable tnntt be eepaiated frmn 
our coDCepdon of Hi* DBCure. But with ngaid to 

member dial till Arioa'a ajuniona, with their fiiU 
bearing* and conaeqameei, vrere generally knowtt, 
it waa Tery poiuble for a perwm to u*e langnag* 
apparently aomewhat &Toniahle to them, qnita 
unintentionally, nnce the tme &itb on the ant^ ~ 
of our Lord'* divinity had not yet b< 
in certain fbimulae, of which the uo aner uw 
contmietiy va* mooted, became aa it were tha 

been called to the rtauita of difienncea appaimtly 

haie been baaed on those of Origm, thovgh in- 
deed he deprecBted the diacoauoa of the queation 






men to be lotiafied with the ecripCuial di 
" So Ood loTed the worid, that he gave Hb only 
begotten Son, that whoaoerer Mirrctl « /lim 
tfaaold not periah, bat hara eieriaiting life ;" 
he argue*, " whoaoeTcr know* how Ha 
d from the Father." Bat in the EecU- 
liailiea Tiaicgia (aflor the riae of Aiianinn) ha 
dedarea (L S, ii. 5) againat thoae who reckon 
Chriat among the KrUriiaTa, aaaerting Ood to ba 
the Father of Chnat, but the Ciuuor of all othiir 
being*. Again : in the Eccledaalinl Hiatory (x. 
4) he oil* Him ajrofi^t, and in other placee uaea 
language which pnTe* him to hare fidly beliered 
in Hia dinnity. He wav howerer, of coarae dia- 
poted to regard Ariua with mildneu, and wrote ta 
Alexander, biihop of Aleiandrib, in hi* defenoa ; 
ai^ng that though Ann* had called Chriat rri^ian 
Sen! riXtar, he had added <UA i^ •>> I' nr 
KTiviiAmr. Thn* he took hia eeat at the eooncil 
of Nicaea not indeed a* apaniian of Arina, but 
aa aniioui to ahield him mto oennire for opiniona 
whoae importance, either for good or evil, he odd- 
aideied exaggerated. He accordingly appcarad 
there aa bead of the moderate aecltaa of the 
caundl, and drew up a creed which he hoped 
would aatia^ both the ertrenie partiea, of which 
the Arian waa &Tonrtd by Euiebiua, bishop of 
Nicomedia, and Theogni* of Nicaea ; white thaii 
oppooentg were led by Alexander, whoae deacon 
Atbanauut, afterward* to bmou*, accompanied 
him to the conncil, and rrndored him grst aer- 
Tica. Thia formula, which ii to be fonnd m So- 
ctalei {HiiL EocL L S), chiefly diSen boat the 
Nicene Cned in containing the Biprewian tptrri- 
TOKDi wiarii mlireM (&om CoL L 15)inat»dofthe 
decUration that Chriat ii oT'lAa tmu ntaoiaoewith 
the Father, eipreued in toe adjectiro tiumiatar ; 
and the phraie " Very Qod of Very Ood," i* DM 
fonnd in il tRa " Ood of Bod, Light of Light." 
Tbij creed waa accepted by Arina ; but Akmndar 
inai*ied on tha additwa of iiiaoimM, to which Ca^ 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EUSEBIUS. 
UatiM Urndt w bTowaUB, Bod a mtjintj of 
tk tnacil dcened in innrtiML BomIhiu it fint 
Iwitueil la «|B it,biitaftanraid*did>o; bwsue, 
■ Ik Uhl the smpla of CKMima in ■ partoial laltei 
eiplimUxj of the prsoeduigi at the counci] (So- 
cnL t. 5X the nmptrw had anured Lim that bf 
Ike pluvF nwd odI; be uDdcntood ui aMHtioD 
Am the Son of God ii whollj diffiiTBOt ftotn every 
emtol being; and that aa Hit nature ii entirely 
^iritgaL He wni ' ■ - ■ ■ 



Of .tin. 









«. Emebiui, hovefer, alnyt retained bit mild 
teHagi on thii lobject ; for he wished U) reintlate 
Ann in hii church, m oppoutioD to Athauuju, 
■ad ha wai mtiniale with hii nameaake, the 
Uiiiip of Nicmaedeia, ft decided Arian. Euiebiiu 
hi I TBj uroBg fecliiig agsioil piceirM of out 
Loid, ted other naTelliet, which nere then cietp- 
i^g into iha Chnich. When C«utaiilia, the 
niow af lacbuiia and Biter of ConnaAtine, n- 
qi*ited him to aoid bu lucb ■ ptctuie, he re- 
JHtd. and pnaounced all *uch cepraKDtatiaiii 
nnh. onlr of healheniim. ( VU. QmH. Lip. 
1K9.) Theae pietnm ha deitni;ed when tb^ 
OBC in hii waj, conudeniii tfaem innuuiilent 
ni,2Coc V. 19 (" Thon^ wa haie known 
Oiiit after the OtA, ;et now henceforth know 
R Him no more''); and he greollj objected (Hitt. 
BxL Tii. 18) to a pnclicc pieialsnt at Caeioreia 
if bbiog up figure! of Cfaritt Bi an act of th 
piigg lie moTcij £rmu (ickncai. It euiu 
tawd that in tome of )u> abjeciioiu la pietiuca of 
•mi Lad, he appmn to oieriook the practical im- 
pxtao of Hii iDcamation to oni Chrittian life. 
EuehiiH Rmained in bmni with the imperial &- 
utj dO fail deUh. He waa oKlBd tlie He of 
Auiid <n the dedth of Euitalhioa, but declined 
0, <iiiBdfring tbe pmetice af truulstioni objco- 
hnible, and, indeed, contrary to one of the caoont 
■«ntd npon at the recent council of Nicafs. For 
lb* nodentum he vai exoeedinglj piaiied by 
Caiilanliiie, who dfckted that be wai uDiienallf 
aai^Bcd worlfaf to be the bitbop not dF one cit; 
i^J. Imt ilmoat of the whole wsrtd. (Socnrt. 
B-E. L IB.) He died aboal *.V. 340i u that 
Li birth, Ui clention to high office, and hia 
diuh. ncaily coiadda in tiiOB with thoM of iiii 
^aial patron. 

The duiacter of Etuebius and hii haoaatj «i 
t aiiter, bare been made the uibject af a fierce 
ntaik W Gibbon, who (Oh^m and Fali, c ui.) 
HDun him of rdating whaterei might ndoond to 
I^ oedit, and JDppRaiing whatCTer woold tend 
ta ax npnach ua Chiiitiuiilf, and T^imenta 
BJa u little better than a diihoneat ijcophant, 
"■'iHi for nothing higher than the fiiToui of 
^^^aibmtiae ; and tHomei the mhject in hia 
' Vindication " of the fifteenth and tisleenth cbt^i- 
•"• of the hiitory. For the charge of ijeaphaney 
l^ il but little foundation. The jojr of the 
OiriMinB at Cooitantine'i pationage of the true 
t^ao wu » great, that he wu all but dsiiied 
^ Uum both before and after bii death ; and il- 
"wigh BO donbt Niehuhr (I^dura on flora™ 
llitaf. Lea. liiii. ed. Schmiu) hai nffidentlj 
•hmi that ConUaotine, at leut up to the time of 
L odI; be coDtideied ai a pagan i 
lat hia leeeiiion net only tenni- 
e penecntiDn which bad aged for tan 
)m, bm ereii eatibliihed ChriitMuity a* tbe 
»uc idigioa, it ii not nirpriaing that Eiuebiu, 



EUSBBIUS. Ill 

like othen, ihould be willing to oc'eiloak hii 
' 'la. and regaid him ai an Hpeoal {iTOuita of 
(Ten. Am to the charge of diihouaatj, tbouigh 
could neither expect nor with a Cbfialiin (a 
impartial in Oibban'i tenia, fat Eoiebiii* bu 
certunlf flowed (H. E. rSiL 2), that he coiiM 
ahaoat all account of tlw wickedneu and diiaenaiona 
of the Chriitiaua, &om thinking each storiei leii 
edifying than thou which diiplaj the eicellence of 
nligian, hf leSecting hououi upon tbe martyn. 
The &ct IhM he aiovi thia pinciple. at once di- 
miniahea our nnfidenoe in him ai an tuatorian and 
acqulti him of the charge of intentional deceit, 
to wliich be would otharwiea haTe beeo ezpOMd. 
Bat beiidei this, Eujrbiui hu wiittea a chapter 
iPraip. EBoig. xii. 31) bearing the nioDitmu 
lalle,-^ How hr it maj be lawful and fittiif to 
uie Uaehood ai a medicine for th* ' 



Now 

light thia naturally iwtei in our mindi a itrong 
pcejiidice igainit a penon who, being a Chriitian 
ID pmfeaiioii, could inppMe that the uie of falie- 
baid can erei be jnitilied ; and no doubt the 
thought wai iDggeited bj the pioui £raudi which 
an the ihame of the early Chuich. But when 
w* read the ehuiler ilielT, we find that the in- 
•tancoi which £ui^>iui takei of the extent to 
which the principle maj be carried an the caaea 
in which Qod ia dcKiibed b the Old Teilament 
ai liable to human affectiona, ai jealouay or anger, 
** which ii done fur the adiantage of thoae who 
require meh a mathod." From tbii eiplanotian 
it would Bj^ear that Eiuebiw may bare meant 
nothing man than the principle of accommodating 
the degree of enli^tanment granted fnrin time ta 
time to the knowledge and aotal alaU of man- 
kind I and hia only ertot coniiata in giving tha 
odiona name of blaehood to what ii practically the 
moat ml truth. (See Arnohi, £May qipmdcd to 
Sermona, voL iL) 

The principal worki of EoaebiuiBn ai foIlDWa : — 
1 . The droBioDii (xP'"'^ rarriiSat^i larnplat), a 
work of gnat tbIus to ua in the itudy of ancient 
hiitory. For loiae time il wai only known in a 
fragmeatar; ilate, bat wai diKoiered entire in on 
Armenian MS. veraion at Conitantinople, and pul^ 
liihed by Mai and Zohnb at Milan, in 1813. It 
il in two booka. Tbe fint, entitird )(fiavBypi'^la, 
contain! a akelch of the biliary of lererel ancient 
natiana, ai the Cbaldaeani, AHyriana, Medei, Per- 
aiani, Lydiana, Hebrewa, and Egypliani. It il 
chie£y t^en from the rirrafilB^uir XparaAuriic'i' 
of AlricanDatArBiCANii8,Six.Juuu8],andgiTea 
liata of king! and other magiatnlet, with abort ao- 
count! of remarkable erenta from the creation to 
the lime of Enaebino. The lecond book conaiati 
of aynchronological lablea, with aimilar catalr^nsi 
of tulara and Uriking DKutrencca, term the time 
of Abiahim to the celebration of Comtanline^i 
Fieemnalia at Nicomedeia, a, n. 327, and at Rome, 
.1. D. 32S. Enaebiua'i object in writing il wai to 

time of Chrial, in order to ettabl^ belief in tha 
truth of the Old Teilaraant HiiMry, and to punt 
ant the auperiH' antiquity of the Uoaaic to any 
other wrilinn. For he aaya that whemi dilieRnt 
oonnnta had been given of the age of Moiea, it 
would be found from hii work that he wai coo- 
tamporaxT with Cectopa, and therefore not only 
prior to Homer, Heiiod, and the Trojan war, but 
alio to Ueicnlai, MnaawU) CaHoi, PoUua, Jiamw 



-J a 



ApollD, Zciu, and ill olher pmoni dcilied b; th« 
GiBekt. In thseotineaf thevork Enwbiu aim 
•itncta fran BenMu, SBDchonitthan, PoljbwtiK', 
C«p1uIiDi], and Muietbd, wbicb miiteriBliy ia- 
cm» it! 'iliis. Of Ifaii C^irariaiii on abridiis- 
mcDt wu fbumi b; Mai in the Valioui libmy, al 
the and nf a cop; of Tbeodonl'i Harrrtiai Fa- 
tuiae, alw) in two paitt, to the Mcond of which ii 
■ddnl by the abbnfiaUir, a lilt of bithopi of the 
fire pstriarchal leea, Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, 
JenMalem, and Conitantineple, together vith the 
boBndarieg of theie pstriarchalea ai they eiiltcd 
in the irinth centnry. Thi> ha> been pobliihut 
by Mai, together with a eommintary on St Lnlte 
and twenty Quaeiiuma Evangdioat, aln by Euk- 
bini, in the Scriptorum Vatiaanorvm N<ma Coiltdio^ 
Rome, 1835. The <^iaatima an (hurt diiqniii- 
tiotu on certain poinli of the Goipel blatoriet, e. g, 
vhy the evuigeliiti gi>e jDeeph*) genealogy lalber 
than Mary^i ; in what eenae onr Jjoid ia laid to 
dt on DBTid*! throne, Ac TheCibranmi wai tian*- 
kted into Latin by Jerome, and psbliabed by J. J. 
Scaliger, Leyden, 1 606, of which another enlarged 
editiDn appeared at Anuterdam, 165S. It waa 
again pubUihed at Venice, in Armenian, Greek, 
and lAtin,by J. Baptiit Aucher. IStfl. Mai and 
ZDhiab't edition hai been noticed abave. The 
bistntical importance of their diecorery il explained 
by Niebnhr, in fail may entitled HiiloraiAir G<^ 
utni amt Jar ArnKnitdien Utbtrteitvig derdromk 
da SukUm, publiihed in hit Klam SckHftt^ 

2. The Profparatio Evatffeiiea (friay7tX(fnTf 
dtfoVfflffVT wpowQficurHr^) in fifteen boolu, in- 
■eribed to Tbeodotnt, biihop of Laodiceia, ii a col- 
lection of tarioui hcta and qootationi from old 
wrjten, by which it wai nppoied that the mind 
mmld be prepared to receiTe the eridencet of 
Cfariitianity. Thi( book ii almoat aa important to 
m iathe atudy of ancient philoaophy,ai thaGlroft- 
»0oa it with reference to hiitory, aince in it are 
preteried ^ecimeni fivm the writing! of ahnoat 
every (Ailoaopher of any note whoae vorka are 
not now eitant. It waa tran^ted into Latin by 
George of Trebiaond, and pnbliahed al Tretiao, 
1460. Thii tranalation ia sud to be a very bad 
one, and the Greek work itielf fint ippoired at 
Piria, 1514, edited by Robert Slephena, and again 
in 1G28, al» at PbtIi, with a Laun Tenion, by 
F. Viger, who repabliahed hii edition at Cslogne, 
1 6HB. The Pra^araiio Bvmigdwa ia elotely con- 
nected with another work written gooD after it, vii.: 

S. The DtmonlTatio EtoHgdiea (tirrrt\uti 
dwtfaifii) in twenty baok^ of which ten are ex- 
tant, ia a catlection of eridencea, chiefly from the 
Old Teatament, addreaaed principally to the Jewi, 
Thia ia the completion of the preceding woric, 
giving the BTgnmenti which the Pm^^arr^ waa 
intended to make the mind ready to receire. The 
two together farm a trcatiee on the endencea of 
conaiderable ability and immente learning. The 
Diminatratio waa tranalaled into Latjn by Donatai 
of Verona, and ptibliahed either at Rome or Venice 
in 14Se and at Cologne in 1£42. The Greek text 
appeared with that of the /'rwparofia, al Paiia, in 
the edition! both of R. Ste phena and Viger. 

4. The Eedaiaitiail Hii/nrf {ixxXytauuriicil 
Irmpfa), in ten booka. The work vaa Sniihed 
in the lifetime of Ciiipoa, L e. before 32fi, 
wliom (i. 9) he commemcratat aa Sta^i 



UMory tatminata with t 



■arpi, Ifinor. The 



EUSEBIUS. 
A. D. 924. When ConatantiDa Tinted Canueia. 
be o^ered to give Hutebina anything which wonld 
be beneScial to the Chnrch there ; Euebioa ra- 
qneated him to order an examination to be mad* 
of all docoioents connected with the hiatory of 
martyn, » aa to get a Hat of the timca, plieea, 
manner, and came! of their deatha, from &e ar- 
cbire* of the proTiuceo. On thi! the hitloiy ia 
founded ; and of ita general tnialworthineaa. with 
the limitation noceuiuy from the principle of 
omiagjon noticed above, Ibere on be no donbt 
whatever. The firat book conaiata of a diacuaaion 
on oar Lord'i pre-exiatence, the pnpheciei e»- 
apecting Him, the purpoae of Hia iwelation, 
and many fact! relating to Hi! Ufa, together with 
the (tory of Hi! eorreapoitdence with Abgama or 
Agtwna, tupard) of Kdeiaa. [Aboahuh.] The 
aecond book begina the hiatory of the Chorch after 
onr Lord'a Aaceniion, with an account of the death 
of Pilate, the hiatoiy of Simon Masiu, St. Pater'a 
preaching al Rome, and the variou! hboura of other 
apottle* and diaciplea. The reat of the work nvea 
an accoont of the principal eccleaiaatical wnlen, 
hereaiea, and pertecutiona, including the beantifnl 
atone! of the martyra at Lyona and Vienne, and 
the death of Polycarp. Hai? accomila of difieimt 
acene! ojid periods in church biilory had been 
written before, aa by Hegnippaa, Popiaa, Tienaeua, 
and Clemena of Alexandria ; but Euaeblaa waa the 
firtt who reduced them all into one whole, atailins 
himielf largely of the labonra of hi* predeeaton, 
bul giving a unity and compleleneoa to them aU. 
The Hiatoiy waa turned into Latin by RuGnna, 
though with many omiaaiont and interpolationa, 
and pobliahni at Rome, 1474. The Greek text, 
together vith that of the biatoriea of Socratea, 
Theodongt, Soiomen, and Evagrina, ^ipeaird at 
Paiia, 1S49, edited by R Stephent, and uain at 
Geneva, 1612, with little alle»tian Erem the prv- 
ceding edition. In thia edition the teit of Eua»- 
biut waa that which had been publiahed by Vale- 
atua at Paria, in lti59, with many emendation a, 
after a caiefa! recenaion of the MSS. in the Biblis- 
th^ue du Roi ; and again at Amiterdara, with 
the other hialcrinna, in l(i96. The aane hiatoriea, 
with the remaining fragmenta of Tbeodoma and 
the Aiian Philoalorgina, were pubUihed at Cam- 
bridge in three folio volmnea, 1720. The Cam- 
bridge edition wai fumiihed with notea by W. 
Reading, and repuhliahed at Turin, 1746 — 48. 
More recent ediliona are Heinichen, in three to- 
lumea, Leipiig, IB'27, which conlaina the comDien- 
tary of Valaiiua and very copioue notea, and 
another at Oxford in 1638, by Dr. Bniton, refiaa 
prefeaaor of divinity in that Univenity. 

The Hiatory haa been tianalated into tariom 
langaagea : into Engliih by Parker, 1703, by Ca- 
ter, 1736, and by DatrympK 177B ; into Oennnn, 
EmtAii Kirfi^ffnckie&te atu dmn Gneck utid mit 
Anmeramgai trtaxlert von F. A. Stnth, 1778; 
into Italian in the BiiUidrta degli Anlori iw/po- 
nmdii, Venice, lJ47l and into French by Counn, 
Pari*, 1675. 

G. i)e Mar^rilmt PJaatimu (wept rir tw 
naXaurrlrii iiafnpiteJrTir), being an account of 
the peraeentiont oif Diocletian and Haiimin &Dm 
A.D. 303 toSIO, It ia in one book, and gen«all7 
found aa an appendix to the eighth of the Eccleai- 
aatical Hiatory. 

6. Agaiiut Hierrxla (*pJt nl iM ^iKairrpimi 
TKvn Sid r^i 'ItpgnAta 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EOSEBIDS. 

vX Himclri bad mdiued DuElatian to b^ 
bu perKcntioD, ftad had written two bcoki, called 
kirn ^lAoAvtiu, ojDipariiig cnr Lotd'i miiadH 
to tboae of ApaQoiuiii of Tjtia. (Sea Lactantiui, 
AoAiL T. 2, 3, *.) In uumttng thi* wotk, £u- 
Hbiu reiiewa the life of ApoUoniui by Philoi- 
tnlm. It wu pnUiihed in Onek and lAtin b; 
F. MoicH (unaDg tba wocki of Phiioitntni) ' 
Puis, lEOB, 4nd with anew ttanilatJoD and noi 
bj CMeuiBi, l^ipag, 1709. 

7. ^jHB< JUanMu (lOTd KopciUau), biih . 
■f AncTn, in two booka Hueellu lud been 
cmdcmned for Sabellianiim at ConitantinDple, 
^ a. 336, utd Ihii work wai written bj deaire 
of the Bjiud wbicb pOHcd tenlence. The mot 
impartanl edition u b^ ttetlbcis. Ootting. 1794-S 
a DeEaiaiaM l iai TkKiagia (npi t^i {ticATKn 
•rrmft A«aA<rrl(u. Tvr rpii Mii^tAAor jArrx*" 
ffC*^ V). Tbia ii a continnation of the funnel 
wo^ and both wen edited with a Ldtin Tenioi 
and Dotea by Moatagn, biihop of Cfaicheater, and 
appended la the Demomilratio Eeamgiiiea, Paiii, 

9. De roa Omitmtimi, fmu boolu (ilf rdf M' 
nS /laKafior Kurrrarrirmr fturiAiiM ^0701 tiv- 
**F*')* * panegyric lather than a biographj. They 
kn itRnallT been pnUiihed with the EceleuM- 
sol Uituuy, but won edited lepaiatel; b; Hei- 



EOSEBIOa. 



117 



1630. 



■ d» Loot Hebmidi (ftpi far 
THutfr imBfJermr Ir rf Mf 7fo^) a detcription 
of the towna and place* aientioiied in Holy Suip- 
Ur, anaoaed ia alphabetical order. Thu ii io- 
•cribed Is Panliniu, biahap of Tjre, aa it alao th< 
mtb book of tju F/^l.*<mi«l Uialoiy. It wai 
y Jetome, and publiibed at 
[ary, bj Jacqnei Bcopare, 
1 H)^ui at Anuterdam, bf J.CIevci, 1707. 
Beaide* llieae, aeTenl epietlea of Eiuebiai are 
imerred br d^erent writera. a. g. bj boeiata 
(i. 8) and Theodoiet (L IS] ; and he wrote mm- 
»entiri<e dn niiona patta of Saiptora, nunj of 

Tbe 6nt editko ef ill tbe worita of 






nfourvo 



«d at Paria in a mon cmect fonn, lfi8(k 
that liine it hai been Danai to edit hia wo^ aepa- 
ntdj, and iha chief of tbcae editiana baia been 
pren with the accmmt nC each work. 

(See Care, Say*. EaL HitL UL toL Lj Fabric 
Btt. ante >dL rii. c 4 ; Naudei, Siniayai*- 
KUt, ToL ii. p^ 787, la. ; Waddington, Hatarg </ 
Hi Ckartk, ch. tii Joitiu, EoL HiiL iiL The 

>^^ onniona of Euiebiai. [Q. E. L. C] 

EUSFBIUa, of DoHTLAauM, bora at th« end 
ef die fifth ceotufj. began bia pablic lt£e as a lay- 
Ban, and bdd an office about the impnial court of 
Cnnatauliuu|ik^ whidi gare him the title of Agent 
ia Beboa. Oae day, aa Neilorina, then biihop of 
Coatantiaaple. waa pnadiiag agsinn the propriety 
•* ■»'T>»8 <!>• *«r™ ®«^**" I" tbe Virgin Mary, 
Bad waa maintaining at ooee the eternal genen- 
liea of the diiiue Lcgoa, and tbe bnmau birth of 
■hi 31an Joua, a Toice tried ool, - No, tbe Eternal 
Wsd Himatlf nbnilied to the lecDRd birth." A 
KRie of gnat cnnluucm follawed, and an actiTe 
■ -'( Nraintian doctrinr began. There 
bat the voice proceeded from Euie- 



Uiu. (Sm tbe qneitian diacnBied by Neander 
KirtiaigaA ToL ii. p. 1073, note.) On another 
DccaiiDn. he piodneed in chuieb an att of accniation 
a^oit Neatoriiu, whom he demnnoed at roviiing 
the bercaie* of Paul of Samoaata. (LeonCiua, eomlnt 
Nabtriim. tt fafyoL iiL) The inlereit which he 
took in thii caDtrorerty probably induced hmi to 
alter hit prafeiaioD, and tn enlei into holy orden. 
He afterwards became tushap of Dorylaeum, a 
town in Phrygia on the rirer Tbymbriue (a feadar 
of the Sazigarius), not &r from the Bithynian fron- 
tier. In litis office be wu among the tint to de- 
fend agsinst Entychet the doctrine of Chriit'i two- 
fold nature, as be bad already nuuntuncd ^ainit 
NeatoriLs the nnity of His penon. lie £rst pri. 
tately admonished Entychea of his error; but, aa 
he &dad in convincing him, he first denounced bin 
at a synod summoned by Flariut, bishop of Con- 
itantinople, and then proceeded to the council 
which Theodosiut had sununooed to meet at Epbe- 
ma, to declare tba Catholic belief en the point 
mooted by Entychea The aaaembly met *. D. 440 
u n de r tbe presidency of Dioscurui, biihop of Alex- 
andria, a partiiBii 1^ Euljchei. It was diigiaeed 

' of the gmtett riolenoe, wbicb gained 

title of nipoSoi k^tTpaei, and beudea 
J the monophysite doctrine, it decreed the 
depoBtion of Euiebtua. But Leo the Gnat, bishop 
of Rone, iotrrfered and prevailed upon Manaan, 
tbe tucceasar of Theodoaoa, to conrena another 
genenl cosncil to ravise the decrees of this diur- 
derly assembly. It met at Chalcedon, i.. n. Ul, 
and Euaebius presented a peljtion at it addiessed 
to Manaan and his colleague Valentinian. Ha 
waa reetond to his see, and the doctrine of Euly- 
chet finally condemned. A Conlalaiiii oifen-fw 
Natorimm by Eosebius is extant in a Latin tnua- 
lation amongst the woilu of Uaiio* Ueccalor, 
part ii. p. 1 S. There an alto a LiUUaM advrmi 



cii, ToL iv. p. 151), Lib^aa adverua DioacuruM 
^modo Ciaictdaiaui oblatn (ib. p. 380), and 
EpiMa ad Maraamtim In^xrvlonm (ib. p. 95). 
'"nnina, HiiL EacL iL 4 ; Cave, HiiL Lit. nl. 
; Neudar,ta.andvDLii.p.S£9.) [0.ai..C.) 
EUSE'BIUS of Ehua, bom of a noble IkmUy 
Edeasa in Mesi^otamia at the end of the third 
ntury. He was a man of ooDiideiable leaniing, 
having leceived inatraction* from Ensebiua of Cae- 
iia and other teacbeta tf high npute. Ha went 
Uexandria, thai he might avoid oidination, and 
Dte bimse^ to philosophy, bat afktfwardi »- 
moved to Anlioch, became intimate with Flacdlhia, 
bishop, and waa ordained. At this time Alha- 
liut was depoMd from the sea of Abuandria^ 
and Euaebius of Ntaonedeia, then biahop of Cou- 
itantinople, wished to inatal bis nameiake into the 
racant offica. He wisely declined the queationabl* 
lonour, knowing that the AlexaiKlrians were los 
■wmly attached to Athanasiiu to tolerate any 
itber patriaich. He accepted, however, the see of 
EmiM in Syria (the city bom which ElagahaluB 
lad been chosen emperor by the soldien) j but on 
proceeding there to take pOMesHoD, he was driven 
by a tomnltiiona nob, who had beard a re- 
port of hia b«ng a sorcerer, baaed upon the bet 
that he was fond of astronomical itudiei. He Bed 
to LAodiceia, and lived with Oeorgc, biihop of that 
place, by whose eienioni he was afterMuda m- 
itored to Emiia. He was a great bvotiriia with 



.4,„.=.utCk)og[c 



118 



EUSGBIUS. 
militat; sipeditioni. H 



uAntiacIi, 



BboDt X. D. 360. Hii insnuei uxnied him of 
Sabellinnfnn, but the trntL of tbs chu^ it denied 
bj Smoinan (iiL S\ He wrote tenni booki enn- 
DKrated by Jnnrme (dt Scr^. 90), a. g, t. tnatiie 
(gsinit the Jewa, Homilie*, Ac Some homiiiei 
on the Ooipeti, and ibiint fiftj on olber lubjettl, 
mie eitiml nnder hii name ; bal th<j an probably 
■puriont, (Uid of mors recent date. They were 
pnbliibed at Parii, I5T5, ud at Antwerp, 1602. 
Some of the homiliH aieribed lo Eniebiui of Ckb- 
nia, ue Utribated to thia Euehiiu. Ca.E.L.C] 
EUSE'BIUS, MAQisTiR KiiinioRDM, ong of 
theoommiauon of Nine appointed by Theodcnina in 
A. D. 429 to compile a code opon a plan which wae 
■fterwacde abandoned fiir anothsr. [Diodoriti, 
Yol. L P.101S.] [J. T. O.] 

EUSE'BIUS, a monk of NJtria, a town of 
Egypt, to ch« we*t of the Csno^c bianch of the 
Nile, waa one of the ''four tall brothen'" haniahed 
by Theophilna, Uihop of Aleiandna, for defending 
the Dpiniona of Orignu at the beguming of the fifth 
«ntuTy, A. D. The thiec othen irere Dioacnma, 
Ammoniui, and Enthymiua, They fled to Con- 
atantinople, where they were kindly reeeited by 
ChryaottoiD, and hsTe Dblained a place in eccleii- 
aatlca] bittory, from the fact that hii protecting 
them waa made a pretext for bia depoaition. There 
Menu no doubt thai they were men of real piety. 
(Soumen. yi. 30 i Neander, fft'irilBKjBsi. tdI. ii, p. 
U36.)|CHiiyBO(n>H;EpiPHAMUS.][a.E.L.CJ 
EUSE'BIUS, of Mtndub in Caria, a diitin- 
guithed New Platoniit and contemporary of Enna- 
ptni, who mentiona him (p. 48, ed. Boiaaonade), 
and nnka him in what ia called the golden chain 
of New Platonlata. Stobaeu, in hii Seryama, haa 
ptnerred a conudanble nnmbec of ethical £t>g- 
menta fnm the woA of one Enaebina, whom aome 
conaider to he the mme aa the New Platoniit, 
vhema olhen are inclined to altrilmte them to a 
6toie of that nai» (Wyttenbach, ad Ham^. p. 
171.) [L.S.] 

EUSE'BIUS, of NicoHiDiu, the friend and 
protector of Aiioi, waa maternally connected, 
thongh diatantly, with the empsor Julian, and 
bora about A. D. 334. He waa lint biahop of 
Berjtiu (Beymut) in Syria, and then of Nicotna- 
deia, which DiodeUan hsd made hii teaidence, w 
that it waa in fact the capital of the Eoitem i 

K're till Conitantine find hia court at Byiantii 
e iirat cornea nnder the no^cA of hiil«y by 
takini the part of Aiiut after hia acamnmnication 
by Alexander, biahop of Alexandria. [Aiuinil 
He wrote a defence i^ the heretic to Paulin 
biahop of Tyre, and the letter ia preaerred 
Theodoret (i. 6). Eoaehiua atatea in it hia belief 
that there ii one Being UnbegoUen and one Be- 
gollm by Him, hot not from hi* aubitanee, baling 
no ihare in the natnre or eaaence of the Unbe- 
gotten, bnt yet rpir raktUv iftiniTTfTa tia$ifftmi 

So wannly did Enaebtu lake part with Arini, 
that the Ariiina were aometimet called Eoaririana ; 
and at the Nicene cooncil he exerted himaelf 
Tigoronaly againat tha ^iplicatiiai of the 
itiOBwrnoM to the Son. But hii affwutim waa dd- 
nicceaiful, the HDmoonaiiiu tiiim^ad, and Eo- 
aebina jmaei hia nameaake of Caenreja u> ajfiiing 
hii lignanm to the Creed, thon^ he took the 
word in a aenae which rednca it merely to I>>ouif 



He declined, hoirever, to lijin the inathetoi 

which the council iuued againat Aiini, thou^^ not, 

ai he layi in the petition which he aflcrwaidi 

preamtei! to the biihopa, **becanae hediffetcd from 

the doctrine ai leltled at Nicaes, bat becanu hi 

donbtcd whether Ariui really held what the analhe- 

raainipaledlohira."(Soi!onj.iLli.) BulTcniooQ 

after Uie council had broken up, Eoaebiai ibeved 

* ' ^TiTe the contioTcny, for which he 

of hia an and haniahed into GioL 

On this occBuon ConiUintine sddmKd a letter to 

the people of Nicomcdeia, ceniuring their eiiled 

' ■ "^ - the (trnngejt manner, ai diaSecled l» 

raent, Ai the principal aupporterorhcmy, 

n wholly nBardlcH of Iniih. (Tbeodoc. 

HitLEecL L 30.) Bat he did not long tmiun nnda 

ipeiial diapleaanre. Conitantia, the emperor') 

, wat under the tnlluenoe of an Ariin pm- 

byter, and waa thereby indnced to plod in b-'oa 

of that party with her bntther, and one retull of 

ao completely regained Coo- 
to be flelected to adminifier 
baptiam to him In hii laat Ulneia. Hii Aiiou fetl- 
'ngi however broke ont again. He pncond the de- 
nivalion of Euitathini. hiihop of Aniioch, ind, if 
re may belicTe Tbeodorel (l 31), by isbaniiDg 
I wnuan lo bring againat him a fiJac accoiatiini of 
iha moit infamoni kind. He wai an ictiie op- 
3onent of Alhanaaiua, and exerted himadf to pn^ 
:ure the reitonlion of Ariul to the full prjvilegn 
>f chiirebmanahip, menacing Alexander, biihop of 
ConMantinople, with depovtjan unlew he el oin 
admitted him to the holy communion, in which he 
wonld haTe mcceeded bnt for the ludden death of 
Arini. Soon after thii Alexander died, end Ea- 
aehioi managed to procure hii own Section to the 
meant ace, in defiance of a tanon againat Innili- 
tiona agreed to at Nicaea. He died abonl a. d. 
S42. 



Thoogh Eiuebina liea nnder the diaadTantlge d 
iTing hii character handed down to pfttteiilj 
almoit entirely by the deacription of tbaologiol 
encmici, yet it ii diflicall to imagine that he ni 
in any way deeerring of eeteera. Hii ngnatnre m 
the Nicene creed wai a groai eTaaion, nor on ^ 
he coniidered lo haTe ligned it merely aa an artide 
of peace, aince he waa cnc aElerwaidi a walsni op- 
ponent of ita principle*. It am Manely bedonbttd 
thai be wai worldly and ambitiona, and if Thw- 
doret'i ilory abon referred to be true, it wcold bt 
horrible to think that a Chnatian hiafaop ahnild 
have been guilty of luch gtou wtdiedneia. At 
the lame time, eotuidcriDg the tnlire abamcc <t 
the critical clement in the hiiloriani of tliit ije, 
the nolent biUenwn of their feelinga oa nhJKU 
of theological controreray, and the Cict that Tb»- 
doiel wrote many yean after EoiebiuB'a dealb, 
we ihall be alow to beUcTe in nich an accutaaoo, 
which reiti only on the authority of the ttUMl rc- 
hement of the church hiitoriani of the timai while 
Sooatea, the moat modeiale and leaat credulw. 
manl; mjt (i 18), that Eaalathiui mi difovd 
DCBinallj for SaboUiaDian, *' though aoiDe uiiga 
other oaont;" and Soaomen <u. IS) tdia m, thai 
•ome acooiad Emtathioi of leading ao irregubr hb 
bvl doei not hint that tbii charge r«ted on awickfd 
contrinnce of Eoaebioi- Athanauu hiraiK 
gifea another canae for the depotition of E»M- 
thini — that Enaebina had aocuaed him of alasdx- 
iag Helena, the mother af ConHauliue. (Athu. 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



Bid. Jri. % i.) We icgnt in tlui in* 

■ b Mken, thil we h>Te sol Ha eomplele 

nik rf PUloMetgiu, Uw Arian hiMorian, vbo. 



■nt limlste to 1 
(tfaddipgtia, OurA HM. di. 
(<hal.fi.) couiden UiD u the teacher ntherthnn 
ibf dnple of Atieu ; ud lAervudK, w} 
Arim vm divided mmon^ themieiYCfl into portiDi, 
Amt wbo BuinUiDed the perfect likenea ifhicfa 
ihe bIimms of the Sao bore to thet of the Fath« 
fTriaBBiiaiiiiii) a^in«t the CoDmbetBotialiBta, en 
tke mm hand, and the pun Ariuu, or ADoiaaiaai, 
nlhtetbtr, pkslid the ulhontir of this Eiue- 
Ub. He lenete tt Ihu party vere laoctioDed bf 
llKCoanlitfSdei>aia,^D.3£9. (Theodor. f. <^ ,• 
!iass.J:i:.,' Sociatea, iL S; Care, Hid. LiL roL 
LiNtauler, fvekiiyaiii:KUr,T(^u.p.773,&<;.r 
TiBniBt,wrb.^ri«^ut.66; lee al« an ene;- 
dio] letlH isma the ajnod eF Egyptian bithopi to 
^1naimA6ma.ApaLcAr.%\i».) [a.E.L.C.] 
EDSE'BIUS. miunad Scboluticiis, a Greek 
LaodaB w^ liTed abonl a. a. 400, for he ii laid 
bhinheenaa e^Tineat of the wai of the Ro- 
■« >(aiaat Caiua*, lung of (he Ootb*. Ho waa 
a bSuwtr of Tnalnt, and wrote the hietorj of the 
Oahk war, ia benineter Tens, in tour booki. 
Hii vsck ia laid to hare been -nrj popnhr at the 
imt, hot hu not come down lo na. (Sadat. H. B. 
n. E : Niccph. H. E. litL 6.) [L. S.] 

EUSrBlUS VERCE1J.ENSIS, an active 
^^HO of nthodaiy daring the trouble! which 
leaicd the church in the middle of the foonh 
tiKtrjt waa a native of Saidinia, pniaed bii early 

tifr ai an Ii iMilii »1 rader at Rome, and in k. v. 

M wu, bjr Pope Jnliui, ordained biihop of Ver- 
afiiwbac, altbongh an atler ilnioger, he ia a 
wy Uivf ^we acquired the love and respect of all 
h the ■■[ilii ilji if hii UJB, and bj the intemt 
■tieh be maoileaUd in the qiiritual welbia of hii 
i«k ad hi* (Jei87. The latter he wm wont to 
^■iiilJa in Ina hooae and retiun for long periodfti 
biiag with theni in ccmmonT and iliiDulating them 
by hii cxanple to acta of devotion and aelf-deniaL 
Tla ii Bid lo be the firal iiutance apOD reccad 
rf BB MtmqH to combine the dntiei of an active 






e led the way to the inatitntion of 
and to have aaggealed many of the 
1 wbicb (Sthidial ealabUahmenta 



'imA ti 



Ba (f AtbuataiD* Ind been WDCtioiMd. Id cdd- 
•VMtn of tbcir ngent npnaaolalioiia the connci] 
•f Haan WM —■»--"■' the ibDowiog jtar, when 
Eavlna plaadad (he caoa* of the ttns faith vrith 
■ Both frtadeDi and ciWTgTt that the Aiiaa aa- 



iofra 



whii 



Kyiia. Fnm tSence bi 






a ^ D. 362, ptDoooncing the 
ill nf the eiijed pnlatee. B«p*iring to Aleiau- 
t, ia naarfanre with the reqneat of Athaauiat, 
■ai piMnit at the gnat coiuidl (of 362), and 
■am it a^fmiiA to the preooadinga, being the 
I Bgnatan eiprcaud in I^tin charactua. from 



EUSTATHIUS. 
AleiandiB, Eoatbiiu proceeded 
head- - •=--^- - '--■->- 
bythi 



icited 



ction of Paulinni \ and after vtiitjng many 
cnnrcJiea in the Eait, letomed at length to hii own 
dioceie, where he died, according to 5t. Jerome, in 
a. D. 371). 

Wepoaaewthne^nrioloeafthia&lher. l.Ad 
CautaMliun AuffHtbm- 2. Adpm^teroa ttpiebet 
Ilaliat, written do the occawon o£ hu baniahment, 
lo which ii attached LUellaifiuii, a aurt of proleat 
againit the violent conduct of the Arian biahap 
Palnphilua, who waa in »tne lort bii jailor duciag 
hii leeidence al Scythopolii. 3. Ad Orrfforium 
£^uc. Hap; found among the fragment* of Hila- 
riua (iL § b). He executed alio a tianilatioo of 
the commentary drawn up by hi* namauke, Euie- 
biui of CaoHtreia, on the Paalmi ; and an edition of 
the EvwgtliitJi, lioiu a copy iaid lo be tranicribed 
by hii own hand, prpeerred at Vercelli, was pub- 
Uifaed at Milan, Ita. 1748, by J. A. Irico. 

The aboveDiaDtioned letter* are given in the 
BiU./>afr, Jlfoi, Lugdun. 1677, ToL v. p.lla7; 
of Galland, voL v. p. 78, and in 
all the laiger collectiona of the fathen. (Hieron. 
rfo Viri, lU. t 96.) [W. R.1 

EUSTATHIUS. (EJot<13io..> i. Bi*ha« of 
Antioch, wh a native of Side, a lawn in Pam- 
phylia, but according to Niicta* Chouialea (v. 9), 
he waa deacended from a bniily of Philippi in Mo- 
ontemporaiy of the emperor 
!, and waa at Aral biihop of 
Benea in Syria, but the coundl of Nicaaa appoint- 
ed him biihop of Antioch. (Nicet. Choo. v. 6.) At 
pening of the csuncil of Ninea he ii aaid to 
been the fint who addreued the emperor in a 
panegyric. (Thcodoret, L 7.) Euilalhiu* wa* a 
' ua defender of the Catholic bitb,and a bitter 
ly of the Ariant, whi) therefore did everything 






I of hi* I 



n and influn 



lynod of Ariaa prclalei waa convened at Antioch, 
I which inch heavy, though unfounded, chorgea 
roe brought againit him, that he wa* depnaed, and 



theei 






I eiilel 



, Trajanopolii I 



Thrau^in A.D. 3S 9 or 330. ( Socnt. i. 24 ; Soio- 
ro, ii. 19 ; Tbeodoret, i. 21 ; Philoatorg. iL 7.) 
hmg time after, hii iniuKenca and the Qdunmiea 
of hii enemiei became known through a woman 
ad been bribed to bear lalie witneu againit 
him, and who, on her death-bed, confeaaed her 
erime ; but it wa* too late, for Euetatbioa had al- 
ready died in hji exile. He ii praised by the eo- 
' ' tical writer! ai one ofthe worthieit and holi- 
in. (Athanaa. ^. ad SalU. p. 629 ; Soio- 
DMa.Li. 19.} Eiutathiuiwai the author of leveral 
eoriu, but among thoae which now bear hii name, 
here are two which can Korcely have been hii 
jnductioui, vi^ the addrea* which ha i* told to 
lave delivered to the etoperor Condantine at the 
nunalafNiaea,and which ii printed withalMin 
renion in Fabric Bit/. Or. vol. ii. p. 1 32, &C., and 
lecondty, a commentary, or iM^ivni", on the Hei- 
aemsroD, which waa ^led. with a LaUn tranab^ 
and espiou* noiH, by Leo Allatiua, Lugdun, 
9, 4to. Thil worii ii not mentioned by any 
rut writer, and the only authority for aacribiDg 
Euatathiu, ii the US. lued b; AlUtiiu, in 
which it bear* hia name. Bnt the work itaelf alio 
n* proof* that it cannot have been vrritlen bj 
Enilathiua. A work acauiit Oiigen, entitled Kord 

3«ipi|fui, on the other hand, ii mentioned by Hi<- 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



ia» EUSTATHIUS. 

nmymiia (d* Seripi. iUiatr. BS ; comp. SocnL *i- 
13), and ii undonbtrdly Renuitn. It » printed at 
tlis end of AUitioi'i edition of tha comnientar; on 
the Hrn«men>n. Eaitathiniwntf fiinher Homi- 
lies Epiitles, snd an InterpreUtion of (be Pulnu, 
of which umB fragnipnti are >lill eilant. Tfaey ue 
totkclwi in Fibrit BiU. Oraa. tiJ. ix, pp. 1 Si- 
US ; comp. Can,»u(,£^i. P.13S, Ac. 

2. Biihop of BuirTtn, wh pmenl >t the conn- 
eil of Choloidon in A. D. Ul, ind had bfwi o« of 
the preaidenta at the conndl of Betytiu, held in 
A. D. 446. [Aria OmeiL JL p. 2111. ed. Biniau. ; 
ZudiuiuMitjlei].il«j>fuwf.C^p.l66.ed.Barth.) 

3. Of Cafpadocu, 1 New Plaloniat, wu a pn- 
pa of lunblichna and Aedeuui. When the Istler 
was obliged to qnit C^ipadociB, EnttHithiak wu 
left behind in hi> plus. Emuipiiu, lo whan alooe 
we are indebted for oar knowledge of EoMathiu, 
deelun that he wu the beat man and a gTvat ora- 
tor, whote »peech in iweetneia equalled the longi 
of the Seireni. Hii reputation wu n great, that 
when the Peruana beu^ed Antioch, and the am- 
pin waa threatened with B war, the etnperor Cnn- 
■tantiu* wai pierailcd upon to aecd Enatathins, 
althongh he wn» a pagan, 



D. 358, w 



Hid lo hare 



enchanted hy the onlorr of the Onek. Hia conn- 
tiymen and friend* who longed for hii retnm, 
■enl drpntiet to bim, but he reftaaed to coaia bock 
to hia mnntcy on account of certain aigna and pro- 
digiei. Hia wife Soaipatm ii anid to hsTe eien 
excelled her huihond in talent and learning. (En- 
nap. VU. &iph. pp. 31, 47, Ju. ed. Hadr. Jnnina ; 
comp-Bracker, Hi(.OA fWof. TaLiL]i.a73,*c.) 
4. Of EriFHiNm in Syria, a rtietoneian of the 
time of the emperor Anaataaini. He wrote an hia- 
toriialwaik in ninebooki, intitledXporuc^ Jiiti>;«|. 
It mnaiated of two porta, tha lirat of which embac- 
•d the hialory from the creation lo the time of 
Aeneiaa ; and the aceond from the time of Aeneiaa 
down to the twelfth yrmx of the reign of the empe- 
rur AnaitauDa. With the exception of ■ few fiw 
ment*, the wbole woik i* loat (ETaniai, iiL 37, 
Ti. in tin. ; Nicephoi. Prvxm. and iiT. S7 ; Sui- 
g. Evirrdhai.) There ia another Eutathina 
who behmgi to an earlier dale, and 
ong the Ariana at the ajnod of 3^ 
leoceia, in a. n. 359. (Epiphan. IxxiiL 36 ; Chion. 
Aleomdr. p. 296. ed. Casge.) 

B. An Erotic writer, or noTeiial vhrne name ia 
written in »meMSS."Eanuithio«.- With nsaid 
to hi> naliTe pbice, he ia called in the MSS. of hia 
work HoiifitjUHSaAlTTii, which ia nmallf referred to 
Canatintinople,Dtna^fi3'>^l'r4i, according to which 
ha would be a nacire of the Egj^tian town of Pa- 
rembote. He appear* to hai>e been a man of rank, 
and high in office, for the MSS. deuribe him aa 
t-f)arroiv3'A^f^i and t'^yni xopTD^Aci^ or diief 
keeper of the anhiiei. The lime at which he liicd 
i* oncertain, but it i* generallf believed that be 
cannot be placed earlier than the twelfth oenEnry of 
our em, as that hia work wonld be the lateat Onak 
noTel tltal we know o£ Some writen, inch aa 
Cave, confound bim with Euitatliina, tbe aiehbiahop 
of Tbeaaalnnica, from whom he mnit anidy be dia- 
tingniihed- Thenovel which he wrote, andthrongb 
which alone hia name bai come dawn to na, beui 
tha title, TJ nS' TviJinfr anl Ttfturla* tfSiia, and 
conaiatt of eleren booka. at the end sf iht lait of 
which the author himielf nwntiona the title, ll i> 
a etory of the love of Hjaminiaa and Hymine, 



EUSTATHIUS. 

writtan in a to; artificial atyla. The tale ia mo- 
improbable, and ihewinopower of inrentionon tha 
part of ita anthor. The loien an of a taj aen- 
aoal ditpodtion. It waa lirat edited with a iMJa 
tranihilion by Gnilbert Gaulmin, Pane, 1617, Bto., 
who pnbliiAed, the year after, biaprebceand notes 
to it. The Latin tnnalation ii reprinted in tha 
LeideneditioDDfPartheniuB.(I613,13mo.) Some- 
what impmted reprint* of Oanlmin'a edition ap- 
peared at Vicrma, 1791, Hto. and Leipiw. 1792, 
8to- There ia a very good French tnnalation by 
Lebaa, PariB,lB3B, 12nio^ with a critical introdns- 
tion QHiceming the author and hi* noreU (Comp. 
Fabric BM. Grate ToL liii. p. 136, Ac ; Th. 
Oriuae. in Jahn'a JoMiHtim- for 1836, finirth mp- 
plemant. vol p. 267, ftc ) 

6. Biihop of SnBAaru in Armenia, who, toge- 
ther with Baailiaa of Ancyro, waa the anthor of fiia 
lect of the Macedoniana. (Suid. t.ii. EdaT^9<af.) 
He waa originally a monk, and iaaud to hare been 
the fint who made the Armoniana acqaainled with 

ed to him the work on Aicelica, which ia uanally 
regarded aa the prodoction of St. Baailin*. Ha 
mnat baie been a conlenipatarT cf Cenatantine tha 
Great, for Nicephoronaatalea, that althongh he had 
aigned lite decreea of the caimcil of Nicaeo, he yet 
openly aided with the Ariana. [Epiphan. lur. I, 
&c ; Soiomen. iiL 13 ; Nicephor. ii. 16.) 

7. Aichbiihop of THxasALONica, waa a nitite 
of Conatantinople, and lired during the latter half 
of the twelfth centnry. At Sr*t be waa a monk in 
tbe monaitery of Sl Fiona, but afterwaidt he wu 
appointed to the office* of aupcrintendent of petj- 
tione (M thi* flei^awy), proieeaor of rhetoric (^itt- 
trrrotp ^ijTopofF), and diaconna of the gnat church 
of ConatanUtKiple. After being bialKHi elect of 
Myn, be wai at once miaed to the archbiahojHic 
of TbeHolonica, in which office he reniained until 
hia death in A. D. 1 1 9B. The funeral oimtiona whieii 
were deliiered upon htm by Eutfiymiua and Mi- 
chael Chociate* are Mill extant in MS. in the Bod- 
leian Libnry at Oxford. The praiie wbicb ia bo- 
atowed npon bim by Nicetaa Cheniate* (Tiii. p. 238, 
I. p. 334} and Micbael Paelba (Du Cange, Gbamr. 
I. 0. M^«v) ia perfectly joxtified by the worki of 
Euatathiui that baTB come down to ua: theycoti- 
tain the ampteat proofa that he waa beyond ail dia- 
pute the moit learned man of hia age. Hia wocka 
coniiat of commentariea on andent Greek poeta, 
thaological tmliaea, homiliea, epiatlea, Ac, the first 
of which are to ua tbe moat trapi^tant. Theae oom- 
menlariea shew that Eoilatbiui poaaeaaed the moat 
exteniire knowledge of Greek hteratnre, from tha 
earlieat to the lateat timeai while hii other worki 
exhibit to ua the man "a high peraonal character, and 
hia great power aa an orator, which procured him 
tbe aiteem of tha imperial bmily of the Comneni. 
The moit important of ail hia werka ia. 1. Hia 
commentan on the Iliad and Odyaaey (HaptxAa- 
Aal lit r^v 'Ofnfpei' "UuiSa »1 '0«Mriralar), or 
retber hia collection of extract! from earlier 



rioftboBi 



Tbia 



uon waa made with tbe m«t oatoniibing dUigenoa 
and peroererance from the nnmerona and eiienaiTe 
worka of the Alexandrian gramraariani and cri- 
tica, ai well aa (rnm later commentaton ; and aa 
nrmAj aU tha woiia from which Euitathiua mads 






lable value to ai, lor he hai preaerred at lea 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EDSTATHIUS. 
nWum ci tbar naariii utd oiticiimi. Th* 
nmba of utlnn wluae woiki be qnoleii u pndi- 
fiou(K tbs Int of Ibem in Fabiic BiU. Oraee. toL 
Lp.U7,&c);biit*ltbaiigbirs[ujadiiiitth)>t bs 
M DDI nad th et tbcm, mud that he qQcited wme 
u leceBd-liUMli jct then leemi la be no lufficicnt 
nH» for belieiing that he vu nol penonalJj mo- 
qmintHl with the grsint of lh« UKWiit critict, 
Kcb u AiutnpbuKi a( Byuntinm, Ariitarthiu, 
Zaiajatu uid Dthcn, whoKworki were tctsmblt 
Id hin bi the gnat libniin of DnntuitiDopte. If^ 
« Uk other hand, we hnk apon tb* work at * 
nmnmlarj, aod otimate it bj the ttandaid of 
whu ■ gnod cHBiiMDUiy ihould be, we Gad it ez- 
tRBilj deGdent in plao and method ; tht author, 
faiwenr, cannot be blamed for thne deficieiidea, ai 
ia 6tit doca not lead lu to expect a legulai eom- 
■cDlaiy. nil nmaik* are, farther, eicecdingi; 
diffgie, and &«qnaillj intemipted hj all kinda of 
digTFwiu ; the xnaaj etymological and gnunmati- 
nl ftwiei which we meet with in tii> work are 
wli u we might expect. Then it rerj litlle in 
hat ii original, <a that can he re- 
lioD of Eiutalhiua himielf. He 
ererjthing which lerved 10 illue- 
aathu, whether il refeired to the language 
w pruuiiac, or In mTthoiogy, history, and geo- 
fnplij'. The Grtt edition of it wu publithed at 
Roe, li4a--155tl. in 4 'ok fuL, of which an in- 
nuitereprintappemdatBa^in 155»-6a. The 
Flmne edition hj A. Potilni (17S0. 3 mle. (oL), 
ceeuioi onlj the commentarj to the Gnt Rtc booki 
of the niail with a Latin tianilation. A toleiabl; 
tamct itpiint of the Raman edition wai pabliihed 
u Leipaig in two eectioni ; the fint, containing the 
saneaiai; on the OdyMey in 3 Tola ila, appeared 
ii IBli-fG, and the eecond, or the commentary on 
Ik Ilad. in 3 Tob. its. wai edited by O. Slalbaom, 
[t-27-29. UaefoleitiactibomthecoimmnlaryDf 
a acTerat ediciooa of the 



Hnmeric peena. 2. A 
FCngetes dedkated la Joannea Docaa, tbi 
indienieai Camatmu, ii on the whole of the nme 
tind lad of the (ame diffnieneBe a> the camnientaiT 
•I Himer. lu great Talne eaneiii* in the nnme- 
nu eiQaeta from earlier wiiteri to iUutrata the 
|Mgi«|dij of DionyriiUL II wai fint printed in R. 
SBphritt'i edition of Dionjdui (Parii, 1647, 4lo.), 
ud rftorwaid* alio in that of H. Stephen* <Parii, 
1177, itft, and 1697. 810.), in Hndion'i Ox^nipl. 
Hieir. ToL iT_ and laid;, in Benihaidy^ edition of 
DimTsae (Leipiig, ia2B,8To.). 3. A comment- 
BJ en Piikdar, which howeiet leemi to be I»t, at 
loM H> H3. of it hai jet come to light. The in- 



tra edited bj Tald in bia Km 

(Wofa, Fnnkfnrt. 1832, 410., fem which il wai 

''Trialcd teparatetj bj Schneidewin, EntiaJhiipro- 

IU7, Bio. The other work) of Euaiathint wEkh 
■a* pabliihed Ibr the fint time by Taiel in the 
OfmrnJa jiut mentioDed, are chiefly of a Iheo- 
kgial Bataie ; there ia, however, among them one 
(p- !E7, kc) which ia of great hutori^ inlerret, 
•ia the aeeonnt of the taking of Theaaalonica by the 
NwinaDiinA.i>.nB£. 

The Bane Eattathini ia one of Tsty conunon oc- 
onaioe daring (be Byiantine period, and a liil of 
•3 the known Eaatathii iagiren bf Fahricioa. CBiiL 
Onte. tbL ii. p 149, Ac] [L. S.] 

EUSTATHIUS, the anlbor nf a Utin tiu 



EUSTATHIUS. 121 

latton et the nine diaconnet of St Baiil on the 
Crealion. He wa* an African by birtb, fioniiahed 
about Che middle of the fifth centniy, and waa the 
brother of the Syndetica Diaconiua, ko lauded by 



Il btare ibe title Non 



SednU 
Tbi. 



the edition of St. Baiil, pnbliahed at Fari> by Oap- 
Dier,fbI.17-21,*oLi,*pp.631— 676. [W. IL] 

EUSTATHIUS ROMA'NUS, a celebiated 
Oraeco-Ronuo juiit, of the noble bmily of the 
Haleini, wa> honoured with the rank of Patridiu, 
and filled Tariona high office! at Coutantlnople, 
He waa fint a pniine jtidge (Arrdr aprnfs) under 
Romanue jtuiior (BamL lii. p. 677, acbol.), and 
coQlinnedto £11 the nme ofiice under Kicephoiui 
Phosi (reigned A. D. 963—969), tlien waa made 
Qnaealor, and wai afterwarda made Magitter CMEd- 
omm nndci Baaileiue Balgaroctonne (reigned 97 5 — - 
I02£). Baiileini PHphyrogenilDi, in a norell in- 
•ert*d in the collection of LeDnclaiiui (J. O. R. iL 
p. 173}, apeaki of the nnintemjpled proepeiily of 
fail Eamily for IDO or 120 yean. (Zachaiiae, HiM. 
Jn. Gr. Rom. IMiit. p. B6 ; Heimbu^ <fa BaiU. 
OHg. p. 79.) 

He i> quoted by the foor appellationa, " Enela- 
thiui," ** Patiicint," " Romanni,'' and "Hagiiter." 
Harmenopului, in the Prolegomena to hit Heiabib- 
lon (i 2D I, mentionihii ohligationi to the Kowtiba 
of Magiitei, who waa eiidenlly a judge ai well a* 
an interpreter of Uw, for Harmenopului tcquently 
cite* hii deeiuoni aod decree) : HarmeuopulDi alio 
•eieral timei cilei Patridoi, and, whereier mch ■ 
dlabon occun, then ii alwaya a marginal referenca 
ia manucripU to the BiUioH Aontavunt, which ap- 
peaia to be the eame ai the Romaica of Usgiiter. 
In Haimenopulni (4. tit 12. § lU), ii a panaga 
died from Patridui, with a marginal Rfeience U 
the B3iliiiii Romaicum, and the lame paiiage ii at- 
tiibnled in a icholinm on Ihe BalOla (60. tit. .17, 
Tol. riL p. 67B) to Romanui. Thia vcrk of Ma- 
giiter wai dirided into (itlei, and Ihe title) 11^ 
nmudr, n>pl KAitfWivilai and II<fj ^uOtiiur, 
are died in the //auA^Min (S. til. 9. 9§ 1 1 , 1 3, 13). 
Mortrenil {Hiibandn Droit B^malit, ii. p. 503, 
Pati^ 1844.) identifiei the Sii/Hii Amu icen with 
the Praetioa of EuatalhinL The Sq^enj^iara, or 
obaei f ationi of Magiiler, are alio mentioned in the 
//■mMUoii (3, tit. 3.J 111). 

Sometimet, when Magiitei ii died in Harmeno- 
pnlu), there i) a marginal reference to the Kitpir 
xord XTo<x<ror, and in Baal. tIi. p. 32, mention ia 
made of the irQix*^ ^^i* Mtdovopot ; bnt the work 
which DOW exiiti in mannacript, and pauea under 
^e name of the Mmpir xmi iriuxfn', or Symopiu 
Mimor, hai been niiially atCribnied to Docimua, or 
Docimiua, and ii of a later date than Euilathiiii, 
( Reii. lada Non. Prop, a Hartmmp. 1. m. Ma- 
giiler; Punaiu,t»utpii;niMaeTmm.Tin.Si^. 
pp. 389 — 400 ; Zichariae, HiiL Jmr. Or. Horn, 
Ddin. i 47.) 

The nuiea of Enitathini and Ronianni ocem 
■ereral tiraei in Ihe Scholia on the fiaiitica, e. g. 
BatiL It. p. 489, iiL p. 340. 56. 480, til 678. 694. 
The 'twiiurni^ of Etunthiui ii died BamL iii. p> 
116. Iti>atrsctorthedaleA.i>.1025,deAio6w 
CoHtobriint qui Jhnu CautArimu dtaeraul^ and ia 
printed in the collection of LeunclaTiui (./. 0.fi.i. 
p^4U). HeimbaEh(^iHnJal<i,Lp.lin.)menLiDni 
a manuscHpl in the Valicnn at Rtnne (cod. 226, foL 
394—300) under the ■- ""' " " '■" -' 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



a be nad "twiiirtuia npt 0ihi 



laa EUSTATBIUS. 

rtpl Hot (UC) TDV 'Pll^llllini. Ml 

tb* titla oogbt 
EilffTafKoir tou *W^^uuflv. 

In the lul-dted pumgc, the Scholinm givn an 
extract &Dni the iVocfiai, uid mentiona Pfttriciu 
m the author. Eoatathiui ii bere to be undenlood, 
and Dot, Bi Heimbach and Fabriciut luppoKd, the 
earlier Patriciai Hero*. Tbo Hitpo, or /VocCwa, 
of Euitathiiu !• cittd in the Scholia, Bi»L *iL p. 
516. 676-7. The Pmiita m a vork written not 
by EaElalbini himKlf, hut b; ume jod^ or aiie»- 
•or of the judgment- leat. It coniitli of 75 tillea. 
under *hich an contained aitncta froni proceed- 
ing! in cauH tried at ConilantiDaple, luid deter 
mined by Tviani jndgo, eipecially by Euilatbiui 
RoDianuL Uoat of theaecauHi were beard in th( 
Hippodmnai, a name of a court paralleled by oui 
EnEliih CodpU. The TlKfn (which sppean betlei 
to deMTTe pablication than amie of thoae remaiiu ol 
Graeco-RomaoJuriipnidencewhicbhaTe been lately 
given to the world by H^mbach and Zncharioe) 
eiiita in mannacript in the Mediceaa Library at 
Florence (Cod. Ijiuient. lux. Ibl. 178, Ac), with 
the title BiSAior, Jstp wapi lU' Tina »vi>iii!wni 
Tlupa, Ta^ 3^ ^T^vttv ^lAoiTjcaAjf {k rmii rpa^tttf 
ToS fUT^DV nipau EilirraSliHi tou 'PHfuiov, (Ztt- 
diariae, ffiit Jur. Gr. Kam. Driiii. § *1.) 

Another nnpubliihed work of Eiiatathiu ii hit 
tmliie Ilrpl 'TnAiAm, which ii in manOKi 
Parii. The meaning of the word im^Kt 
been a nibject of mnch ditpute. (Dn Cange, duo. 
Mtd. M Itif. Oraac >. r.) It Mema ordinarily to 
■lean that to which Ibe wife ii entitled by agree-. 
ment or particalaT cuatom upon the death of' her 
huaband, oier and above the dowry the broogfat him. 

2. To EuMathina Romsnng baa been &lKly Mcrib- 
ed a work concerning preacription and the legal 
effect of periodt of time from a moment to a hun- 
dred yw*. Tbii work wupubliahed with a Latin 
nnioabySchBrdini(AutJ. 1561),BndiDi[Dediately 
■fterwirdi in Greek wily by Cujaa, along with hii 
own treatiie on the aame rahject. It haa unce 
been often reprinted nnder rarioua namei. It may 
be found in the collection of LeunclaTiDa(ii.n. 297) 
with the title lie Teapormm /nCamUi, with Scho- 
lia of Atbanauna and othert. The laaC edition ii 
that by Zacharias. (td'VimijOJerJitSdirifivlitr 
dit ZtilaiKlmitle, 8to. Held. 1B36.) The work u 
commonly attributed lo Euitathiui, Anteceaaor 
Coualan^nopolilaniu, If tbia inacription be cor- 
rect, the Pmfeaior muM hare been of earlier dote 
than Eualathini Ronanna, for the trstiae Dt Tcm- 
jonim Inlermliii appean to haTa been originally 
compiled in the leientfa century. The edition of 
Scbaidiua giiea the work neariy in ila original 
fam ; Cuja*, Leiinclaiiot, and Zadtatiae pi«Mnl ua 
with a aecond edition of the aame work ai reviled 
about the eleventh century by aome editor, who haa 
■Jded Kholla of bii own, and introduced rderencei 
(0theBa>ilica.(BieiKr,<';iKi.derJVbcea«,p.]21.) 

Neiarl (cited by Sammet Dia. di HfpJiala in 
Mttnx. Tket. Suppt. p. 3S2) attribntei, not to Eua- 
talhint Romanna, but to the eariier pcoCeuor £n>- 
tathiua, a •ynopui of juridiod actioDi, endtled Al 
Jtytr/idiv a\jir^^ti^ which ii fiHmd ^ipended inni»- 
Duicript to the Pnuknmi nuctain. (Zachariae, HM. 
Jar. Or. Ron. DeUii. g iS ; Homhach, dt BomL 
Orig. p. U4.) 

3. An Edict of the Enatathin» who waa Pi " 



ed by Zuchsri 



= (^-1. 



piihliih- 
1, p.-2r0). tJ.T.O.] 



EUSTRATIUS. 
EUSTA'THIUS{EApr^Biei).BOTaek|>hyiitian 

in the latla half of the fiiurth century aftw Chritt, 
to whom two of the letter* of Sl Baail an addreaaed. 
a.D. 373. 374. (vol iiL Epi<L 151, IBS.ed. Bened.) 
In •ameMSS.heiacalledbytheti(le'*Aichial4iT.'' 
The aecond of these letlera ia by ume pemns at- 
triboted to St. Oregory of Nyaaa, and ia accord- 
ingly printed in the third Toluma of hia workia 
p. fi. At, ed. Bened. [W. A. Q.] 

ELfSTHE'NlUS, CLAU'DIUS, wcrelaiy feft 
apulotit) to Diocletian, wrote the Uvea of Dnd»- 
tian, Maiitnianut Heiculiua, Oaleiiiu and Coik- 
itantiua, aaiigning to Mch a Mpacate book. (Vi^iac 
Carin. IB.) [W. R.l 

EUSTO'CHIUS (EJot^x""). ■ Oppwlociaa 
•ophiat of the time of the emperai CoDitant. He 
wrote a hialory of the life of that emperor and ■ ' 
wotk on the antiqaitin of Cappadocia and olher 
counlriea. (Suid.i.t>. Edrrifxuii Slepb. Byi.>.D. 
nmnaciwmat.) [L. S.] 

EUSTO'CHIUS (EJffTixiei), « phyaiciaa of 
Alexandria, who becsine acquainted with the phi- 
lOBophH- Plotinua late in life, and attended bim in 
hia laat illneaa, A. a. 2i0. Hs atnnged the worka 
(Porphyr. Vita Plot in Plot Opira, 



ToL i. p. L 11. 

EUSTRATIUS (EArrplt 
the Oreek chnrdi at Coutaatinqile, ia 
of a work oa tie Cnmiiliom o/ til Hmmai Soml 
afbr Death, which ii aliU extant Reipecting hia 
hie and the time at which he lived, nothing ia 
known, except what can be gathered fnim tho 
woA itaelf, It ia directed agaiait thoee who main- 
tained that the aouli cmaed to act and operate aa 
aoan at they quitted the human body. Pjiotiaa 
(BiU. Old. 171) knew the work, and made aoma 
eitiacta trrim i^ which i> a proof that Enatratiua 
moat have lived before Phoiiiu. Further, aa Eiia- 
traliua rep«ledly mentiona the worka of Dionyaiua 
Areiopagila, he must have lived after the publieatiaa 
of thow worka, which appeal to have been circu- 
laled about a. d. 500. It ia iberefbis very pnAa- 

thai Enatntint lived at the lime of Eutychiua, 
patriatch of Conilantlnople. that ia, about a. o. 

word*. Hia work waa finl edited by L. 

ina in hia de Oceid^ntaHun ati/ae Qriadaiutm 

tita vt DofftnaU J^urytUorH cnutfiuHHe, Bun. 

1655, Bvo^pp, 319— 5S1. The alyle of Eaitratiua, 

at Fhotiua remarka, ii dear, ibongh very di&oent 

~ am claiaic Greek, and hii arpuneuli an genetally 

lund. (FabriciliM.&n«KTi>l. X.P.T25) Cave, 

/fiW.£i<.ToLl p.il6.] Some other peraona of tlia 

name of Euatiatini are ennmemted by Fabcidua, 

{BOl. Orate vol. iii. p. 264, note.) [L. S.) 

EUSTHATIUS (EilBT^idTioi), one of the latest 

mmenCatora on Ariatotle, lived about the b^ 

nning of the twelfth century after Chriat, under 

emperor Aleiiua Coronenua, aa metropoliiaa of 

Niaes. According to a hint in the Commenlaiy 

to the tenth book of the ElUfa A'axMuclen (if tbia 

part of the Couunenlary is compoaed bj himX be 

Bppean to have alao lived at CanataoliDople, and 

[Camf. ad Aritt. Elk. Nic X. P. g 13, p. 473, at 
Zell.) Of hia life we know nothing elae. Of hia 
wiitingt only two are extant, and Ibeae is a very 
bagmentBT; atate : vii. I . A ComiDentar; to the 
aerand book of the Analytic*, publiahed by Aldua 
MaoDliga, Venice, 1534, and tranalated into Latin 
by A. Uiatuolua. (Venice, \aii, 1560, CdL) 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EUTHALTUS. 



mBBitMon on tlia nma WDik, V«ike,1536. fol., 
ud ii tkg l^tn hogn^a b; J. Bsnardiu Felici- 
ana Yoi. 1541, I5B9, foL, Pmiu. 1S13, Helmtt. 
Itsi, 4ut. Bat, •ccording to the latnt retMtthu, 
tliii enniiKDluj tanuiU of nrt diScRBt mau- 
rkk, ud gmt parti of il an the work of otha 
iilnpiFlcn, ai Ai]iuiu> and Ukbul Ephenui. 
Vnt hu bceu ftmtd ciiitBj hf the reKuchei of 
ScUeiflinaehET, in hia irritinga on the Greek 
EcbiilB to tlie EtUa of Aiiilolle (printed in the 
AUne—gai dtr Berlntr Ahidemm d»r Wummni. 
ttHujar iei6— 1B17, p. 263, &c). Schleier- 
■adici Ina littwa thai the anthor of tlie commen- 
taiy to tlic,/!n^boiik of the Ethia cannot poMiblj 
be tke mmt peiwD ai the aalhor of the com- 
oraBiT to the laU book, becsiue 707 diftnnt 
ialoptetatiDiu of the 'Efm-ipuui A^> of Aiiilolle 
UT ^rtn in the two paaiagei cited. (See Slakr, 
AnUdii, u. pp. 261, 262 ; Schleienaaeher, p. 
267.) Prcbahlj EuMiatiui ia only the uilhor of 
Ibi ommeolaij to the aiith book, which ii much 
iMteT than the rect, and Irom whidi the comcieEi- 
Biia to the •econd, third, and fourth book great]}' 
diStL Bnt perhaps the commentarj to the Jirit 
il >J« to be Bacribed to EuiUBliiu, and the dif- 
tiewc OD the rigDifiouioD of the ttfrnpiKiil /tiyn 
nif hare been occuioned b; Euatia^iu himieli 
botTuwing one opinion 01 the other from more 

Tkt esDunentarie* of Eoitcn^Di gceitlj diScr 
6vm nnilar -woAt of elder carmneDtBEon faj thi ' 
IDt being muDtcmipted treatiiea on i^iloaophical 



EUTHYDEMUS. 13S 

Enimui, in hit leTenl editiona of the New Te>t«- 
metit, incoTponted the Argomenta to the Epiatlea 
' St. Pan! and the Acta. The Pralegne on Ihs 
ife of St. Paul, with a prelktory Epiitle, wu lint 
editedb; J.H.BoecleniMthoendof bJieditiDD of 
' I New Teitajment, Aigentont. IG4S uid 1660, 
mo,, from which it wm afterwardi often re- 
inlcd. Ail the vorka of Enthaliua were edited 
by L. Zaccagni, in hia Coiitciatiea noitinii. «^ 
Eoda. Gmieae. Rome, 1698, ilo. Whether Ed- 
thalini alio wrote k commeutarr on ihe Ooepel of 
3t. Lake and on the Acta, ii uDcertain, at Imt 
there it no diatinet men^on of them, and no MSB. 
sie known to eiiil. ( Fabric BOi. Cnue. vol ii. p. 
2S7, he.; CaTB, HitL U: toI. i. p. 252.) [L. S.] 
EUTHIAS (EMu), an Athenian onloc of the 
time of Demortbenei. He bronght an acm«Uioa 
againat Phryne, and ai he biled in hii attempt to 
bring about her condenmatioD, be abitained ever 
after from apeaking in the eocrta of jnitiee. (Athen. 
liiLp.fiSOi AkJ^T.£jnil.i.lO, &c;Siudaa.i.c. 
Etfbu; %ibo\.adUemog.f.iS.) [L. S.] 

EUTUYCLES (EJ#i«\#iJ. 1. An Athenian 



10 poet 



of the old ex 



=edj.. 



w pUja' 



•d St. Thorn 



.Aqni, 



aiderable 1 



il b their inleipreBtion of Ariilolk. (Fabric 
Bil CfTw. ToL ilL pp. SIS, 261 ; Bohle'a ^rtc 
WIe, Tol. L p. 299.) [A. S.] 

EUTE'LIDAS, atatnaiy. [C>RT«iYTIIUfU.] 

EUTE'LIDAS ( YiroSt>a\ ' 



b; bora. [Pana. t. S. f 1, tL If, J 1,&G.) [L.S.] 

EUTERPE. (MuMB.} 

EUTHA'LIUS (EiISJaui), biilii^ of Soke, 
Irred, according to tome, at the time of the great 
AttaoBiiBBi and CaTc, in the LaodoD edition of 
kii HaL LiL, pluea him in A. D, 398, vherta*, in 
the Bade edition (L p. 466), he placea him abont 
a. n. 4GS. The latter luppoaiiion ^reei with a 
■tttaoeDI of Eathtliui bimtelf, in hia Introduction 
to Ihe Lift of St. PauL When Enlhalina waa yet 
a youf man, he dirided the Epiatlea of St. Paul 
lata dapten and Tenea ; and afier hii deration 
(0 ike biakopiic, he did the ume with the Acta of 
■be ApMlet and the Catholic E^atlet. The Epia. 
Dm of St Paul, bowcTcr, had been dinded in tkat 
MBDcthe<bTebin,aliODti. n.396; bnt Enthaliua 
added tba argnmoitB of the chaplen, indeiet, and 
iIm f — gea of Scriptnie to which allonont are 
>ade in the B|nttkt. Hut work be afterward* 
tot to Athanaaiu the jonnger, who wu biahop 
it Aiexandii* in A. D, 490. A portion of it wi 
itit poUiditd by canlinal Ximenet, in 151' 



fl 'Y-iioTth-i and 'ArnAiirni 1 

Suidaa (k e. EvViMAiit and (ioUt itSttm), and the 

former ia qDDled by Athenaeoi (iiu y. 124, c). 

Nothing mere it known of him. (Ueuwke, Frag. 

Om. Grate toL i. pp. 270, 271, toL ii. p. 890 j 

Fabric. £iU. Ctoie. lol. iL p. 448.) 

S. Of Rhegium, a Pythagorean philoaopher. 

(lamblich. ViL Pylk. cc 27, 36.) £P. 8.] 

EUTHY'CRATES { EiWiwpiWr), a Greek 

ttatntry, whom Pliny placet at OL 120, a. c. BOO. 

' :ixiT. 8.1.19.) Uevatthemoitdiitingniahed 
a and papil cf Lyuppnt, whom be imitated more 
, hit diligence thui in hit gracefnlneaa, prefaring 
^ere tnilh to elegance of expreiaion. (Plin. I. e. 

9 7.) Thit feature of hia atyle wa* teen in a moit 

BioeUent itatne of Hercnln, at Delphi, and in hit 

aCatnei of AlelBIider, the hnntet Theilit, and the 

Tfaiatiadae : (he RM of the paMags, in which Pliny 
ennnwiatet hit woriii, ii hopeleiBiy cormpL (See 
Sillig, CalaL Artif.Ltf.) According to Tatian, 
Euthycratea made ilatuei of oourteiani. {Oroi, 

u Graec &2, p. 1 1 (, ed. Worth.) [P. &] 

EUTHYDE'HUS{Ei»i»qfu»),an Athenian com- 
mander in the Peloponneuin war, waa, at tha cloia 
of itt eighteenth year, B.c. 414, railed fcom a par- 
ticular to a general command in the army betieging 
Syiacuae. The object waa to meet the urgent 
entreaty of Niciai for immediate relief bum the 
burden of the lole auperintendenoe, without mak- 
ing him wait for the arrinl of the tecond arma- 
ment. Thii poution he affiean to hare occu- 
pied to the end, though probably anbordinate aa 
well to Denoithenei and Euiymedon ai to Niciaa. 
Whether he ai well a> hia colleague Uenander 
took part in the night attack on Epipolae appeara 
doubl&l. He il eipreaily named by Thncydidet 
only once agun, ai united, in the hut detperate 
eugagenent in the batbour, with Demoathenei and 
Menander in command <S the abipt. Diodona 
namea him in the preiioni tea-fight, at <qipotad on 
the left wing to the Syrxiuan Peanut. Plutarch, 
who mentioni hia appointment with Menander, 
aacribea the occurreace of Ihe aecond aea-figbl, in 
which Ha Alheniaua recured their firat d^t, to 
the aagameai of the two new eommaodert (0 dia- 
play their abilitiei. But thia looki very like a late 
eonjcclnre, tnch at Epbomt wat fond •( making. 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



124 EUTHYDEMU3. 

ud ii fnnher iDcaiuttCenl with tfie languige of 
TbbcydidH, who repnKnU the SjrecuuDt u act- 
ing on the afl'en>iT^ and ihewi in Niciu'i 1ett«c 
that thej had it in their pover to force an engage- 



or hii nitim 



m ignon 



> proUhl; hii 
«i;hte«itll year of the , 

aignatuna (0 Ihs lAcedBCfoanatt treatjek iThuc. 
f. 19,31, Tii.ie,69; DiDd.iiU.13; Plut. A'^ 
dai. e. 20.) lA. H. C] 

EUTHVDE'MUS {IMit^^t). 1. A laphiat, 
«u bom tx Chioi, and mignted with hii brother 
DionyMdonu to Tbnrii in Ut2.y. Being exiled 
thenoc the)' oune ia Athena, when Cliejr Teaidcd 
nuuij yean. The pretennoni of Euthjdemua and 
bit brother are ei[Krted by Plato in Uie dialogue 
which bear* the name of the former- A aophiun 
af Euthydemu, aa iUmtrating the " bllacy of 
compoiilion," ia mentioned by Ariilotle. (PIbL 
EMgdemMt, CratgL p. 3B6 \ Ariit. IVuL ii. 24, 
g 3, &>74. M . 20 ; Atb.ii.p.£06,b) SeiL Emp. 
aiJD.llfaU.vii. 13.) 

2. Son of Cephalui of SyncuM, and brother to 
Lyuu tha onwr. (PlM. Rrp. L p. 323 ; tee toL i. 
p. 663, a.) 

3. Son of Diode*, and a diaciple of Ssciatea, 
whom Xenophon repreienta aa rebuking him, after 
bit peculiar fiuhion, for imagining himielf to know 
more than he did. (Plat. Cam. p. 222 ; Xen. jVfem. 
L 2. § 29, L.. 2.) 

4. A man of Sicyon, who made himielf tyrant 
of the city, togolher with Timocleidoa. On their 
depoaition, according to Panaaniaa, the npreme 
power waa eommitted to Cleiniaa, the blher of 



. [Cl> 



[AB, No. 5.] 



n cookery, referred to by Athe- 
HUDl, who qnolei certain Tenea of hii on aalted 
fiifa, act forth by him in joke aa a genuine Stt%- 
meat of Hcsiod. (Athen. iiL p. 116, a. liL p, £16, 
c.) IE. E-1 

EUTHYDE'MUS (EieiS^u"'). king of Bae- 
Iria, wBi ■ natiTe of Magneiia. (Polyb. li. 34.) 
We know nothing of the ciicumitancet attending 
hii eleralion la the lOTeretgnly of Bactrio, but be 
Kema to haTS taken advanta^ of diaKnatoni among 
the deacendonta of thoae who had fint eatabliihed 
tbeindependenceaf that country, and to )iaie wmt- 
ed the (orereign power either from Diodotut II- cr 
aooie of hia bmify. He then extended hit power 
oter the neighbouring provincea, ao aa to became 
the founder of the grealnesa of the Bactrian mon- 
uchy, though not the actual founder of the king- 
dom, aa hai been eironeonaly inferred fram a 
pauage in Strabo. (3tiab.iLp.S13i Palyb. xl. 
St; WilaoD'i AHaa^ p. 220.) Antiochua the 
Great, alter hit eipeditioD agaiiut Parthia in a. c- 
213, proceeded to invade the teriitoriea of the 
fiaclrian king. Eulhydemua met him on the banki 
of the Ariua, but waa defeated and compelled to 
fnll back upon Zariupa, the capital of Bactria. 
(Polyb. T. 49.'! From hence he entered into nego- 
tiation* with Antiocbna, who nppean to haie 
deipaired of effecting hii aubjugation by force, aa 
he waa readily induced to eome to terma, by 
which hs conliiTned Eulhydemoi in the regal 
dignity, and gaie one of hii own daughten in 
marriage to hii ion Demetritu. In relnm for ihi*, 
Euthydemiu lent him hi) rapport in hia Indian 
expedition. {Polyb. li. 34-) The commei>cement 
of the reign of Euthydemui may be referred with 
much probability to about B. c 320. (Wilaim'i 



EUTHYMIUS. 
Ariama, p, 321.) Silior mini of thia priixn, of 
Greek atyla of worknunibip and bearing Oltek 
inacTTptlDDa, haie been found in conaideiahle nuiB- 
ben at Bokhara, Balkh, and other placet within 
the luniti of Bactria, thui atleating the extent lo 
which Oreek civiliiation had been introduced into 
thoie remote region*. (Ibid. p. 222.) [E. H. RJ 



EUTHY'MANES,ormoreconecttyEUTHY'- 
MENES (EMv^nn). of Maaaiha, ia nStmA la 
aeTeral timei aa the author of a geogiaphicaJ if ork, 

(Plnt.d>/'/ac./>'(ilo>-1{ AChen. ii.'c. 90 -, Ljdu 
de Attn. 6B i AntmA. Epif. -p. 63.) Clemrnaof 
Alexandria {Stroa. i, p. 141) mention* an Euihy- 
menea a* the author of Xpormi. but whether Ihcy 
are the aame or different peraona, cannot be de(e^ 
mined. [L. S.) 

EUTHYME'DGS, a Greek painter of imne 
note, whose time i* ualcDoam. (Hlin. iitt. 11. 
^40.8 42-) tP-S.1 

EUTHY'MIDAS, a leading man at Chalda in 
Euboeo, wBi driTcn out of hia natiie city by the 
Roman party, and made an uniuccetiful altempt 
in B-C. 192 to bring it under the power of the 
Aelollana (LIt. hit. 37, 38.) 

EUTHY'MIDES, a vaK-painter, whoae name 
occur* frequently on irinela found al Adria on the 
Po. and al Volci, (MuUer, ^rot d. ffw-rt, g2i7, 
n.7.) [P. S.] 

EUTHY'MIUS ZIQABE'NUS.aQrBekmont 
of the conient of the Virgin Man at C^nitantino- 
ple, liTsd about the twginning of the 13lh a 



I of the . 



r Alexiui 



Comnenni. with whom 
mate friendihip. In 1. D. 1 1 1 8, when tha empenr 
died, Euthymiui waa itill alive; and be himielf 
aayi that he twice heard the emperor diipule 
a^nit the enemie* of the Oreek chnrch-j-that il, 
probably agaioat the lAtini. Reipecting hi* lile, 
Ko especially Anna Comnena (lib. xv.) and L. 
Allillu). (De CbuHU. sir. EaJa. il. 10. 6.) Eu- 
IhTmina waa the author of aeveral worka, all a! 
which are atill eilant in niuneroui HSS., bjl the 
fiiUowing only have been printed : 1. nara*\ia 
tayuariieli rqf ifeM^ao riintitt, directed againil 
heretic* of every claaa, wai written by the cnnimand 
ofAleiiuaComnenu*. Il ii divided into 38 title*, 
and it* auhalance ii taken chiefly from the early 
ecileiiaitical blhert. A lAtin tranilalion of it 
wa* publiahed by P. F. Zinua, Venice, i.i63. fol., 
reprinted at Lyona, 1SS6, Sto., and at Pari*. 1560, 
8to. The ai»k original haa not yet been pub- 
liahed, except the laat title, which i* contained in 
Sylburg'e Saractnica, pp. I — 54. 2. Victory and 
triumph over thr impious, manifold, and execrable 
aecl of the Meualiant, Ac, together with fourteen 
anaihcmata pmnouneed againit them. It *a* 
edited in Greek, wilb a Latin venion and notei. 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



KUTOLMIUS. 
kf J. TolEti, ia hii Atr f lofKiH, Inject id Rbra, 
lew, 4D>^ pp. 146 — 125. 3. A Commmtar; on 
il At PnIm of Ikiid, and on the ten Cutia. 
Tkt Qiffk ariginl hu Dot jret been printad ; bat 
1 Uiin Duil^iaD h; Pbilip Sanliu fim appond 
•tVtraDa,]56D,fid.,uid hu often been raprint«L 
!• A coEUdeiitBiT on ike toar Oospek, ii & onnpi- 
kics baa St CluTntom ud othen of the eaiiy 
hUta. The Orad DngioaJ huneTar been piinlsd, 
bit tfaoe a a toj good Latin tnnilBtion by J. 
HateBiDi, LoDTsin, 1544, fiiL. rcpimtedat Farit, 
1347, IMO, and 1G02, ero. The voil ii eoiui- 
ittri one of great Talne, hiAb in ityle and matter, 
ad !■• often been made gnat nie of by modem 
dnjiiei. (Fabric fi«<.&nKiaLiiiLp.328,&ci 
t:Mn,IfmL lA roll p. US, tit.) There an a 
ptat many oilier peraeni of the name of Euthy • 
niu. na p e ttii ig wIuhs lee Fabric BUI. Grate. 
nLtiiLp. 343, &c IL. S.] 

EUTHT'MUS (EMiwut], a ben of Loeri in 
Italy, wBi a aoo 1^ Aityclc* « of the riter-god 
Cwana. He waa bmoiu tor bii itrength and 
■m m baling, and deliTered the town of Temeaaa 
(« tlw eril ipirit Politei, to vbom a bir muden 
«• ■acrilHHl ereiy year. Euthymu* himMlf 
<iiappe«nd at an adnaced ago in the rirer Cse- 
•na. (Strab. li. p. 356 ; Adian, F. //. nii. 1 S ; 
Entatb. ml Horn. p. 1409.) He gained MTenl 
r^Kxiet at OlympU (OL 74, 76, and 77); and a 
latae of hii ai Olympia vaa tbe work of Pytha- 
FBL (PaotTLS, 5 2,10. g2.) [I^ S.] 

EUTO'CIUS (EdTJoH) of Aacalon, tbe ootn- 
■ntaiBT tm Apdlouiu <^ Peiga and on Archj- 
Mtitt, BoK have lind aboot x. d. B60. At ^e 
rod of aiDe of bit commentariea on Aichimedei 
it ityi he nwd ** the edition retogniaed by laidore 
■(MiietBa. the meehank, ov auaeD-." Tbii Iii- 
bn rmt one of Jnitinian'i architecta, who bnilt 
Ihednreh of St. Sophia. The Oriek ohginali of 
ibe Ukiviiig woiki of Eotocitit are preaerred : 
CtrntK^ana oa tie firH famr 6aob of tie Gmia 
<i AfOmimt ; tm Om Spi^t imi f^loKiKr, «■ 04 
Qu^irian- •^au Cittlu and oh tie 7^ Awb m 
E/jdarmm of ArdBumiia. Theae haTe been 
pnoted in the Greek edition of AroLLONiua, 
Did io tbe two Greek edilinii of Abcbimidii i 
Bd Latin Teniaiu hare been pita with teieial 

eiBpleta, tametiDKa in part. There baa been no 

we gf ordinary value, ai long aa geometrical help 
i> andetatanding the text waa leqDired. Totclli 
*i>hca that Entodua bad applied himself to sU the 
■nniigi of Archinedra. But they haTe a merit 
vkicb win proerre them, independently of their 



EUTROPIA. 



125 



It writingi of Greek 
paneier^ and on the nuibodt of Greek aritbme- 
<K| that iber are integrant parta of the hittory of 
Gnek learriing. Torelli fonnd ifaem fraqoently 
prr, by vmj of dtatioiL, a more latii&ctoty text 
fl Artfaimedea than that of tbe temainiog manu- 
Knpti, which he attribatc) to the goodneu of 
Indoe'i edition : ■■ haec enm Aiit, cat Arcfaime- 
nbi meliui 



Fff.m 

yVa.) [A-DeU.] 

EUTtyLMIUS (YAriXiuin), the anthor of foi 

Waaa in tbe Greek Anthology (Branck, A»aL 

W. ii. [. 8 I Juaba, AuOh Onto. toL ii p. 229), 



fail tjtlei of SiJiolattiaa ai 
lilmtMi, leapecting the meaning of the latter of 
which aee Dn Cange, Oloa. Med. el /■/. Lal.t.v. 
/jbitrii; eiw.Mcd.el/ii^ (Tmec p.513. (Jacob*, 
AmO. Otok. tdI. liii. p. 895). [P. S.] 

EUTO'LMIUS, ■ puioDui nmaram at Coo- 
ituitino^, who waa one of tbe commiaaioD of 
Siiteen, headed by Tribonian, who were employed 
by Joitinian (a. d. S30-33] to compile the DigeaL 
(Con.1. JWo, i 9.) [J. T. Q.] 

EUTRA'PELUS, P. VOLU'MNIUS, a Ro- 
nan knight, obtained the lamame of Eutnpelua 
lEJTptbreXoi) on accoont of hit liTelineu and wit 
ISee reapecling thia word Ariitot. Eiet. il 12.) 
Two of Cicerg'i lettera are addreaKd to him (o.^ 
Fan. viL 32, 33) ; and in a letter to Paetoi, s. c 
46 [ad F-ui. U. 26), Cieero gire* an amnkngao- 
connt of a dinner-party at the honaa of Entispetiu, 

EntrapelOB waa an iDtimato friend of Antony, 
and a companion of hia pleatore* and debaocha. 
(Cic Pkil4p- u>>- ^} Tbe bir Cyiheria, the mia- 
ti«H of Antony, waa originally the freedwcnnan 
and miitreaa of Volumnioi Eutiapelua, whence we 
find her called Volumnia, and waa aumndered to 
Antoi^ by hia frtend. (Cic ad Fam. ii. 26, i>W- 
li^. ii. 24.) After Caeaar'i death, Eati^ielu*, in 

a peraon of conaideiable importance ; and we find 
that Cicero availed himaelf of hii influence in order 
to get a letter prsMiited to Antony, in which be 
\itggti for a libera Irgatio. {Ai Att. xi. S.) On 
the defeat of Antony before Matina in b. c 43, 
Eutnpelni, in common with Antony'i other friendi, 
waa eipoied to gnat danger, but waa protected 
and aasuted by Alticni. The Utter aoon bad an 
opportnnity of reluming thia favour \ for, on An- 
tony'i retum into Itdy, Entrapeloa, who waa 
pnefectni fibttun in hii army, protected Attiena, 
who feared for hi* own aaCety on acconut of hii 
coDnexioi) with Cicero and Brutua. Eutnpclnj 
farther eraied ftam the liit of proaaip^ooi, at the 
interceauon of Atticua, the oama of the poet L. 
Jnliua Caiidna, which be had inierted himielL 
(Nepal, AU. 9, 10, 12.) Eutinpelu ia mmtioned 
by Homn. {Epiit. L 18. 31.1 

EUTRBSITES (e^pit<rln)t), a mmame of 
Apollo, derived ftom Eutreii*, a pUce between 
Pbtaeae and Theipise, where he had an ancient 
aracle, (3teph. Byx. t.e. Edrprpiru ; Euitatb. ad 
Ham. p. 268.) [L. S.J 

EUTRCPIA. 1. A native of Syria, became, 
by her £r>t hatband, whoH name » unknown, the 
toother of Flavia Maiimiana Theodora, who waa 



ContI 



IB Chlon 



itmction of the t 
waa at that time the wife of Maiimianna Her^n- 
liuB, to whom the bote Haienlint and Fautta, 
aflerwaidi united to Conatantine the Gicst. Upon 
tbe convertion of her too-ut-law, Entnpia alao em. 
bncad Chriatianity, and re|Bired to Paleatine. In 
Goowqaeace of her lepreaentationa, the empeni 
took meaauret for aboliabing the nipentitiaua ob- 
■ervaneea which had for agca prevailed at the cak 
of Mamre, lo celebrated aa the abode of Abraham, 
and caoted a church to be erected on the ipot. 

A medal pnbliahed on the anihority of Ooltaiua 
alone, with the legend Qal. Val. Etrraor., ia 
eonaidered a* nnqnettionably ipurioui. (Aiuel. 
Vkt. £^ il. ; Euadi. H.a m. 62; Tillraiont, 

b,4,„.=.ot Google 



128 EUTROPIUS. 

Halem da Bmpermt, ToL iv. pp. ISO, 344 

KckheU »dL TiiL p. 2?.) 

2. Gnutd-duighter of the fangoingf beinir the 
dughter oF Coiutuitiui Chlunii mtid FIitu Hui- 
mtuik Thsodon, luid Ihcnfon ths nMn of Dslrav 
tiui, Jnlini CcnuUntini, Hannitnliiuiiu, ConitBii- 
tii, uid Anutuia, ind lulf-iutar of Coiutiuitiiie 
the Ontt. (See the geruialogical table prv&rod to 
CuHTTiHTmoB I.) She u beliered U hiTe b«r 
the wile of Nepotiuiua, vho vu connil ^ D. 30 1 : 
but SI an eienta iha mu certaiDl; the mother of 
that Nepotianiu who auiuned the pnrple OD the 
Srd of June, x. D. 350, and ifaa periled h 
pnMcription vbich follDVed hii deatb twenty' ^ 
iaji aftcrwaTdi. (NiroTuncs.] (AqrI. Vict. 
f^pil. ilii.i Zoum. ii. 43; Acbwwi. Apolag. voL ' 
p. 877, «d. Pari., 1827.) (W. R.] 

BUTSO'PIUS, tfae eonnch. tAiuuDiua.] 
EUTRO'PIUS, a man of hi^ mtk in tb 
portion of Upper Moeaia which wu ctdled Dud«- 
nia. married Clandia, daughter of Cri^Di, the bro- 
ther uf Claiidiiii Oothicni, and by her becaow the 
fnther of Coniliuitina Cblonu. Sea the (lenealiigi- 
cal titble in fol. i. p. 831. [W. K.\ 

EUTRCyplUS, ft Roioui hiatoriaa who W 
been ityled F/a«u EnCropiui by Sif^in* and 
some of the eariiei acbolan without the dighint 
authority (rom MSS. or any ancient lODrce for 
■uch an addition. Contidetable dsubla an enter- 
tnined with regard to iho naliTe ootuitiy of thii 
writer. The only pon^re witneai ii Stiidat, who 
tfnm him a learned Italian (^ItbA^s ffo^ianfi) ; 
but theae woidi have been Lnlerpreted to ligni^ 
merely that he wrote in Latin. The argnmenta ol 
certain French writer*, who ban Might to pniTe 
Iron Symmaehu that he wa> the countryBaui of 
Auaooiui, and thoae of Vinelna, who eDdoinmn 
&«n nrioDi coniidenilioni to demoiutrate ^t he 
malt bale been ■ Gneek, an linguliiily feeble and 
IHtoIoiu. We know bam hit own etalementa, 
taken in oombination with Tarioni pauagei in the 
Byantinea. that he held the office of a lectetary 
( Epiibimi "EwirmAoyfii^i) nnder CanManline tha 
Omt, that he waa patronieed by Julian the Apoe- 
tats, wham he accompanied in the Pewan expe- 
dition, and that be wai bUto in the reign of Valen- 
tinian and Volena. to the Utter of whom hit book 
ii dedicated. To tbeia paiticnlari onr certain 
inlbnnation it limited. That be ii the tame indi- 
Tidoal witb the Eatropiut who, a* we leani from 
Ammiaont MaicellHiBi, waa prooontnl of Aiia 
about A.O. 371, and who ia ipokenot by Litanint 
and Gregory Naeianien, or with the Eutrapjut 
who, at we gather faun the Codex Theodofianna, 
Wat piaefeetot plaelAio in l.D. 3S0 and 3BI, are 
pnrr cotijectorea reatiDg upon no bate Mve ifae 
identity of name and enbamued by chicnalagical 
difficaUice. In no cate mutt he be conibnnded 
with tfae anbiliou eimuch, gmt chamberlain to 
the emperor Arcadina, to well known from tfae 
invectiTe of Claudian ; and ttill leie covld be hare 
been the diaciple of AugniLin, ai not a iew pnunt 
hare &ncied, lince, if not actually dead* he mnat 
e rerge of old age at tfae 
. if Hippo waa t ' 
tune. 'Tht oikly other point connected 
penonal career of ihit author iriiieh aomiu or 
diiounon, it hit raligioIL It hat been confidently 
■iierted that it on be proTcd Enm hit own woidi 
that he wa* a Chrittiaa. Bat how any one could. 



hat gnwada 
y <d aiay 



EUTKOPIUi 
ccnclunon ont of the paiiBge in queation (x. 116, 
tab fin.), even if we retain the reading " A'tMau 
religiniit Chrittianae intcclatoc," it ia Teiy hard 

for an unprejudiced iHader ■- ' '-- —' -' 

ia equally diffleult to peneiT 
m can lejaet « erade the tatimonj oi 
phoTut Oiegona, who intiali that the ] 
bettowed by Entnpina upon Conitantine an pe- 
culiarly Talnahle, became they proceed &iai one 
who cheriihed hostile feelingi towaida that prince 
in coDteqnence of diSehng from him in religion 
(flid T< tJ TQf ByttawtMs i/UMnimfTmi) and of 
being the contmponry and partinui (^Auutrr^ 
ml aipvrHLTifv) of Julian ; monover, aa if to lears 
DO room for doubt, be declaret that the obterratjona 
of Eutropiua, inaamach aa ba wat a gentile pm- 
feanng a diffbrent bith fron Canitantine pLXAw 
V4r ml dAAo^JjUv Spifinnjai rai^iiit), an 
tainted with h«then bitlemeaa (iv^me'u' ^Ul^ 
niriia ■wutfimt), and then goea on to adduce kom 
exnnplei of uufiiir rnreaaDtationt. 

The only work of Eutropina mw extant it a 
brief compnidiom of Roman blftocy in ten bookt, 
extending ttaat the foundation of tfae city to the 
acceeaion of Valent, by whoea command it wa* 
compnted. and to whom it it iDtcribed. The an' 
Ihor, at the eandnuon of the laat chapter, promitet 
amor* detiuled and ebiboiale namtiTe of the 



redeeaiad. Suidat indeed recorda tl 
Entropiui wrote ** other thingt," but withont ipeei- 
^ng what thcM were ; and Pritcian quotea from 
tome Eutiopiui aa a gnunmatical antborily upon 
the tonnd <k the letter x, but diopa no hint Bat 
thia penonage it the biatorian. 

In drawing up the abridgment which baa d»- 
icendcd to ni, the compiler appeira to haie can- 
•dted the beat authoritiet, aJthongh not alwaya 
with diacrimination, and to hare executed hii talk 
in general with caie, although manilett error* 
may occaiionallj be deleddl in facta aa wdl a* in 
chronology, and til occomncet likely to reflect dlt- 
honour on the Roman name are leduloualy gkaed 
orer or entirely omitted. The ityle ia in perfect 
good latte and keepuig witb the nature of the nn- 
dertaldag. We find a plain, clear, pvcite, timple, 
ftmiliv nsrntiTe, in which the mott important 
erenta are dittinctly brought oat withont ottenb- 
tion and without any pretenuont to ornam^t or 
to rhythmical adaioa in the ttructiire of (he pe- 
rindi. The huiguBge ia, for the moat put, exoeed' 
ingly pore, although, a* might ba expected, tha 
oitieol eye of modarn ach<^anhip baa detected 
lereral woidt and cnnbinationi not aanctioned bjr 
the uiage of the purett modeli. Under theae car- 
work ahould hare become exceedingly popular at s 
period when the taale for deep learning and oii- 
ginal iniettigation wa* on the decline, and that £» 
man; agtt it ahosld have been gztenaively tsa- 
ployed at a tchool-baak. We find the lubatanoa 
of it copied into the chrouidea of Hieronymui, 
Protpei, Cattiodoroi, and many othen: it ia doady 
followed by Rufnt, Ointiui. aud by a hou is 
uonkiBh aiu>alitti ; while it ia inootporated Tetfaa- 
with many additiont, in (he weltknown Hit' 
Muodiu^ a tort of hiatoiical &imgo, which la 
commonly, but earo n eontly, BCppoaed to bavB been 
compounded by Paul, aon of Wanefiid ud Thco- 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EUTROPIUS. 
kact unlly dnignted Paohu Diumai. Paul, 

*n editigo of EutnpitK, 

lI hoth eitnoiitM*, a^ing 

k to hii own tiina, viiHe bj 
M ctmtiDOBd w lav ■• ths jmt S13. 
nH U tha nTi<r>] of litenton, Um tuilon of 
Eitnpu ciBtail nader tkne fbiDu: 1. Tka 
pgniiB m booki a ibsj prooeeded ftom lh« 
uikor. Z. Tbe ediboitt M exMnded bj Pullui 
Dbccbb and atben. 3. The enlin but lately 






inlfaaHirtonMiKeUB. 



41a. 1471, tooBtiia with all lh< other editioni 
■Uch an«nd dtuiog Ilia IMh (cnlai;, belong to 
<M s otbct of tb* iMt two dBuxniiMtiddi. The 
fm •ttanfl u> mton ika pun oipaal Uil wu 
I? SgDBliii, in liii sditioD prioted M Veaice in 
ms, along with Soetannu and Anralina Victor. 
Bitlk*gnatr*at««riifEutnpiiuini SdioniuiTiui, 
a ODdn of Bnigaa, who pubiifthed ui edition Cnm 
tk> Codei OandsTeuu at Ba^ Sto., 1516 and 
IU2 ; tutkeT improToiieDti wue mad* by Vintciu 
'Pidar. Bn. 1&54), wba made Die of aBoiudcsui 
Hi; hj Sflbiugini, in the third rotimie of fail 
iJnipIL hiiiar. Rool (M. Fane. 1688), aided bf 
FaUa US.; Md In Uenila (Log. Bab EI& 8Ta. 

im). 

W the Tar; nmiMntu edition* whiA hare ap- 
' e of the 16tfa centiuy, the 



lofHeai 



o. 1703: 



•( UaTaompt with a coinaiii eollectinn of 
BHtariea, Log. Bat. Sto. 1T29; afOroner.Cobnrg. 
I'o. 1733 and 1 760 ; of Veriiejk. with Toluminoui 
uts, Lag.Bat. 8to. ] 762 and 17B3 ; of Tnchncke, 
ontahiing a new lenrion of the text, an eicelleat 
itiimieo. Mgelber with good oitieal and eipb- 
itUrj obaemtiau, Sto. Lipa. 1796, aad again 
iopcend in 1804 ; and of Grout, Hall. 8ro. 
1113^ Haas*. I81G; Upi. lS2j. On Ihe whole, 
the BOH aieflal bt the itudoit an thoie of 



EatnpiBiwai twice tniiiiUtcd into Greek. One 
if that (enioBi, tncated b; Capita Ljidoi befoK 
lb tkw ol Jiuliniaa, hai penihed ) that bf a 
cBtui Patamni itill eiiiti, hai been fieqaentlj 
|nbli«hed, end ii contained in Ifae editioni of 
Rtene, HaTenan^ii, and Veihejk. Many tnni- 
luiou an io be fbaud into Engliit, French, 
InJka, and Otnam, MDe of them deaetring an; 

la ilhinimtion, the dictionariet sf Oroua, 
SttiHUl,iail and 1819; and <^ Secbode, HenoT. 
1118, IS25, and 1828; MoUer, Divulalia >k 
BMnpia, 410., AlidorC ISSa; Ihe eicelleni dii- 



n he eootalted. 

(Siidaa, i. «t t^fint, Kawitmr t Sjitanb. 
Efia. a. 47, 53 ; Aoctor AooD^m. di AtOiii. Ooit- 
■irfetjiuf. Bh. Lcfi.p. 4 (tdI. iTii of the Venetian 
Ceipai); Cadintu CnropalUea, Stint, dt Orig. 
Cu^-M-luifU. pp. 4 and 7, ed. VeneL ; Jo. Mt 
Ua, Onmofr^k. n tU. JaUm. i^pmi.; Nicephor. 
Grqsr. OnHo mamtialiBa it l«p. Owtoil. Mag. 
V^rA bj Tabriciiu and TiKhuehe from Jdznbe- 
BM. CoBrnml. lU Biiliotiac Out. viiL p. 136, ed. 
KoUu; Eonvp. Dtdic ad fui Imp. lib. I. 16 
•ad 18; Anno. ManeQ. uii. 1. f 36, and note of 
Vain; liban. mril. Tol. i. p. Ii:i, ed. Reidie, 
■ad£^.iT. ISUatnemiL; Ong^ Nai. 4>ur. 



EDTYCHES. 127 

137, 138; Cod. Tfaeod. L 1. g% xiL 29. | 3. and 

Oothofied. PnMopegT. Cod. Theod. p. 53 ; Ooinad. 
D. VtntlU.ciS.) [W. R.] 

EUTRO'PIUS (EJrpiirioi), a phyiician who 
liTed piobably in the fouith oentnrj after Chriit, 
ai be ii mentioned akog with Anionini by Uar- 
wilni Empirioiu (n /'rw/sf.) a* hiTing be«i one 
of hi) inunedinle predeceann. He wrola a medi- 
cal work which ii noticed by HarctUoB, but i) oa 
longer eilanL [W. A. O.] 

EU'TYCllES {iirixit). 1. An engiaTer of 
ffioa, wai <Hw of the Mini of Dkmcuudks. Hii 
name ii Men on an extant gen, with the inicrip 
tion ETTTXHZ AIOZKOTPIAOT AllTAIOI. 
(Bncci, P. iL tab. 78 1 R. Rochelte, Littn i M. 
Sdion, f. 42.) 

2. Of Bithjnia, a aeolptor, who ii known b; a 
(tatue in the worM ityla of ancient oit, with the 
inieription ETTTXHC BEITTNEra TUUdTHO 
EHOIEL (WLncklemaDn, One*, d. Kwul, b. z. 
c.l.§21.) [PS.] 

EUTYCHES 01 EUTT'CHIUS, a diMdpte af 
PriMJan, taught I^n gianuuir publicly al Con- 
itontinople, and wrote a tiealiie in two booki, Di 

hia pupil Ciataiui. Thii work woi tint pnbliihed 
by Cuneniiui, Tubiog. 4to. 1537, along with 
Maiine Victoriniu, i> included in Ihe ■■ Oinnuna- 
ticae Latinee Auctorei Antiqni" af Patecbiaa, 
HonoT. 4t0L 16CU, and hai been recently edited in 
a mon comet and comgJete (onn by Lindsnann 
{OorjmtOrximmat. Za<. L p. 151) from a US. now 
at Vienna, bet fonoerly in the monaitery of 
Bobbio. Hen the aathac it lenned EmImMai and 
not fUjria. 

Some remarki tma a tnct of Entychiua, Dt 
A^iiralioiie, ore to be found in tba 9th chapter of 
CoHiadonii, Di (Miogr<^ia. [W. R.1 

£U'TYCHES(efrJX«i),epieabyter and abbot 

'^ ■- -■- ■ -'le Sill cenlnry, who beaded 

e Neiterian doetrinei [tivt- 
roKiuaj. neiioiiui nanng nuuntoined that (here 
are in Chiiit two penona oi lubilincei (Jroenf- 
o-iit), one diitne (the t^iyi), and ana hnniaa 
(Jeaui), bat with only ane o^ttt, and united not 
by nature, but by will and atfixtiaD ;~Eu(]rche* 
cairiad hit oppontion to thii lyatem h Eu aa to 
anert that in Ctariit there ii bat one nalore, thai 
of the Incarnate Word. The declsrauon "Iha 
word wBi made fleih " iQi[riiea, accaiding to Einy- 
chCi, that He lO look hnmin naUin npon Him, 
that Hit own nitun wai not changed. Fma 
thi> it foDuwi that Hit body k not a nma haana 
body, but a body of Ood. Then can be no donbt 
that thii doctrine, if inahed to ite lagieal cona^ 
quencci, would be highlj daageno^ nncc it would 
dettroy all the prutieal beneSti of oni belief is 
in the Incarnation, a* it involiv* the denial that 
we hiTa a High Prieit who can be Couched with a 
fbaling of oui inRnnitiei. If thii ii borne ia 
mind, the horror which it exdted can be icconnted 
for; and althongh we do not know that Eutychfo, 
any nun than many other teachen of error, did 
catty out hii priuciplei to their practical coneln- 
aoDi, will tbe mean) which wen adopted to lup- 
port fail cauie wen nich a* to prereat our beling 
any lympathy with it. Hit apiniani became po- 
pular in the Aleiandtian Church, where the doo- 
Uinei a[ Neitoriui hod been moil loudly eon- 
demned. and when the patriarch Dioaciirui waa 
(oiiaeitly Tialent and ontcmpalima. Entycbca 



le party oj 



13B 






EUTYCHKa 

printaljbjEi 



idofhii 



ip of Dor^Luum, ud 
bim aa a birelic, beCbre ■ >fnad which UKmblsd 
at CanBtantinitple, nnder the picndencj' at Flaviui, 
fKtriATch of that atj. Hb was condemriod, ia 
ipitc of the extent of hii inflneace it coort, when 
ChfTHphilu, eilnDCb lod chief chamberiam to 
Theodoeiiu 11^ wu ■ dow fiieDd of Dioeconu, 
and godHn to Eatychra. Beiidea Uiig, ChrjH- 
phiuft had H fttrong deiire to cnuh the ptrtbuu of 
Puleherii, the emperor*! liiter, who wu warmlj 
mttuhed to FlSTiui. Br bii iofluence Theo- 
doiioi wu penuaded to dedan hinuelf dliBtu- 
fied aith the dedtion of FIktuui'i iTnod, and lo 
refer the nutter to ■ genenl council to TDMt *( 
Ephesu, Am d. 449« under the piendenf? of Uio- 
■ennu. Thii ii the celehcMed Xfrrpudi irvraSin, 
>n appellation whidi it matt richly deeerred. It 
wai compued dmott eatiiely of portiuni of En- 
tychei. Flanin, and thoie who had judged him 
on the former occauon, though alloved tobepreient, 
were not to be luflend to vote. Thaodoret, the 
hiitonan, who had been a friead of Nntarioi, was 
not to rote without the permiuioa of DiMconu ; 
and a nnniber of frantic Egyptian monki accompa- 
nied their abbot, Baranmaif to whom, aa a vigorooa 



¥at the empenc had 



of Neal 
council were aingned. 

avowed, in hi* lallen « conTocsnon, uiai Dia 
great object waa itaimi iio^iiAiir^r (i»a^ P^i", 
meaning by thii phrua the Neatorian doctrinea. 
Wlien the conncil met, all opponenta of Eacyehei 
wen ailannd bj the oatcriea of the mooka, the 
threnU of the aoldien who were admitted to heu 
the delibentiona, and tbe onrrbearing violence of 
the pretident. Flavian, Giuebiat, and Theodonl 
were dnpoted, and the dnclrinn of Eutychea for- 
mally aanctioned ; and thia waa regarded aa a vic- 
tory gained over the Eaatem chnrch by ita Alex- 
andrian rival, which two bodiea often came into 
conflict &om the different dogmatica] tendenciea 
prevalent id eacb. The depoaed preUiei, however, 
applied fiv aid to Leo the Qreat, biahop of Rome, 
who had been himielf lumncned to the council, 
bnt, instead of appearing there, had aent Jolioa, 
biihop of Pateoli, and ihree other legatea, from 
whom IbeRCbre he obtained a correct accannt of 
tbe acene* which bad diigraced it He waa ready 
to interfere, both on general gToundt, and from the 
notion, which bad alnady begnn la take root, that 
to him, ai the aucceaaor of St. Peter, behinged a 
aort of overaight over the whole chorch. Thing* 
wen changed too at Conatantinople : Chryaaphina 
waa diagraced and baniahed, and Pulcheria reatored 
to her brother'a hvour. In the year 450, Theodo- 
una II. died ; Pulcheria married Mardan, and pto- 
cnred ibr him the aucceiaion to the throDe. A new 
genera] council waa aommoned at Nicaea, aod af- 
lerwarda adjonmed toChnlcedon, i. D. 451, which 
630 bishopa attended. The proceedinga wen not 
altogether worthy of a body met to dedde on auch 
mbjecu; yet, on the whale, aomething like deco- 
nun waa obaerved. The retult waa tiiat Dioscnnu 
and Entychea wen condemned, and the doctrine 
of Chriat in one penon and two natum finally 
declared to be the bilh of the chunh. We know 
nothing of tbe rabaeqnent (ue of Entychea, except 
thai Leo wrote to beg Marrian and Pulcheria to 

not appear. There are extant a confeaaion of &ith 
preaeated by Eutydies to tli« goondl of Epberai 



EOTYCHIUS. 
{ihefiovK^ Ai|rTpunl),and twopetitiona to the em- 
peror Theodoaiua (,Camnil. vol. iv. pp. 134,241. 
250)i butno wo^ofhiaaninexiitaDoa. Thia 
achiam waa coatjnaed among the monk* by Endo' 
cia, widow of Theodoaiiia, and to auch an extant, 
that Hareian wat obliged to Mnd an aimed force to 
put it down. The foQowera of Eutyehea, howaver, 
under the name of Mono^^yailea, continoed ta pr<H 
pagat« their opiniona, thoogh with little aoccaaa, till 
the 6th centurr, when a great revival of Ihoae doo 
trinea took place under (he anapicet of Jacob Baia- 
daena, who died bi^op of Edeva, A. n. 583. Frota 
him tfaey wen called Jacobite*, and nnd« thia 
title alill conatitate a very nomerou* church, ui 
which the Armeniaoa and Copta belong. (Evagriua, 
HiMLJSoA:i.9; Tbeodorat, ^. 79, S3, 92, Ac ; 
Cave, Ser^ Beda. HitL ZA voL L ; Neander, 
f fniteiKHai. iiL p. 1079, Ac) [O. E. L. C] 

EUTYCHIANUS. [Comaiom.] 

EUTVCHIA'NUS (E^nxuu^t). Then an 
two peraona of thi* name in tbe hialory of Coo- 



Oreat. He i* alyled chief aecntary of the emperor, 
and a aimhiat ; but nothing further ia known. 
[Oeorg. Codinna, StUct. d» Orig. CohIibiL 17.) 
The aecond waa a friend of Agathioa the hiitoriaii, 
who undertook to writs tbe hialory of hia own 
time on the advice of EntychiannL ( Agath. 
Pnoem.) [L. S.] 

EUTVCHIA'NUS {E^^-or^t), a phydcian 
who lived probaUy in or before the fourth cenlnry 
afier Chriat, aa one of hi* medical foimulae ia 
quoted by Haresllna Empiricoa (£>> Madieam, c 
14. p. 303), who caUa him by the title of - Ac- 
chialer." He may perfa^i* be the aame phyddnii 
who tg called Termliua Eatychianua by Theodo- 
rua Priadanna (De Mtdia. iv. 14.) [W. A. O.] 

EUTY'CHIDES, T. CAECl'LIUS,* freedman 
of Atticna. After hi* manumiaaion by Alticna, hia 
name naturally waa T. Pomponiua GBtychide*; but 
when Alticna wai adopted by Q. Caedlma, bia 
fteedman alao altered bia name into T. Caedlioa 
Eutychide*. (Cic. ad Altit. IS.) [L. S.) 

EUTY'CHIDES (EilnixlBitf). 1. Of Siejoo, 
a (taCnary in brDDia and marble, ia placed by Plin j 
at OL 120, H. E. 300, (xTxiv. S. a. 19.) He waa 
a diaciple of Lyaippni. {Pana. ji. 2. % i.) Ha 
made in bronie a atatna of the river Ennia*, ** in 
quo artam ipao amne liqaidionm plarinu diiere" 
{Plin. {. c! 16), one of the Olympic victor Timoa- 
thertea, of Elia, and a highly-priied Matne of 
Fortune for the Syrian* on the Onote*. (Paiu. 
I. e.) There ia a copy of the laal-named work in 
the Vation Mnieum. (ViacDnti,,VH. Pio.-OMB. 
t. iiL tab. 46.) Hit atatne of Father Liber, in the 
collection of Anniua Pollio, waa of marble. (Plin. 



.*.§!< 



iieof Pria 



tioned in the Greek Anthology ( 
iL p. 311; Jacoba, iii. p. 24, No. XIV.) aa the work 
of Eutychide*. bnt it ia not known whether Eaty- 
chide* of Sicyon ia meant. Cantharua of Sicyon 
waa the papif of Eutychide*. [CANTSaatiB.] 

2. A painter of unknown time and conntij. 
He painted Victory driving a biga. (Plin. xixv. 
II, a. 40. §34.) 

S. A aeulptoi, whoae name occur* ia a tepalchral 
epignn in the Oreelc Anthology. (Bnuidi, Amal. 
vol. iii. p. 807 1 Jacob*, voL iv. p. 374, No. 

DCCIIX.) [P. 8.] 

EUTY'CHIUS, the gianDDariao. [EimcHa.] 

b,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



EXAEKETUS. 

EUTY'CHIUS (KtiSxioi), wm originallr ■ 
noal of tin UvD <^ AmiiMU, whence ha vu lent 
if ha bllDv-citaeni to CooitBiiIuiEiple, u pni; 
!■ tiat biihnp. The gml talent be diipUycd Ln 

w theoiagia] coDlroienj guiied bim general 
' 1, ud the nnpel ..- . ■ . 



Uo to Um higheit dJgDitj in the i 



tDrdioAlj pre- 
i mt held in 
I cirr. Ill A. D. 564, he incutied the wiger o! 
&e rflipenr Joitiniu, bf tefoain^ to gire his u- 
•ui to ■ deefea reverting the incorrnptibililj gf 
ibc bodj of Chrisl preTioBi to hii reiuneclion, 
tfid wu expelled from hu tee in coniequencv. Htf 
rti 4t fizil confined in a monailery, then trwii- 
pRrd to *n Bland, Princepo, and at tut to hit 
iriginl cDOTent at AmoKiA. In £73, the em- 
ftnr THieriiu nntared bim to hit lee, which he 
incefcAh reUuned until hia death in £85, at 
Ifeigeof 73. Then ii extant hf " 
■Uoied ta pope Vigilioa, oa the oi 
tWniKiD in A. D. 553. It ia printed 
Utin Boian; the Ada S/wodi 
'. f. 4-25, &c. He alio wroie iDme uiuoi uo«i- 
in, which, howenr, air loM. (Engr. It. 38; 
Cspc. MonU. XJT. 29 ; C«tb, Hid. Lit. toL L 

r.4i),&c) [US.] 

EUX^NIDAE (TtitMa,), & noble &inily 
ig the Aeginetana, eelebnted by Pindal in hie 



EZEKIELUS. 129 

<ie (01.91)andac. J12(0L93.) On hia iv- 
tnm bom Olympia, Eiaenetoi ma escorted into 
tbe dtj b; a magnificent proceuion oT 300 ch»- 
riot), each drawn by two white bonea. (Diod. 
lUi. 34, 82; Aelian, V. il. ii. 8.) (L. S.] 

EXRDARES. [Amacidae, p.363,a.] 
EX1T1L'!:^ quaeitar in B. c 43. and one of 
Anton;*! mppuittin, i< tallrd by Cicero {Flii^, 
xiii. 13) the /hiler (probably the coniin-gennan) 
of Philadelphut, by which name be meani to 
indicate C. Anniui Cimbet. [Camp. CiUBiS, 



Anni 



lof hia 



a, CondL T 



dt<A'n 



iL)in_b™. 



in the boyi' pentathlon 
ia the S4lh Nemotd (according to Hermimn'i emen- 
luioD of the Scholia), that ia, in B. a 46{. The 
-- ' -' ■- 't father, TheariQQ, 






The 



EXSUPERA'NTIUS, JU'LIUS, a Roman 
hiitorian, with tegstd to whom we potaeu no in- 
funnntion, but who, from the character of fata 
«tj]e, i) believed to hare fknuished in the Gtlh or 
(ixth centnry. Under hit name we hsie a thort 
tract, entitled Di Maru, Lrpidi, ao StTiorii iiUu 
dvilibiat which many etippoie to hsTe been 
sbcidged from the Hiitoriea i^ Sallnit 

It will be (bund appended to the edition* of 
Salltut by Waue, Cantab. 4to. 1710 ; by CoRa, 
Lip*. 4ta. 1724 ; by Haveroimp, AmMeL 4ta. 
1742) and tr Oeriach, Baiil. 4m. 1B23. (Hoi- 
\tnu. Dim. da Julio ExuftratOio, AUort ito. 
1690.) [W. R.] 

EXSUPERATtyaiUS, OM of the twei™ 



ide centaini aome coniideral^e diflicnltiei, and haa 
ben my ditlennlly eiplaioed by Biickh, Diiien, 
Bd Hermann. ( Pindar, I. e. ; SchoL, and Bikkh 
ltd Diiaea** note* ; Hermann, ii Soffnit Aeffimc- 
IK HAini jiJufMrfa BiaenaHa, Lip*. 1822, 
OpBola. ToL iii. p. 22.) [P. S.] 

EUXPNIDAS, a painter, who inatmcted Che 
oitiiiated Ariateidet, of Thebe*. He flooriahed 
ibool the 95lh or I OOih Olympiad, B.C 400 or 360. 
{fi«.H, fir. 10^.10.1.36. ^7.) [P.S.J 

EUXE'NIDES. [EiTtTM,] 

EU'XESUS {ESfnw.] 1. Ii mmtioDed by 
HnfiiDi of Halifarnaiiin (i. 34) tt > raap^i 
4'):>w.whDwiT>teiipaD early Italian Iradltiau. A> 
bt it DDi meotioaed anywhere elae, and ai it ii 
Buge to find an aneitjit Greek writing upon Italian 
Bflhi, tome critiea hare propoaed to read 'Erruii, 
■Bttad of tilmi : but Enniui can acarcely be 
* W!d among the aytbograpbert. 

2. OfHerBCleia,wattbe initroetor of ApaHoniua 
ofTymain Pythagorean philotophy, of which he 
■ mi to hare poaaeeaed a Tery competent know- 
It^ (Philoatr. Fit. ApaiL L 7.) [L. S.) 

EUXrTH£US(Eil£»«i), a PythagoreaD phi- 
liMpbrr, baa wheat Athenaeoa (ii. p. 157) quatei 
b opiaion that the aonla of all men were confined 
Wlhegodi totheir bodiea and to Ehii world aa a 
piakhnott, and thai tmleaa they nmained there 
t* lie period appointed by Iha deity, they WDoM 
bt dsomed to itUl greater mKringt. [L. S.] 

EXA1>IU3 (^liliiif), one of the Lapithae, 
*bo dittiuniihed himaelf in the eonteat at tl 
Bptiili of PeirilhoUa. (Hea. Snt. Htrc 18( 
Or. Mh. xn. 266, 4t) [L. 3.] 

EXAETJETUS fKfoliPtm), of Agtigentni 
^»d nctaciM ia tha foot nee •! Oljmpi, in ^.c 



ordained that the month of December thonld bs 

diitingniihed by tbit name. [CouMODUS.] (Dion 
Cata. IxiiL IG; Zonar. lii. 5; I^mprid. Omtiiad. 
11 ; Auiel, Vict dt Caa. xxiL; Eutrop. Tiii, 7i 
Snidiu, .. B. KiS^ioJo..) [W. R.] 

EXSUPERIUS, detcended &om a hmily of 
Bordeaux, waa profeaior of rhetoric fint at Tou- 
loute, and lubeoquently at Narbonne, where he 
le the preceptor of Flanut Juliut Dcbnatin*, 
and of hia brotber Ilannibalianut, who, after Ibur 
ion, procured for their inttructor the dignity 
of Praeaei Hiiponiae. Hiving acquired great 
wealth, he retired to pau the remainder of hit life 
in tranquillity ul Cabort (Cadurca). He it known 
to ui only from a complimentary addreu by Auto- 
nina, who cnllt upon him to letum and thed a 
lualn upon the city of hia anoeatori. (Auaon, 
Pr^.XT«.) [W.R,] 

EZEKIE'LUS C^umiXai). the author of a 
work in Greek entitled J{«>ti7JJi which ia ntoally 
called a tnwedy, but which teemt rather to have 
been a metrical hiitoij, in the dramatic fbim, and 
in iambic verae, written in imitation of the tlreek 
tmgediea. The tubject waa the Eiodn* of Ihs 
Itraelilet bam Egj pt. The author appean to have 
been a Jew, and to bare liied at the court of the 
Plolemiea, at Alexandria, abontthe lecond century 
B. c Contiderable fragmenta of the work ara 
preaerred byEutetHua {Pratp. Etxag. ii. 28,29), 
Clement Aleiandrinoa (Sfrom. L p. 341, fol.), 
and Euitalhiua (ad Ilexain. p. 25). Theie frsg- 
menli were fint collected, and printed with a 
Latin vertion, by Morell, Par. 1580 and 1590, 
3va^ and were reprinted in the Poelat drill. 
Grate, Par. 1G09, fivo., in Lectiua't Corpiu Pott. 
Graa. Tng et Conk, CoL Allobr. 1614, fol., in 
Btgniut'i CaDat Poet. OmM., appended ta the 
BOlwIh. Pair. Orrat., Par. 1624, fal.. in the I4th 
volume of the BiiL Pair. Graa:., Par. 1644— 
1664, foU and in a leparate form, with a Oennan 
irantlatioa and notea, by L. H. Philippaon, fiartin, 
1830, 8vo. (Fabric itiJ.Cni«.toLii.pp.5a5.B) 
Wekkar,dwGri»l.7><^p.l270.) (P. S.] 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



FABATIIS, CALPUTINIUS, a Stoma 

knight, acta»d by nibarned iafbnnen in a. o. 6^, 
of being ptiTj to the crime, of «dult*rj and m ' 
«b1 BTti which were alleged agnintt Lepidi, 
vife of C. CsMioi. Bj mn appeal to Nero, ju 
nent igiiinit Fabatiu wu dsfenvd, and he erei 
ally eloded the accnHlion. (Tnc Am. itL 
Fi^lut wu gTwdfather ta Calpuiaia, wife of the 
joonger Pliuj, (Plin. £J>. ™. 10.) He powued 
■ cnnntty houRe, VQla Camilliuu, in CunpftniL 
{M li. 30.) He long luiiived bii un, PUny-* 
fethet-in-liw, in memory of whom lie erected a 
portico u Comom, in Ciulpine 0«uL (*. 12.) Ac- 
cording to in inioTiition (Outer, /meryi. p, 382), 
Fshatiu died at Coniiiin. The following letter) 
nrs oddnawd by Pliny to Fabatni, bit pmoeer 
(i». 1, T. 12, Ti. 12, 30, Tii. 11, 16, 23, 32, Tiii. 
10). [W. B. D.1 

FABA'TUS,L. RO'SCIUS, w« one of Caenr'i 
lieatenenta in the OiUw war, and commanded the 
thirteenth legion on the Lower Rhine, in the 
winter of B. c. S4. It wu during thii winter that 
Ambiotii [AHBioniii] induced the Ebnnmei and 
Nerrii to attack in detail the qnut«r* of the 
Roman legiona, bnl in the opaimtiona loneeqnenl 
on their revolt Fahitui leemi to hare taken no 
part, lince the diitrict in which be wai atationed 
remained qniet. {Caeb B. O. t. 24.) He appriied 

in the Ume winter. (Ibid. S3.) Fabatui WW one 
of the praetonin a c. 49,andwaBaenthy Pompey 
from Rome to Caenr at Ariminnm. with piopoiala 
of accommodation, both public and private. He 
WM ctuuged by Caeiar with coonter-piopoaalt, 
which he delivered to Pompey and the connili at 
Capua. (Cic. oJ AU. viii. 12 ; Caea. B. C. I 
S, 10 i DioD Can. ill 6.) FatnCn* wu do- 
patched on a Mcond miidon to Caeui by tboit 
mtmbera of the Pooipeian party who wen amioai 
ibr peace. (Dion Cau. Lc.) A* Cicero mentiona 
bia meeting with L. Caeaar at Mintoniae on hii 
return Erom Ariminum, and ai L. Caeeat wai the 
companion of Fabatna, at leaat on their Gnt jour- 
ney Co and bora C Caeaar, Fabatu, though not 
eipreialy named by him, probably met Cicero at 
Uintnniae alas, and communicated Caeaar^ offers, 
Jannary 2-2. a. c. *B. (Cic. ad Att. viL 13.) 
According lo Cicero (ad AIL vii. U), Fabatna 
and L. CaeMT, on their return from Ariminnm, 
delivered Canat'i oHer to Pompey, not at Capna, 
hot at Teanum. FabatDi wai killed April Uth 
or ISth, B. c 43, in the fint of the battlei in the 
neighbourhood of Mutina, between M. Antony 
and tbe legioni of the aenate. (Cic ad Fam. x. 
S3.) (W. a D.] 

Whether the annexed coin, wbicb bean the 
name of L. RoaduaFabatui, belongi to the Fabatui 




FABIA. 
vena refen to the worahip of that goddeu at La- 

nuvium. (Eckhel, voLv. p. 292, &c) 

FABE'BIUS. ]. Seenu to have been a debtor 
of M. Cicero'i, lince in aeveral of bia letten la 
Atticui (ad AU. liL 21, 2£, £1, liiL 8), Cicero 
■peak* of him uapenon bom whom a certain nm 
wa> dne, and ahanid be demanded, in cate of ths 
purcbaae of aome garden! in Rome {fforti Drmri' 
am, Lamamt &c.), which Cicero wiifaed to boy. 
He wu faoweier, after a time, diipowd to be 
lenient with Faberina {ad Att. it. IS). If by 
Mtto (in EpiM. ad Att. liL SI) Caeaar be meant, 
in alluaion to hii reformation of the calendar (Suet. 
Gia. 40), the intereat on the money owed by F>- 
beriui to Cicero may have been aflected 1^ the 
eitenaion of the cunent year a. c. 46. Ciceiti 
teemi to have been autioni of giving oflence to 
Faberioa ; and if he were the nma penon with 
Caeaar*! private lecretary, mentioned below, and 
the Irnnaaetian between them, a* bu been mp- 
pD!ed, refened to property lold or coniiicated 
during the civil wan, Cicen>'! reluctance lo enforce 
payment may b B. c. 46 have beai pmdent ■■ 
well u lenient 

2. One of the private aeeretnriea of C. Julioa 
CaeBi, After Caemr'a aanaunation, in B. c 44. 
Antony attached to himielf Faberina, by wboae aid 
he inaeited whntevBT he choie into the late dic- 
Cator> papen. Since a deeTte of the wnale had 
previonily declared all Caeaar*! acta, and hi! will, 
valid and binding on the itate, Antony, by em- 
ploying one of Caeaar*! own aecretariea, could in- 
■ert, without danger of detection, whatever ha 
wiahed into the papen (Jiro)in)^iaTa),!ince tbe aa- 
Cograph of Faberiti* made it difficult to diMinguiah 
the genuine from the apuriou! memoranda. (Ap- 
pian, B. C. ill. 6.) Dion Canina (iliv. 3) laja 
that Antony aecnr^ the aervicea of Caeiar*! lecn- 
tariea, but he doea not name Faberina. [W.B.D.] 
FA'BIA, the name of two daugblera of the patri- 
cian M. Fabiua Ambuitui. The elder wai married 
to Set. Snlpidni, a pattteian, and one of the mili- 
tary tribtmeaof the yearn. c S76, and theyonoga 
■ a plebeian C. Licinina Slolo, who ia laid to 
have beeo urged on to bia legialation by the vanity 
of bia wile. Once, ao the itory runa, while tin 
younger Fabia wh ataying with bei liiter, a lietor 
knocked at ibe door to annonnce the return of Ser. 
Sulpiciui from the fern: 
the yonngei Fahia. who 
thing*, and her elder liiler ridiculed her fbt her 
ignonnce. Thi*, u well u the otbet honoun 
which were paid to Serrilina, deeply wotinded the 
ity of the younger Fabia, and her jfalouay and 
y made her nnhi^^y. Her bther perceived 
. ahe wu auifering from aomething, and con- 
tcived to elicit the cauie of her grieL He thtm 
lied her by telling her that ihorlly ahe ahcaild 
the wme honour* and di«tinctiona canterred 
upon her own hnabmd, and tberaupon he conmlted 
with C. Lidniu Stole about the atepa to be taken 
fbt ihit pnrpOM ; and L. Seitiu! being let into the 
leeret, a plot vu formed of which the legialation 
of C Lidniua and L. Seitinawutbe reanlL (Uv. 
vi. 34 : Zonar. rii. 24 ; Anr. Vict, d* Fa-. lUulr. 
20.) The imprubalnli^ and ineonaiatency of thin 
■tory hu long aioce been exploded, for how eonld 
the yont^r Fabia have been ignorant of or ilaitled 
by ^e diatinctiona enjoyed by hei natetV hnabaod, 
' ? own btherbad bem inveattd with the aama 
tnB,c.SBir The «aty mnat theteEoM b* 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



[L.8.I 

FA BLA GENS, one of ths man udcnt patri- 
au gtnta at Rome, which tncad id oiigin to 
Hamln nod the Arodiui Ennder. (Or. Fail. 
iL 237, « Porf. iiL 3. Sg , Jut. .iiL U ; Pint. 
Fak Mar. I ; Put. DiK. i. k Fadi, ei. HuUcr.) 
Tbe ume ii Bid to lun origindlj baea Fodii sc 
Forii, sbich w» beUcTod ta htre been deririd 
froa the bet of the Snt who bora it hanng ii 
tmtAl the method of p*tfhing woItc* bj m«ina 
gf ditches {JavM6\ whenai, Kcording to Pliuj, ■ 
(ff. a: iTiiL 3). the suae mi dariied from /ifo, 
a btaa, ■ Teg«>Us which the Fsbii a-era Hid to 
hin tint mltimed. The quettion u to whether 
the Fabii wen ■ I^tin or a Sabine geni, it a die- 
JHled point. Niebohr and, after him, Qiittling 
(GoaL der Rom. Smm. pp. 109, 191,) look upon 



FABIANUS. 131 

e the two-&ced head of Janiu, and 
■e the (aow oEa thip: the lallai «i- 



the obvene i female head, and on the 



Staain. pp. ll 



BM teen aaliibcloiy ; and then ii a l^and 

wUch their name ooeim, which refer* to ■ tbas 

whrB tte Sabinei wen not yet incorpmated in the 

ealj bj the paeudo-Auniiiia Victor(iieOrH7.Gati. 
Rom. 2-2} ; bat it ia alluded to alio bj PlataRh 
(And: 22) and Valeriiu Haiimu (ii. 2. % 9). 
When Romnliu and Keimit, it it aid, after tiu 
death of Anmlini, oflered up (acrificei in the Lu- 
fereal, and afterwanti celebrated a fHtival, which 
***'«™* the ongin of (he Laperealia, the two 
htnei dinded their l«nd of ihepherdi iota two 

C, and Mch gate to bia follower* a ipedal name : 
nisi called hi* the QnioctiUi, and Hemu* hi* 
■he Fabii. (Comp. Of. Fait, i 361, ftt, 37S, 
At) Thi* tadttion (eenn to nggHt, thai the 
Fibii and Qninctilii in [he carlject time* had the 
mpointendencc of the Bcn at the Laprrcalia, and 
hau the two coSiegra of the Laperci retained 
iheee namMeTra in much later time*, although the 
priiilege had cBued to be confined to thixe two 
fatM. (CitTiiii. Si, iiii.\S,proCaiL26; 
Propert. it. 26 ; Pint. Caa. 61.) It wai from (lie 
Fafaa fmi that one of the Roman tribea deriTed 

after the Claodia gem. The Fabii do not act a 
- 1 part in hiitory till after the eatabli*h- 
.1. nwtalth ; and throe brotheri 



a connlthipi, from B. c iB& 
tB 479. The home derived iti geratat InRre from 
tlir patriotic CDOnige and tiigic bte of the 30IS 
Fabii in the battle on the Ciemeia, B.C 477. 
tViKjLAncs. K. Fabius, Ko. 3.] But the Fabii 
wen not diitinguiihed u warriort alone : KTeial 
a e mbm of the geni act an important part alio in 
the faotoiy of Roman Ulnature a«d of the art*. 
The name oecnn ai Lale ai the lecond cenlnrj' after 
the Chriitian aeta. The finoily-name* of ihi* gen* 
mda the republic are :— Ahhdbtim, Bima, 
Doaai, LiBBO, LiciHVa, UiitHUa (with the 
•gDmau^BwiUanu, ASobngiau, Bburmu, Our- 
fm, RaOiamtu, Sirveiaina, Ftmonu), PiCTOK, 
■ad V1BDI.4HITS. The other cognomen*, which 
do net belong to the gen*, are giien below. [ L. S.] 
The onlj et^nomeni that occur on coin* are 
gjyinm't [aw VoL L p. 180, a.], /a&«,3fu- 
u^ and Pietor. The two coin* i B |ii eie ut ed betow 
half BO togDOnea upon them, and it ii doubtfbl I 
to whoa ibe; an to be ttfcwad. The tMiaei ha* | 



209, &c) 

FABU'NUS, PAPI'RIUS, % Roman A«to- 
rioan and philoaopber in the time of Tiberini and 
Caligula. He wai the pnpil of Aielliua Foacn* 
and of Blandui in rhetoric, and of Seitin* in 
philoiophj : and although mneb the younger of 
the two, he ioitmcted Albnliu* Sila* in eloquence. 
(Sentc dnlntv. ii. prooem. pp. lSi-6, iii. p. 204, 
ed. Blpont) The Aetorical atyle of Fabiann* i* 
deacribed by the elder Seneca (Cbainw. iii. pnn 
em.}, and he i* fruqnenllr dted in the third 
book of Cimtr ov tr ait Uj and in thenS^HUorut Hi* 
«aily model in rhetoric wa* hii injtmctor Arellio* 
Foicui ; bal he afterwarda adopted a leu ornate 
fbnn of ebqoence, though he never attained to per- 
•picuil; and umplicitj. Fnbianui Hxtn, however, 
qoilled ifaelortc for pbilonphjr ; and the younger 
Seneca phtce* hi* philoiopbical work* next to thnie 
of Cicero, Aaintai Pollio, and Livj the biitorian. 
{Sniee. EpiiL IIHI.) The philoaophical ityle of 
Fabiann* i* deiaibed in thi* letter of Seuecs'*, 
ne point! hia detcription cormpoDda 
with that of ^e elda Seneca. (Cbadvo, ii. pro- 
oem.) Both the Seneca* lean to haTe bwwii, and 
certain]]' greatly e*teemed Fabianiu. (Cf. Cat- 
prooem. with Epiit. 11.) Fabiiaui 
nthor of a work entitled [Rerum P] Ciai- 
\i hi* philonphical writing* exceeded 
Cioeni'i in number. (Senec. .£)ni(. 100.) He had 
alio paid great attention to phyaical (oence, and 
1* oJled by Pliny (/f. ftf. luri. lS.i.24) nnm 
-orae fmtittim*,. From Seneca {Nalmr. Qwiaf. 
'27), he appear* to have written on Ptjitict ; 
I hi* worka entitled £>■ AmmiMu and Qnuu- 
rvaa Natnraiupm Libri are bequentiy refertcd to by 
Plioy {H. N. generally in bit Elenchoa or anm- 
mary rf material*, i. iL TiL ii. xL iii. xiiL liv. 
'. xvii. niii. irriii. nrvi, and apeeially, but 
Llhont mention of the particular work of Pa- 
uin*,ii. 47. I 121, iL 102. | 223. ii. a S 25, 
i. 4. |20, av. 1. |4,iiiii. 11. f62,iiTiii.£. 
t 54}. [W. B. D.] 

FABIA'NUS, VALrRIUS, ■ Roman of aiik 
anfficient to aapire to the honour* of the (tate, waa 
omricted befon the Hoate in a. l>. 62,ofconqHring 



1S3 FABBICIUS. 

wilh Vinciut RdGddi, AnUiiiiu Priinni. and 
athm, to impow on hi* aged and wealth; relatiTe, 
Domitiui Balbui. a forged wilL Fabisnui vu 
degmded from tha Knalorian order b; tha Lsx 
Cornelia TtMlamnloTia or Di PaUU. {Tae. ^m. 
xW. 40 ; comp. InitiL It. IB. g 7 i Piului, RtrtpL 
S™*™«o™m. T. lit. 2S.) [W. B. D.] 

FABI'LIUS, or FABILLUS, a proreiKt oF 
litenturo in the third eentur; A. D., who initnicted 
the younger Mariminui in the Oreek luignage, 
and vaa the aother of flereml Oreek epigrama. 
which wen moatiT inicripliTe lin» for the >tatue> 
and portiaiti of hii joulhful pupiL (CBpiloli 



n. Jn. I.) 



[W. B. D.] 



FA'BIUS D03SENNU3. [Doi 
FA'BIUS FABULLUS. [F*HuLLua.j 
FA'BIUS HADR[A'NUa [HiDKUNUs.] 
FA'BIUS LABEO. [Labio.] 
FA'BIUS MELA. [Meli.] 
FA'BIUS PLANCl'ADES PULOE'NTIUS. 
[F„Lo™n.-s.] 
FA'BIUS PRISCU9. [PBiMtJi..] 
FA'BIUS BU'BTICUS. [Rusticub.] 
FA'BIUS SABrNU& [SlBiNua.] 
FA'BIUS SANOA. [Sjinoa.] 
FA'BIUS, VEROILIA'NUS. [Viroi- 

FABRI'CrA OENS. wen» t« hiTo belonged 
originally to the Heniican town of Aletrium, when; 
Fahridi occnr ai late u the time of Cicero {pm 
a<ienL IE, Ac.) The firal Fabricini who ocnin in 
hitloly ia ihe celebrated C Fabridua Laacinai, 
who diftinguiahed himielf in the war agtunal 
Pyirhua, and who wm prohnhly Ihe firit of the 
Fahricii who qnitted hia natiTe place and letlled 
at Home. We know that in B. c 30G, abottly be- 
fore the wu with Pyrrhna, moat of the Hemican 
towna roTolted againal Rome, bat were aabdiwd 
and compelled to accept the Roman franchiM with- 
out the anflnge: three towDa, Aletrinm, Feren- 
tiniun, and Verulaa, which had remained fnibfiil 
to Rome, were allowed to retain their former con- 
atilution ; that ia. they remained to Rone in the 
relation of iiopolity. (Li*, ii. i% &c) N°» il 
la very probable that C. Pabricias l.iucinua either 

at Rome, where, like other aettlen fhnn laopolite 
towni, he aoon roae to hish honoora. Beaidea thii 
Fahrieiua, no memben of hia hnily appear to hare 
riien to any eminenie at Rome ; and we mnat 
conchide that the; were either men of inferior 
talent, or, what ii more probable, that b«ng 
atiaugera, ihey labonred under great diaadTantagea, 
and thai the jealouiy of the illiulriani Roman 
bmitiea, plebeian ai well at patrician, kept them 
down, and prerenled their t ' ' 

tlon which their lira had g 
the only cognomen of the F> 
with under the tepnblic : in Ihe time of the eni- 
[rin we find a Fabricini with the cogoomeD Vii- 
iNTO.Tbereafcafewwithoutacognomen. [L. S.] 
FABRI'CIUS, 1. C. and L. F*miiciub 
belonged to the mnnidpinm of Aletrimn, and were 
twina. According to Cicero (proClunl. 16, ic), 
they were both men of bad character ( and C. Fa- 
b^iciD^ in partiealar, waa charged with haviog 
allowed himielt to be made uu of ai a tool of Op- 

rianicua, about B.C. 67, to deatroj A. Cluentiua. 
A CLU^[^Tm^ Na 2.j 
3. L. Fabfiicius, C. r., perbapa a bod of No. I, 
wat raratiit nanim in a. c 62, and built a new 






FACUNDU3. 

bridge of alone, which connected the dtj with ihs 
ialand in tbe Tiber, and which waa called, afiet 
him, poia FnhrwMt. The lime at which the 
bridge waa built ii eiprcaily mentioned by Dion 
Csiaiua (uxTii. 15}, and tbe name of ita aathor ia 
(till aeen on the remnanliof the bridge, whi(^ now 



On Of 



of 



inactiption : " L. Fabricil'!!, 



the archee we lead the i 
C.F.CiiR.ViAa, T. 
psoBATiT ;" and on another arch there iathe follow- 
ing addition: "Q.LaFiouB,M. F.,U.Loi.Liu, H. 
F., bx S. C. FKOBAVaRUKT," which prolahly lefrn 
to a rf'stotation of Ihe bridge by Q. Lepidua and 
M. LolliUL The uheiiaat on Honce {Sat. ii. 3, 
36) cstla the Fabriciut who built that bridge ■ 
conanl. hot ihia ia obvjooaly a miatake. (Becker, 
Hmdindi d. Ham. AU^&iimer, lol. L p. 699.) 
There ia alw a coin bearing the name of L. Fabri- 
dua. (Eckhel, Doctr. Num. tdI. *. p. 210.) 

3. Q. Fabiuciith wu tribune of Ihe people in 
B.c.57|Bnd well diapoaed towardt Cicero, who 
wat thm liiring in exile. He brought before lbs 
people a motion that Cicero ahould be recalled, aa 
(srlya* the month of January of that yew. Bnt 
the Btlempt wu IniMraled by P. Clodiua by aimed 
fbrce. (Cic. ad Qn. FtoL L 4, pod Rid. im Sen. 
a, pro Sat. 35. Ac, pm MiUti. U.J In lbs 
Monumentom Ancymnum and in Dion Caaaios 
(iliiii. 35). he ia mentioned at coaant auSktua of 
the year B. c. 36. (L. S.] 

KABULLUS, painter. [Amdliub.] 
FABL'LLUS, FA'BIUS, one of the aereral 
penoni to whom the murder of Qdlba, in a. a. 69, 
waa attributed. He carried the bleeding head of 
tbe empenir, which, from ita eibeme haldneaa, - 
wa* dilScull to hold, in Ihe lappet of hit aagnm, 
mitll, compelled by hia conindea to eipoae it to 
public >iew, he fixed it on a apear and bnadiahed 
It, aayi Plutarch. aiB bacchanal her thjnui. in bia 
progreaa from the forum to the praetorian famp 
(Plut. GalL 27 ; comp. Sueton. GaOi. 20). Bnt for 
the joint atalement of Plnlaieh (Li.) and Tacitna 
(HiiL L 41). that Vilellioa put to deUh all the 
mnnjemt of Onlba, thia Fabulloa might be tap- 
poaed the aame with Fabiua Fnbullui, legstua of 
the fiRh legion, wham the aoldiera of Vitellina, 



e of their leaden 



itiny 



. No. 9], . 

he prematurelj decland fsr Veapniian. (TadL 
Hui.iii. 14.) [W. RD.] 

FACUNDUS, atyled " Epiacopna Hermia- 
nenaia," from (he aee which he held in the pro- 
vince of Byncium, in Africa Propria, lired aboat 
the middle of the liith c^nlurr. When Juitinian 
(a. n. £44) published an edict condemuing, lat,ti>a 
Epiatle of Ibaa. biihsp of Edeaia ; TA, the doctiiiie 
of Theodore, bithop of Mopauealia ) and 3d, cer- 
tain writinga of Theodoret. biahop of Cyma or 
Cyimi ; and Hnatbematiiing all who appioTed of 
them, hia edict waa letiatrd by maujr, aa impugning 
the jadgment of the general council of Chakedon 
{held A. D. 451), at wbich the prelalea whoae aen- 

not condemned, hot two of them, Ibaa and Theo- 
dore, reatored to iheii leea, from which tbejr had 
been expelled. Facundua waa one of thoae who 
rejected the Emperor'a edict i and waa reqnested by 
hia brethten (apparently the other Iriahopi it 
Alriea) to prepare a delraice of the Conndl on tha 
three pointi (enneDtly termed by eccleaiaatical 
wrileiB lb* " tria capitma "} oo which ita judgmant 



D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



FADILLA. 
mi>|iiigwd. HeTMMCaDitsntiniipl*,en)iigcd 
b thk work, wlim the pope. Vigiliiu {a. d, 547)> 
urifed, ind dincUd him and all the other biihopt 
vba ven Ihera, nboot mnjstj in Dumber, to giTc 
Ittir cpininii m the " trii aiiinilii" in vriting in 
Km dijL The Bniwrr of Faciindut coniiiled 









pucd. uid the inuconcj 

it did DM adif; iti sDtbor, ne anentanu Dnunea 
ud |nibli>h«l hie Juget work, u beiog ■ mon 
MulnUe lad better MTBDg«d defeDce of the coim- 
bL Vailiiu hsTing b«D indaced to appntre of 
Ike oniuauutiDa of Ibu, Theodon, and Theodo- 
nt, thoogh with a niemtiDii aC the authority of 
lb cooDd] of Cbalcedan, Facandiu,wiih the biihopi 
tl AXiia and of tome other proTincei, lefuied Ut 
tan ammanion with him uid with ihoM who 
joiDid En the eoDdemnalioa ; aod being peneeuted 
iir thti, he ini obliged to CDOCai himKlt During 
llii cDDcalraem, at the reqneet of um« penona 
tiaa he don not nwne. he wrote hit reply to 
Mcama, a leholaiticiu or pleader, who hod written 
•glint the dedaion of the council of Chaleedoo. 
Nnthiig further ii known of Ftcuadtu. Two 
•fluiWTitiDg(,Tii. Fro Dtfemim TVhm Capilif 
iim LAri Jtll^ BDd CoKtm Moaamai LAtr, 
wtre pnhlUhed with note* by Sirmond (Bto. 
Vtra. 16-29). Theae wmki, with Sinnond'i 
■nei, are reprinted in the edition of tile 
nrki of Opiatoa, by Philippn* Frioriui, and in 
1^ BittiaOaa Patnm, ToL i. ed. Lyon, A. D. 
1(77. and icj. xi. ed. Venice, by OsUan<iin% 
LB. 1765. Another work of Facundna, entitled 
EfiiUa Fidd Catkatieae » Defnakme TriMm O^- 
'■'mit, waa lint pubiiihed in the SpicHegiim of 
O'Acheiy (toI. iii. p. 106 of the Gral edition, or 
M liL p. 307. ed. of 17-2S), chieBy with the Tiew 
•f ihnmg that Facundni cnnlinned oat of eom- 
Kiaian with tl» Pope sad the Catholic Church, ud 
■ t* wiakening hii rtnthorily : for the Prole»t«nM 
kid riCed a paaaage from bii Defauio THima Capi^ 
'^' nagxinit the doctrine of the Real Preience. 
ii reprinted in the Biilialiitea Patrmt 
II uauanaiu. Cltiiodanu (Gitk*. « Piaba 
aamL inb fin.) ipeak* of two bookt of F>- 
oodai Dt daabiu AUsru Dobbb CInti. By 
■Be Kbolara be i> thought to mean the two 
fnt boeki of the D^aaiB ; bat Fabricini thinka 
<^beip>aki of aKfUBte work of Facnndoi now 
'■t. (FaeuDdHi, work* u aboTe i Victor Tnnnn- 
aeaM, OrmiaM,' liidor. Hiip. Dt Ser^. Beda. 
t. 19. ; Baroniua, A<auL id Ata. 546, S47, 
■d hgiiia, Crkk. a Baro». ; Can, Hiil. Lit. toL 
I p.i20i Fabric. BiO. Gnuc toI. i. p. £43, 
od Ba. Mai. tt I<f. Latim. ml. ii. p. UO, 
fUii, 1751 ; Oalland. B&&&. Pairmt, toI. u., 
'W^. 1 13.) [J. C. M.] 

FADIA. 1. A draghter oF Q. Fadini Oallua. 
Sk m bmdulently robbed of hei paternal in- 
kriHnn by P. Seitilini Rufna. (Cic de /fa. iL 

17. St) 

1. A daughter cf C or Q. Fsdiue, married to 
■he tnoDTir U. Antoniua, st the time when he 
*> yet a yemig man. She bore him terera] 
AiUmd. (Cie. PUlipf. il 2, oiL 10, oJ >a iri. 
»■) [L. S.) 

FADILLA. 1. AuaiLiA Fadilla, Bdauohtei 
^Astoamu nni and Fonitina. (Eckhel, roLTii 
M8-) 

1 FutLUiSduqliteiof H. Annliui and tbi 



FALCIDIUS. 1S3 

younger FanitinK. (Omier, p. cdii. 8 ; Mantor, 
p. 2<3. 3, p. fiSO. 4.) 

3. Jdnia Fadilla, b defcendsnt of M. Anlo- 
ninni or M. Amelina, betrothed to Mutmoa 
Caeur. (Cepilolia. Ariui'iiiifl.>ii. 1.) [W. R] 

FA'DIUS, the tsob* of a &mUy of the mnnici- 
pinm of Arpinnm. Some of the memben of it 
•ettled U Rome, while othen remained in their 
natire pLua. The Fadii appear in hiitory about 
the time of Cicero, bat none of them Roe to any 
higher oiBce than the triboneehip. The only cog- 
aomeni that occnr in the &mily, are OALLiii am 
Rurvs. The toUowing haie no lumamei: — 

I. C, or Q. Fadius, for in one of the two pu- 
Hgea in whuh be it mentioiied, he it called Caiui, 
and in the other QninCui. H* wat a lUerliina, 
and seemi to haw poaaeaed coniiderable wealth, 
for Ml daughter, who wai married to H. Antoniui, 
' I called a rich woman. (Cic Piil^ iL^adAU. 



i. 11.) 



20.) 



A B. c U. (Cic Wl AH. I 



15,17, 



TUi letter i 



S. Six. Fadiitb, a ditciple of the phyHcian 
nicon, bat otherwiie unknown. (Cic. ad Fam. 
TiL2(l.) [L.S.] 

FADUS, CUS'PIUS, a Ronun equei of the 
time of the Emperor Clandini. After the death of 
King Agrij^n, in a. n. 44, be was appointed by 
Claudiiii procurator of Judaea. Daring hii admi- 
ciitistion peace wai leetored in the country, and 
the only duturbance wai created by one Teudu, 
who came forward with the claim of being a pra- 
phtft. Bat he and hit foUowen were put to death 
by the command of Cuipiai FeduL He wai no- 
eecded in the adminiitislion of Judaea by Tiberiui 
Alennder. (JoKph. A»L lii. 9, xi. &. g I, Bttt. 
Jud-ii. 11. f£i Tac/ZutT. 9; Zonar. lii. 11; 
Eateb. /r^ £id: ii. 11.) [L. S.j 

FALACER, or, more folly, dimipalar Falatar, 
ii mentioned by VaiTO (dt L. L. t. B4, tH 45) at 
an ancient and forgotten Italian dirinity, whom 
Hattnng {Dit Bat. d. S6ai. ii. p. 9) it inclined to 
coniidcr to be the ume at Jupiter, ttaa fiJaudiim, 
according to Fettiu, wu the Etniioui name for 
-hesTBtt" [La.] 

FALA'NIUS, a Roman equea, one of the Gral 
rictimi of the public accuien in the leign of Tib^ 
rius. He wai charged, A. D. Ifi, with proving 
the werthip of Anguitui Caciar, &nl by admitting 
a player of bid repute to the rilei, and lecondly by 
Idling with hli garden a itatne of tha deceaeed 
emperor. Tiberiai acquitted Falaniui, remaikiDg 
that tha godi were quite able to take care of thnr 
own bouDut. (Tac An. L 73 ; Dion Caia. Itii. 
34.) [W. a D.1 

P. FALCl'DHJS, tribune of the plebi in B.C 
40, wai the author of the La Faladia d» Liyiilii, 
which remained in force in the lixth century a. ^-, 
■ince it wu incotporated by Jnitinian in the In- 
ititntet. It it remarkable that Dion Cattiut 
(ilTiiL 33). mtttakei iti import. HeiayithMtha 
heree, if unwilling to take the bereditoi, wu 
allowed by the Falddian law to refuie it on taking 
a fourth part only. But the Lei Falcidia enacud 
(bat at leait a fonrth of the enate or properly irf 



(Did. rf AM. t. 



to the h( 
'. Ltgatvtu.) The Falcidina 
o in hii ipeedi \at the Uaoi- 
lisn law (19), had the pmenomen Caea. Ho 
' id been tiiboDa of the people and Itgatoi, but in 



4,i,.=.otGoOQ[c 



131 



FALCONIA. 



vhat ycu it imknown. (SchoL GmnoT. pro La. 
M<m. 19. ed. Orellil. [W. B. D.] 

FALCO, Q. SCySIUS, a Roman oT hi^ birth 
nnd great vnlti), coomI Cor th> jtu A. D. 19S, 
ona of thoH whom Commodnt had letolved to pat 
to death thai Tv; night on vhich he himKlf wai 
■lain. Whm the PneUniana became ditgtuMd 
with Ihe refbnni of Pertinai. Ihef endeaToorcd to 
tone the acceptance of the throne npoa FaJco, and 
actnall; piodaimed him cmperoi. The plot, how. 
arer, Gujed, and man^ of the ringleaden wen put 
to death ; but Falco, vboae gmit vai bj no meaiii 
prored, and who wai eren believed by many to be 
entirely innocent, wai apared, and, retiring to hii 
pn^rty. died a oatnra] death. (DioD Ca». Inii , 
22, liiiiL e ■, Capilolin. ftrtit B.) [W. R.] 

FALCO'NIA PROBA, a poetau, graatly ad- 
mired in the middle agea, bot whOH nal nanw, 
and the place of whoM natiiitf , an onceRmn. We 
find bei oiled FbOmia Foocia, FaUoma Anteia, 
Vakria Fidtmia Fnba, mi Frila VaUria; while 
Roma, Orta, and aondry other dlie*, ehJm the 
honour of her binh. Moat IdMoriant of Roman 
litentnrB -"'"'*'" that ahe waa the nobia AiMa 
Pallom Preia, tbe wUe of OWbrina Pnbiii, 
othenriie called HennogODianni Olybrina, vhoie 
name appean in the Faiti u Ihe oilleegiie of 
Annniiu, a. d. S79 ; the mother of Olybrini and 
Probinna, whoie joint coonlate haa been celebiated 
by Claodian ; and, accoiding to PncopiDt, the 
tnitnai by whom dw gate* <if Rome wen thrown 
open to Alaric and hii Qotfaa. Bnt Ihm wama to 
tw DO eTidenoa ftr thi> identification ; and we 
moatM back upon tin laitimonjof ludanu,with 
wb«e wordi, " Pnba mac Adalfii Pnconan}!!,*' 
oni hnowledga btgina and cndii, nnlna wa attadi 
weight to a natica finnd at tbe cod of on* of the 
MS. copta written in tbe tenth century, quoted by 
Uontfaneon in bia Diatiam Ilaliaim {f. 86), 
" Proba niot Adolphi malar Olibrii et Aljepii cmn 
Conitantii belhim adYenoa Uagnantiinn oonaoip- 
■itiat, conKripait et hime UbuDB." 

The only prednctioo of Falccoia now extant ti 
a CpiU/t Firy tf rtdiM, inicribed to the Emperor Ho- 
norini, in l«ma which prove that the dedication 
moat hare been written after ». D. 393, containing 
nanatiTea in beiamater Tena itf Mriking ereni* in 
the Old and New Teatament, eipreaied in linei, 
half linea, or ihoner portion of Unei derived tx- 
dnfivdy fnm the poema of Virgil, which are cqid. 
pletely eihanited in the procaM. Of caurae m 
praiiB, except what ia meritad by idle indnitry and 
clever dnlneaa, ii due to diii pMeh.worii ; and we 
cannot bat marvel at the goitla tenna employed 
by Boecaeia and Keniy Slepbnu in refareoce to 



n i* particolariy (pacified, bnt of 

uu. The ffmaumnwitnii, by mna 
9 Falconia, bidong in nality to Ed- 



the paatorali ctf CalpoRuna, togetiiar with acone 
hymni and other poema ; thii wai fbllawed, in the 
aune century, by the editioni pnbliihed at Rome, 
4IO. U8I i at Antwerp, 4lo. 1489, and at Briiia. 
SvD. 1496. The mart eLaboMe an thoae of Mei- 
bomina, Helmit. 4la. 1597, and of Krranayer, Hal 
Hagd. 8n>. 1719. (5w alaa tbe AtlfBOeoa Mac. 



FAuacos. 

Patrum, Lngdon. 1677, voL v. p. 1218 ; Indor. 
Orlg. i. 36. 25, de ScripL Ecda. 5.) [W. R] 

FA'LCULA, C, FIDICULA'NIUS, a Roman 
lenator. waa one of the judicei at the trial of 8la- 
tioi Albina Op^nanicna, whs in B. c 74 waa atcnted 
of attempting to piHWn hia atep-aon, A. Pnentioi. 
The biatory of thu remarkable trial ia given elte- 
whers [Ci-DKNTiue]. Faleala woa inrolved m ths 



S^ian 



majority of jndicea who con- 
demned Ofpianicna wa> very anBlL Falcnla wia 
asnued by the tribune, L. QoinliDa, of having beoi 
illegally balloted into Ihe condlinm by C Veirea, 
at that tune city pnetor, for the expreia pnrpeae of 
convicting OppiaiiicQa, of voting ont of hia proper 
dectiria, of giving acnteace irithout hearing tha 



brita &om the pioKator, A. 

He waa, however, acquitted, ainea hb trial did 

not take place until a&i the exdtement that fol- 
lowed the Judicium Albianmn bad in acsie meaanre 
•nbaidei. Bnt eigbt ynra laUr, B.C 66, Falcnla 
waa again brought to pobiic notice by Cicero, in 
hia deCenca of Cloentiiu. After ree^ntiilating tbe 
circnmataiicea of tha JndicJBm Albtinimi, Cicero 
aaka, if Falcnla wen innocent, who in the am- 
Oppianicna'a trial ccwld ba guiltyr ai 



B.t 74. 



name of Fkknla, a 



evidcDce. Gnat la- 
the hiatoij of Falcibb^ 
antted (Seen, fraa w b oae 
apeec h ea alone we know any tbiia of bim, to re- 
ptetent at diSianit timea, in di£nnt lighla, tha 
Jndidnm Albianam. When Cicera waa plnading 
againat C. Venea, Opjrianicua ma unjaMly eoa- 
demned, and Faknia waa an illegal compt jodge ; 
when he defended Clatatini, it waa neceaaaiy to 
BOften the detaila of the Albianam Jodicinm ; 
when he apoke tcr Caedna, it waa hia intareat ta 
direct public feeling againat Faknia. (Cib pro 
ClMaa. 87,41, pro Ctmii. 10 ; Paeodo-Aicou. ia 
Act. I. For. p. 146 ; SchoL GnDov. ta Atl. I. •■ 
^err. p. 396. ed. OnllL) [W. B. D.) 

FALlSCUS,ORATiUS,thaaa-' - ' 

upon tha ehaac, of whom only o 



andent writen. Tbia ia 
contained in the Epietlei ftom Pontna (iv. 1 fi, 33), 
where Ovid qwaki of him aa a eonlampoiai; ia 
tha mmt coiqilet with Virgil : — 
" Htyms antiqnaa et ent qai paacent berbaa, 
Aptaqne venanli Ontioa Euma daret" 
(Comp. Qwagul 21.) Scana linaa in Hauiliiia 
have baei •nppoaad to allnde to Oiatiiia, bat tbe 
tenia in wbiui tbey an aqoeaaed {Atttom. a. 43) 
an too vague to warrant mch a conidnaian. 
Wemadorf^ argning &em the noma, hai ende>- 
vonred, not without some ahadow of naaon, ta 
prove that he maat have been a alave or a freed- 
man, but tha nat of hi* conjectnni an men (an- 
laaiea. The cognomen, or epithet, ^Uiacaj, ww 
firat intndiad by Barth, on the authority vf m. 
HS. which m ona eUe ever aaw, and {cobably 
originated in a famed end GUae interpntation it 
one of tbe linea n the poenii " At contra noalria 

b,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



FALTO. 

DilicBim iim Pafini " (r. 40), vhne, apou rtSa- 
isag to the cootiit, it will St ODOe be leca that 
mmtrw ben drDota metclr /toJun, io contndu- 
tiDctHn to tbe vBiiom iucigD tribs qtoken of it 

The wnik ilMU, whkk wniiiu of £40 hexanw 
ten, n tstitled Ojmtgl^on Ltirr, ssd profmei li 
Ki £iRh tin •ppustiu (anta) neceuuy fbc ihi 



^cpBBd, and Dmencd 
the «nu ef the bsDlai 

(jaeii^ Bfji nf a), but alio honci and doga, and 
lane PDCtianof the andertakiiig (tv. ISO — 430] : 
inat of tbi di^rent 



the pvta, the aotbcs did not peaiMi and 
pawB In omnmae the obMadaa which wm iri- 
(B|ihaiit!r conbated b^ ViigiL The nwtUt aod 
■naagement of the tnatiae an iaini in a great 
i«L«te fton XaBophan, althongk iDbmotHm mi 
drawn fiva othn aDciatt aoucea, mdi aa Dorj- 
laa the Aicadua, and Hagaaa aS Boeotia. It ii 
naukable, that both the Oneh Oppiamu, who 
lliniiMhi il pnfaaUj imdir Gancallai and the Roman 
Nil liaiiin the ODHlanponrj' <£ Namenami*, 
■ingaiu to themaelrea the bouMU of haiisg eo- 
lend tqioB a path alngelJier tmtroddcs. Whathar 
m belieie liuaa to be aineete and igDoraot. or aua- 
peel than of ddibenle dUhoneatj, their bold 
■aiitiuu ii nffident to froie that the poem of 
FilMEH had in thdr daj become almoat tabdlf 



Tbe Cjriyrtwi baa been tmmitlad to modan 
tioB thno^ tlie mediBia oT a mb^ MS^ which 
wia bno^t frm Gaol to Italy by Aclina Saima- 

mi cantaiaed alao the Cfoegetica of Nanteaianiu, 
aad tbe Halieotio aaoibed U Orid. A mond 
eapf af the bit 169 linea waa found bj Janna 
(Jliliw atipaided to another M3. of the HalieuUct, 
The £duki FriDcepa wai printed at Venice, Sro. 
Febaary, 1534, Ij Aldoa Manatioa, in a Tolume, 
BMainiDg aln the Haliadiaa of Ovid, the Cgme- 
ftHiM and Gwmem Bmeoticum of NemeaiannB, the 
BmeaSco of Calpomiiu Sicolut, together with the 
Fmmtia of Hadiianni ; and lepdnled at ADsshnig 
m Ibejolj of the lame jeai. The beM ^tiana 

af Bamam (nL L Lt«. Bat. 1731), and of 
WanadocC ml. L p. 6, 393, iL p. 34, it. pL ii. 
p. 7M, 80A, T. pt. iiL p. 144S), whoae pnlegomena 
iMlaaiii an ihe ntoiate prdjiniiiary infocmatiou. 

A traniktion into Bn^Uh vane with notei, and 
the I^ia Uxt, b; Chiutopber Waie, waa pub- 
hihfd M Londoa in 1654, and a tiantlation into 
Geisa>, nlBB mttikal, t^ S. E. 0. Perlet, at 
Lc^pau, m IS2«. [W. R.] 

FALTO, tbe ■ - 

torn. 

I. Q. Vuuiva Q. r. P. N. FuTo, 



a &milj of tlw Valeria 



FANOO. 131 

firtt Piaelor PengiiDDa at Ronu (Did ^AnL 
I. v. Pmtor). The occaiion for a lecond pnelo^ 
■hip wa^ that the wnr with Carthage required two 
conunandera, and A. PoUumini Albmni, one of the 
eonioli far the jear B. c 342, being at the time 
prieit of Mara, wa« fothidden b; the PoDliCea 
Maiiniua to loive the citf. Falls wai Mcond in 
cinuiiand of the fleet which, in that jeai, the hut 
of the fint Panic war, the Ronuuu di^tehed an' 
der C. Lutatiui Catului [CAtULua] uainit the 
Carthaginiana in Sidlj. After Catuloa ud been 
diaahled b j a woand at tha litge of Diepanum, the 
active duliea of the campaign devolved on Falto. 
Hia conduct at the battle of tb« Aegatea ao much 
contributed to the victory of tha Bomana that, on 
tha tatum of the Seat, Falto demanded to ahare the 
triumph of Catoliu. Uti chiim waa rejected, on 
the ground that an inferior officer had no title to 
the HCTWiip enae of tbe chief in command. The 
dictate wi* leietred toarbilration; and the aikrila, 
Atilini Caktinui, decided againit Falto, alleging 
that, ai in ^ Held the conaul'ii orden took pnoe- 
deuce of tbe piaelor'i, and aj the praetor*! an^iicea, 
in caae of diuaila, were alwaje held inferior lo the 
GOmul^a, K> toe triumph waa exduaively a coniular 
diiiinction. Tha people, however, thought that 
Falto merited the boDDur, and he accordingly 
triumphed on the Gth of October, B.C. 241. Folio 
waa cimiui in b;c. *J39. (Liv. jS^iix. ; Fait. 
Capil. ; Val.Mai.L I. g S, ii. B. g2.) 

2. P. Vu-Kuva Q. r. P. s. Falto, bnriher of 
thepreceding, wa* coniul in B. c 238. The Boian 
Oauli, after having been M peace with Rome for 
nearly half a century, in thii jfar reaomed hosti- 
litiea, and formed a league with their kindred 
tribca en tLe Fo, and with tha Liguriaoi. Falto 

1 a couanlar aimy againit them, 
the fint battle wi£ great loik 
oewi of hii dc4eal, ardcred ana 
of the praetori, M. Oennciui Cipu [CipUb], to 
hii relieC Fallo, however, r^jaided tbii 
truiion into hia pTDvince, and, before the 
leinlbtcement arrived, attacked tbe Boiani a Mcond 
lam. But CD hia lelom to Home 

of bii deteat, bat becaoie he had raihly fought 
with B beaten army withoat awaiting the arrival of 
-'e praetor. (Zosar. viiL le i Oroa. iv. 12.) 

3. H. Vai^buu* Falto, one of the envoy* aent 
by the teoate, b. c 305, to AtCalui I. king of Per- 

Their miiaion wa* to fetch the Idaean 
D Italy, according lo an injuoction of the 
Sibylline Booki. Falto wa* of quaeatonAn lank 
; thia time, but the date of hia qnaeitonhip ia not 
nmm. On tbe return of the envoyi to Borne 
Fallo waa tent forward to annoonce the meauge of 
(he Delpbic oiade, which they had coaiultcd on 
'' ■ journey, to the aenale— " The beet man in 
ale mnit wekome the goddeta or her lepte- 
lentatlve on her landing." (Liv. nii. II.) Falto 

- a> one of the eumle aedile% B. c 303, when a 
ipply of Spuiiih grain enabled tboae magiitmlea 
I leU com to the poor at a ■eatercs the buiheL 
ax.26.) Fallo wu praetor B.C 201. Hi* pro- 
vince wai Bmtliam, and two legiooi were allotted 

- him, (jna. 40, 41.) [W. B. D.) 
FANOO, or PHANQO, C. FUFI'CIUS, ori- 
ginally a common uldier. and probably of African 
bhwd, whom Juliut Caeau raiied to the rank of 
Knalor. When, in &c. 40, Octavianut annexed 
Nnmidin and part of tbe Roman Alhca lo hii ihare 



4,i,.=.otGoOQ[c 



196 



FANNIU8. 



of the tnimiTin] pioriiina, he appointed Fango Ui 
PRfect. Bat hi> tille in fiamidia nu oppoMd bj- 
T. Sextiut, tin prefect of M. AnloniD*. Thcj ap- 
pealsl to Bmu, and after mutual defeaU and tkta- 
tiei, Fango vu drireTi into the hilla that bounded 
tha Roman pioricce to the north-weiL There, 
miitakiug the nzibing of a troop of wild bu&loet 
foa oigbt attack of Nonudianbone, he ilew hiin- 
•dt (Dion Caib ilTiii. 22—34 ; Ap;Man, B. C. 
y. 26.) In Cieero'i e^De) to Atticu« (lir. 10,), 
Pramgimet it probablj a mJjitadiDg for f oMonti, 
and nfan to C. Fnfidua. [W. E O.} 

FA'NNIA. 1. AwomanofUintunicofiad 
npBta. C. Tiliniui mamed her, aeTettheleH, 
became ihe had omiidetshle property. Soon afiei 
he repudiated lier for her bad conduct, and at the 
auM time attempted to rob her of her Aavrj. C. 
Harini, iriio i™ to decide between Ihem, lequeited 
Tttinina to reatore the dowry ; hot when thii wai 
nfoMd, C. Matioi pronounced lenience, declaring 
the woman gnUtj n adultery, but compelling her 
' ' * ' re ha dowry, becaoH ha had map- 

' ' ' »w what the waa. 
, , id the aerrice thui 

done to her, and, when Mariui, in B. c. 88, on hik 
eacapv from the marehea, came to Mintumae, 
Fannia receired him into her houH, and took care 
of him ai well at ihe could. (VaL Max. liii. 2. 
fS ; Plul. Mar. SB, who eirooeonily calli her htia- 
band Tinniui .} 

2. The aecoiMl wife rf Helndioi PriKni. In 
the nign of Nero, when her hoiband waa exiled, 
■ ' ■ ■ " ' ■ In Ihe nign 



pemuded I 
HelTidina t 



Kelvidina Priicut. The biographer wu put v 
death by Domttian, and Fannia wu puniihed fo 
her tnggeatiou by being tent into exile. (Plin 
^id. L 5, Tii IS ; Suet. Ve^. 16.) [L. S.] 

FA'NNIA OEN3, plebeian. Ha memben of 
it an mentioned in RoDun hiatoiy prtTiaui to th ~ 
lecond century B. c, and the Gnt of them who ol 
tuned the CDniulihip WW C. Fanniui Strsbo. in B.> 
161. The only fiunily-name which occura in th 
gena under the republic ia Stilabo : the othen ai 
mentioned without a cognomen. There aie a fe' 




the obTens a head of PalUa, and on the nrerK 
VietoiT m a qoadri^ with v. rxn. c F. [ L.S.] 

FA'NNIUS. 1. C. FANMin wa* tribune of 
the people in B. c 1S7. When L. SciiHo Aaisti- 
eoa vai •eatenced to pay a Urge nun of money lo 
the tnaanry, the praetor, Q. Terentini Culleo, de- 
clared, that he would arreit and impriion Scipio, if 
he refiued to pay the money. On that cccaiion C. 
Fannim declared in hii own name and that of hie 
colleagnet (with thn exception of Tib. Oracchai), 
that they would not hinder the praetor in tarrying 
hia thnat into tSrcL (LIt. xixiiiL 60.) 

i. C. Farnii's, aRomau equea,i>alledayraftr 



FANNItTS. 

pmHunt of TitiniuB, and had ic 
with C. Verree in «. c 84. (Cic. ta Verr. L 19.1 
S, M. FAHNiua, waa one of the jodicei in the 
caag (Qvastu da Sicttria) of Sex. HoMio of 
Ametia, in b. c. SO. (Cic jm Sar. Kotc 4 ; Scbol. 
OronoT. ad RoancH. p. 427, ed. Oreill) 

4. L. FAMHiua and L. Magiai i^red m the 
aimy of the legale FlaviuB Funbiia, in the wax 
againil Hrthridatea, in n. c 84 ; but Uiey deurtcd 
and vent over to Mithridatei, whoRi ibey per- 
■naded to enter into oegotialiDUa with Sertorioi in 
Spain, through whoie aauatance be might obtain 
the ■areteignly of Alia Minor and the neighboB^ 
ing CDontriea. Uithridat«t entered into the echeiue, 
and tent the two deaertera, in a. c. 74, to Seilarioi 
lo oonclude a treaty with him. Sertoriun promtied 
Mithridatei Bilhynia, Paphlagonia, Cappadocia. 
and Oallognecia, aa reward* for auiiting bim 
againit the Romana. Sertotioi at once aent M. 
Variui to KTte Mithridatea ai generul, and L. 
Fanniua and L. Maglui accompanied him ai hii 
conndllon. On their adiice Mithridatea btgao 
hii third war againit the Ronuuii. In coniequiDCe 
of their dewrtjon and treachery Fanniui and 
Magina were declared pablic enemiea by the le- 
nale. We aftenraidi find Fanniui commanding a 
detachment of the aimy of Mithridatei a^nit 
LocuUui. (Appian, MOirid. 68 ; Plut. Setlar. 24; 
OroL Ti. 2 ; Cic n Farr. L 34 ; Pieudo-Aicon. 
m rerriiLp. 183, ed. Olelli.) 

5. C. Fanniub, one of the penoni who lignnl 
the accuaation which waa brought againat P. Cle- 
diui in B. c. 61. A few yean later, B.C; 69, ha 
waa mentioned by L. Vettini al an accnnpliee in 
the alleged conapiracy againit Pompey. (Cic ad 
AU. ii. 24.) OreUi, in hit Oaomaaticon, tnMi 
him ai identical with iho C. Fannioa who wu 
tribune in B. c 69 ; but if thia were correct. 
Cicero ((. c) would undoubtedly hare deicribed 
him aa tribune. He may, however, be the lame 
ai the Fanniui who waa lent in B. c. 43 by H. 
Lepidna aa legate to Sex. Pompeiei, and who, at 
the doie of the lame year, waa Dotlaired, and took 
refuge with Sex. Pompciui in Sicily. In b. c 36, 
when Sex. Pompeiu had gone to Aaia, Fannini 
and other* deemed him, and went oTer to M. 
Antoniui. (Cic. PMipp. liii, 6 ; Appian, J). C ii. 
84, T. 139.) 

6. C Finn I UR, tribune of the people in b.c. 
£9, when C. Julim Csw and BibiOua wan MD- 
Bula. Fanniui allowed himaaK te be made me of 
by Bihulna in oppoaing the lu qrrana of J. 
Caeiar. He belm^ed to the parly of Pompey, 
and in B. c 49 he went ai piutor lo Sicily. The 
bll of Pranpey in Ihe year alter aeemi to ban 
brought about the &11 of Fanniui alio. (Cic pn 
Sal. S3, M Vata. 7, od .dtt. tIL 15, riii. 16, 



■ina, in B.C 42. (Appian, A a iT. 72.) 
may be the nme a* the C. nmnini menti 
by Joaephui (^fi(. ^wLxIt. ID. § IS), who, how- 
erer, describei him ai orpoTTfyili ll*wret, (bo lait 
of which wordi ii protably incorreeL 

8. C. Fanniub, a contemporary of the younger 
Pliny, who waa the anthor of a work on the 
dealhi of peraODi executed or exiled by Nero, under 
the title i^ Britu Ooatanm aul Rtl^aiormm. It 
coniiited of three book), but mote would hare been 
added if Fanniui had liTed longer. The work 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



FAUCIU8. 
n KOut of it! itjle and iu nbJMt. {PKo. 
EfiLT.i.) [L.&] 

FATiNIOS CAETIO. [CAiFia] 
FATJNIUS CHABltEAS. [CHiwun] 
WNNIirS QUADRATUS. [QuiiiBiTURl 
FA'SCELIS, ■ nunuiHi of Divu in iBly, 
wbid ihe wu bcliend Id hne Roived Ctom tfac 
dmmMance of Omta baring bnught hsr inuga 
hra Turii in h bnndle of iticki {/iuai. Sett, 
at Aim. a. 116 ) SbUd. i. 2 ; SiL IuL iit. 2G0). 
FuoUa, however, ii probably ■ corruption, for the 
pnrpoK gf iwHL^>n^ it nUnde to ths %taTj of Omt» 
hrininii ber innge &qdi Tuuii : the oiiguul fonn 
of IV BKiH wu prob«bl7 Fioelii or Fuelioa 
(firnjii), u the goddei* wu geneimlly repre- 
nitd with ■ toreb in hei hand. [L. S.] 

FA'SCINUS. an oii; Latin dinnit;, and 
idraliia] with Mnlinm or Tutintu. He wiu war- 
■lil;>prd tM the protector [rom hthtj, vitebnaft, 
■ad »il damoni ; and lepmcnted in (he fiuia of 
■ pbiUn^ ibe gcDDine I^tin for which a fiian m ii , 
im ijnbal being belieTtd to be moil efficient in 
■ratiiw all evil infloencnp He wai eepecially 
iinikid to protect women in childbed and tfaeir 
■Apfing (Plin. Hut. Nat. Iiiiil 4, 7) i uid 
wtata mnp* np in tbe toga pnetaita uied to 
At np Mcnficea in tbe cbipel irf Fueinni. (Panl. 
Diie. p. 103.) Hii wonhip wai under Ibe care 
if dieVfttal* ; and generoli, who entered the citj 
m triomph, bad tbe ijmbol of F^iacinaft fattened 
miler their chariot, that be might protect tbem 
frna enrj (nHifKH Hrarfinc), for eniy waa be- 

■V) were eiiTicd. (Plin. I. e.) It wo* a cuitom 
■ilb tbe RoQuna, when thej praiied an^ body, 
to add the word praefitdiu or pra^uchtl, which 



pnwra DB whom it wu beitowed. [L. S.] 

F.^STIDIUS. a Briiiib bithop placed, aa to 
(iiH, by Oenuajiina, between Cyril of Akiondria 
•od TbeodDtni of Ancyio, One tnct by thii aa- 
Ibir.atilled De Vita Chriitiiaa, it itiJl extant, bat 
wai l«g aicribed to St. Augvitin, or to aome nn- 
kaavo writer, until rettored to ita lawful owner 
jrr Hiriiteniu, wbo published an edition at Rome 
ia IS6S, from an ancient M3. in tbe monnitery of 
HDDte Cauno. It will be foiwd in the BiUkOtia 
FOnm of Galland (toL ii. p. 491] and 
t«"i™ upon Faatidiua biroMlt '" ''" "~ ' 
(^ udi.). Oennadlna oacribea to nun anotner 
vork, Di VHmilali Smmda, irhicb, bowevef, 
led in tbe piece mentioned 
1 ehaplct A Triptid Vidmi- 
~K [W. R.] 

U. FAU'CTUS. a natire of Aipinum, of 
faotrion rank, at Rome. H{> life would be on- 
dwrnng neord but for it* connection wilb a letter 
af Cicem'i (Fam. xiJL 11), which incidentaHy 
throw! Eght upon tbe local goremnient and cir- 

binhphfe of Marini and Cicero. The Arpinatian 
"■anmitj poueiaed eitttea in Ciialpine Oau], the 
wna ef whiek we« their only fond for the repair 
af ibeir templea and the ' * ' 



iutiiaia. Fanona 



! of three 



•Udi tke dale of the letter, i. c (6, tendeta it 
' ' le that the diil wan had eauwd to 
CicETO Rcommendi Fsuciiu and 
o U. finitni, wbo waa 



pi>etor of Ciaalpiiw Oaal. It appeart from the 

letter that the only magiitracy in Arpinnm waa 
an aedileahip, owl tbi* &et addi to out acquaintance 
with tbe internal goreminent of Italy under the 
dominion of Rome- Thui, Larinium had a die- 
Ulor ( Cic pro Mi!. 10), Tuculnm a dictator ( Lt*. 
ill 18); Coriiniuni, DnnmTiri {Caeiar, B. C. I 
23) ; Neapolia, Cnmae, I^rinum, Quatoorriri (Cic 
odAIL I. lS,pro Clwat. 6) ; Sidicinam and FereD- 
tum a quaeitor {GelL X. 3). For the Faucia Cacia 
lee Liy. ix. 38. [W. B. D.l 

FAVENTl'NUS, CLAU'DIUS, a centurion 
diimiued vitb ignominy by the emperor Galba 
horn the lerrice, who afterwardi, A.D, 69, by ex- 
hibiting forged leltan, indaeed tbe fleet at Mite- 
nnm to rarolt fron Vitellini to Vnpuiao. (Toe. 
Hilt, ill &7.) From bii inflnence vitb the fleet, 
Farentinna may bare been one of tbe cloiaiarii 
militea, or legio claana, vbom Nen, A.n. GB, 
diafied fma the «»""»" , and Oaiba reduced U 
their former atation. (Suet. Ga/i. 12 ; Pint. 
GaO. 15; Tae. Hiil. i. 6,31, 37; Dion Caaa. 
liiT. 3.) [W. a D.] 

FAULA or FAUNA waa, according to aonte, a 
concubine of Heradea in Italy; while, according 
to othen, ibe wu tbe wib or aialei of Faunua. 
Latinue, vbo if called a aon of Heradea by a eor^ 
cubine, wu probably coniideivd to be the Hn of 
Faohi ; wbeieu tbe cnmnion tndition deicribei 
him u a (on of Faunua. Fanla wu identified by 
KHne of tbe ancienti with the Qreetc Apbrodite. 
(Verr. Flacc ap. LaetonL dt Fait. Itttig. \. 20, IniL 
Ep. adPntlad. 20; c«mp. F^imLia.) [L. S.] 

FAUN OS, the aon of Picui aud &ther of La- 
tinuB, wu the tbitd in the Kriea of the kingi of 
the Laurmtei. In hia reign Faunua, like hit two 
predeceuon, Ficui and Saturn, bad promoted agri- 
culture and tbe breeding of cattle among hia anb- 
jeeta, and alio diitingniabed himaelf u a bunter. 
(Ptin.H.iV.ii.e ;Propert.iT.2.S4.) Inhiinign 
riie the Arcadian Erander and Heraelea weis 
belieied to ban arriied in Latium. (PluL PataO. 
: Rom. 3B.} Fannut acti a rery ptominent 
in the mythical hiitory of I^tium, for, indo- 
'Ut of what he did for agriculture, be wu re- 
garded u one of the grat fonnden of the religion 
' ' country ; hence Lact)>ntiui(L 2t, g 9)placei 
m an equality with Numa. Hs wu there- 
a later timet worahipped in two diatinct c^b- 
; brtt, u the god of lieldi and ahepberde, 
and tecondly, ai on oracular and prophetic divinity, 
Tbe fettiial of the Faunolia, vbich wu Klebrated 
I the 5lh of December, by the country people, 
ilh great fruting and merriment, bad refeienca 
bitn M tbe godof agricultureondcattle. (KoraL 
Cann-iii. 18.) At oprophetic god,bewut«lie»ed 
irai tbe future to man, partiy in dreoma, atid 
partly by Toicea of unknown origin. (Virg. Am, 
Tii. SI, &c i Cic. <i6 Nat. Dtor. iL 2, iiL 6, da 
Dttim. L iS.) What he vu in thja retpecl to tbe 
mate tez, hia wife Fauna or Faula waa to tbe 
female, whence they bore tbe aumamea Fatma^ 
FalMO, or FataeUmi, FatneOa, derived firan fori, 
fatum. (Juitin, iliii. 1 ; Lactant i. 22.) Tbey 
are laid to hate giren ll' '" '" ° — 



nayperb 



I infer t 



itted in Latimc 
(Varro, de £. £. v 
Buch oraclet were gi 
near Tibur, around the well Albnnen, and another 
~ e Aventine, near Bona. (Virg. Lc.iOt. 



138 FAVONIUS. 

FiuL IT. 649, Ac) Ths ciln obKrted in 

[Dtmd pUa m nunatilf deKribad b; Vit^ 



L nSered up a ilieep and other ucrificet ; and 
the pflnon who cooBaJled the oncle had lo t\' 
one aigbt on the ikin of the Tietim, daring wh 
ths god gita in ui>v«r to hi* qoeitioni either i 
dreun or in loinnMBnl Toicei, Similu ril«t 
deioibed hj Orid H baTing ttkoD pUco on 
Aientina. (Camp. Indor. Tiii. II, 87.) There 
il ft ttaditiffli that Numa, bj a atiatagem, com 
pcUgd Ficiu and hii wa Faimui to nnal to hin 
the Mcrat of oiling dawn ligbCoing frDin faenei 
[Eucius],>Bd of pnri^dng things Mnck by light 
Diog. [Amob. T. i 1 Plat. A'aia. 15 ; Ot. FaM. 
iiL29l,Ac) At Rome then ni ■ nmnd ten 
of Faunai, nnvoiided with colimuii. on He 
Caeliu ; and another wm built to him, in : 
19G, on the iiland in the Tiber, vbere neril 
Tore offered to him oa the idea of Febmarj, Che 
daj oa iriiieh the Fabii had periihed on the Cle- 
men. (Idi. nxiiL 42, xixii. 53 ; P. Viet. Jin. 
Uri.2f VilTOv. iiL 1; Or. FatL iL 193.) la 
coDMqneace of the manner in which he gare hi) 
omclea, he irai looked npon aa the aathor of ipec- 
tnl Bppeaiancea and tertifjing aonudt (Dioa^ 
T. 16) I and he il theiefore deacribad ai a waulon 

tho god manifeated hinuelf leona Eo have giTen 
liae to the idea of a plurality of faons (Faooi), 
who an dcaaibed aa mmiteia, half goat, aiid 
with borat. (Or. J^mL t. 99. Hiroid. it. 49.) 
Fuinni that gnull<iall7 came w be identified with 
the Anadian Pan, and die Faooi aa identiol widi 
the Oieek ntjia, whence Ond (MtL n. 392) 
aiei the upmnon ^onin ti Sa^f* fialrtt. Ai 
Fiunui. and aftetwaidi lb* Faoui, wen iMliared 
to be paiticolarij fond of frightening penoni in 
rarioiu waya, it i* not an imjxobafale conjecture 
that Fanniu maj be a enphemiitic name, and con- 
nected witfaTbiw. {Hartimg^ Dii Bitig. i. Rem. 
Tol.ii.p. 183,&c) [L.S.] 

U. FAVO'NIUS il mentioned for tiie £rn cima 
in B. c Gl, during the tnnactioni igainit P. 
Glodiiu for having riolated tlie eacra of the Bona 
Dm. On that onauon he joined Colo, irit«o 
Btemneia he imitaled thtonghont life, inhiiattackt 
upon the connl Piao for defending Cladiua, and 
duplajed gieat leal in the maU«. The year 
alter, he accuaed Metellui Sdpio Naaica, probably 
of bribenr. Cicem defended the accoied, at which 
Fannio* wai lonieirhat ofleoded. Id ibe aaou 
jeai he ned, a Hcond time, tor the trihuneahip, 
bat he doea not appeal to hare woceeded, for there 
il iko eridenoe to prove that he waa invoited with 
that office, and C ae aa r, Pompey, and Cibhu, who 
at the end of the year condnded their treaty, and 
wefe well awan that Faranint, although he waa 
h.fmlt, might yet be a Tory troublaaome oppo- 
nent, preboUy eieited their inSuence to pnvent 
hia pining lua end. Aboot that tone Pompey 
wai nfieiiiig fmn a bad foot, and when ha ap- 
peared in pabtic with a white bandage round hu 
teg, FaTonina, in alloiion to hi* aiming at the n- 
premacy in the Roman republic, mnaiked that it 
wai indiSerent in what part of the body the royal 
diadem (bandage) wai worn. It ihoold be re- 
marked that FaTonina, although be belonged to 
the party of the Optinialei, wai yet a penonal 
enemy of Ponpey. In n. c £9, when J. Caeiar 



FAVONIUS. 
biTebeen the but of all the ienaUn that »« p». 
vailed upon to aanctiim the lex asraria of Cbism, 
and not until Cato hinuelf bad ywlded. In a. c. 
£7, when Cicero piopoied that Pompey ahoald be 
entruiled with the nperinteiMleDce of all the ntp- 
pliei of com, Favoniniwaa at the head of theoiipo- 
utioa party, and became itill more indignant at 
the conduct of the tiibnne Meadui, who claimed 
almoit Delimited power for Pmnpey. When Pto- 
lemy Auletea, the exiled king of Egypt, had 
canaed the muider of the ambaaiadrav whom the 
Aleiandiiani had lent to Rome, Favoniai openly 
charged him in the aenata with the oima, and at 
the aune time nnniaiked the diigtaceful coudoct of 
Komau who had been bribed by the king. 



In the y 



r fbllon 



impey v 



innilted daring the trial of Milo, Favoniai 
and other Optimatei rejoiced in the •enale at iba 
affront thiu oSered to him. In the facond eoa- 
aolifaip of Pompey and CnHu, in a, c £5, the 
ttibuna Tieboniiu fannght ibnnrd a bill that 
Spain and Syria •baold be given to the cenra]* 
fat five yeara, and that Caenr*! procenealihip of 
Oanl ihould be prolonged for the came p^od. Cato 
and Fatonini oppoied the lull, bat it wai carried 
by force and violence. In n. c. 5t, FaTouin^ 
Cioero, Bibnlii*, and Calidioa ipoka in ftwavi at 
the freedom of the Tenediani. In tlie year fol- 
lowing Favoniai ofiwed hinuelf ai a candidate fat 
the Bedileihip, 1nit waa rejected. Cato, bowever, 
obierved, that a gioia deception had been piadiied 
in the voting, and, with the aiiiilance of the 
tribunea, he canted a freeb election to be inili- 
toted, the reault of which waa that hi< &imd vai 
inteiled with the office. During the year of bia 
aedileihip. he left the adminiitialion of a&in and 
the oelebratiDa of the pmei (o hii &iend Cato. 
Towaidi ths end aS the year, he wu thrown into 
pri»n by the tribune, Q. Pompeiui Rufoi, foe 

offence, the namre of which it unknown ; 

coiding to Dion C^uiiue, Rufui impriaoncd 
him merely that he might have a cranpanion in 
diigiace, Inaving hinuelf been imptiioned a ihcrt 
"'" bdore I bat lome think, and with grslet 

'""~ """"» it wai to deter Favoniai from 
tatonhip of Pompey, which it wai 
intended to p(^»se. In a. c fi^ Ciceni, in bii 
defbnos i^ Hilo, mentions Favoniui ai the petaon 
to whom Clodini wa> leported to have aaid, that 
Milo in three or fbnr dayi would no longer ba 
among the living The condeomation of MQo^ 
' wever, look place, notwithitanding the exertiani 
■avs him, in which Cato and Favoniu* probably 
ik put. In 51 Favonini wed for tba praetor- 



ii powble that he vrai candidate for 
the ume office in ^e year 60 alio, and that in 49 
Lted with it. In thii yeat be and 
the pniponl that a aupplioUui should 
1 hononr of Cicero, who waa well 
diipoied towaidi both, and who ^^uan to have 
been greatly inilated by thii ili^L 
The dv)l war between Caaar and Pompey 
dpring the praetorihip of Favonioa, who 
have been the fint to tannt Pompey by 
reqoeiting him to (all forth the legions by stamp- 
ing hii foot on the gronnd. He fled at first with 
the coninli and several lenaton to O^ioa, and waa 
the only one who would not liiten to any pnpoaala 



mbelwe 



: but in 



b,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



PAVORINUS. 

joined Ub ind lh> Optinuda, vben they mot 
mrr M Oiaa. Ib B. c 48, vn find him mgiged 



sncm with eight 
aliatto, VI* taken bj mrpriis b^ Domitiiu Cu- 
ti&Ut tttd vu iBTid onlj bf the ijwfidj zMnm 
ii( MeuJtiu Sci[Mi. Up to Ibe lart momoit F»- 
•miia winU not hax of Ktj neonciliatiiin. 
Afur tbi imfaHiuile ionw of tho bUda of Phar- 
■Ib, Finaiii, lunRnr, aEted u a bitUnl friand 
Itnrdi Poopejr: ba Mwnifiiitd him in hi* Sight, 
ai ibtnd bni tb« peUeot Irindnen ind Utention. 
Aftnlbe death rfPonper, be ntnnied to Italy, 
ud mi pudDDBd by J. Caenr, m whow npn- 
ntj be uqniaiead, haridg gtiiied Iha eoDTictuHi 
(in maatdif wai better &ui qtiI wsi. For 
tb nana the con^Bnttm i^uott the liie of 
Cttar did oat *tteBpt (o diaw him into tbeir 
fta; tat after the naidar wu aeeompliihed, he 
•fmlj joiud the conqiiiaton, and vmt whji Ihen 
k the C^mL When BnHo* and Camni mm 
cUipd to IcdTg Rone, he Mowed then, and wu 
•urdm^y Dotlaw^ in K. c 43, by the lex Pedia, 

■BK eid importDDate ally to the repabli^oia, and 
is 42, wbes he [Bauuial to inflnance Brntua and 
CuKB at tbeir neeting at Saidii, Biubu thniit 
Ilif iatradtr oat of the home. In the battle of 
PUKppi Fanmna wa> taken priioner, and on being 
Ird ia chain! be&n the eonqneron, he reapactfidly 
■haed Antcnj, but indnlgHl in bitKr ioiectiTea 
■fuat OctafButu, for bafing ordeted teieral re- 
[■Uiana to be pot to death. The amteqaence 
nt, B be ndght b*Tfl expected, dial be net 
nih ibe lame Site. 



er and of conduct 
and imitation of Cato, in 

w e( the ape of Cain. The 
in all caaei where we ta 

aaion, pemmal animonty, j 
K Cato, Lhe conaideration oF the pablic good 
kfiaj M ihan in them. Hii ooly honoonble 
•eMa ii the ctndnct he ehoired toward* Fompey 
itui kit deieat. He and L. pMlnmhu an admi- 
aHf chaiKMriaed by the Pwudo-^llnit (ad 
Cm. 1 p. 27 S, ed Oerlach] aa jus magmae iHtu 
■Vmna mera. He teemi to baie had aame 
Bleat u an oialor, at leaat wa kuov from Cicen 
ihu be ipiAe in public on eeteral 

n of hia eatery baa 



(Ccai 



i. 1,4 



I, 15. IT. II, a 



«K /v. iL 3, 1 1, oif Fam, riii. 9, 1 1, firo MU. 9, 
1« : VaL Hbi. tl 2. g 7 ; Plut. Cat. Min. 33. 46, 
P-mp. SO, S7, BnL 12, 34, Caa. 41 ; Dion Cm. 
nniii 7,xxbi. 14, 34, &e. iL 45.i1tL 48, ilviL 
4):CBs.S.aiU.S6: VelLPaLiL63; Appian, 
&<iail9,&c; SDeLfMoe. 13.) [L. S.] 
FAVOTdUS EULCaiUS. [EuLootua.] 
FAVORrNUS, ■ I^tin onlor, of whom 
■Mbing ii known, except that Oellina (xr. B) ha* 
piaened a ftagaisit of one oF hi* araliotM in eup- 
fatvltUn ItdaiaikaimlMimaimb. Tbeqaee- 
liia M to who lhJ> Panvinu, and what thi* 
I«iiiiBii kw WM, deeerrea ume atlentian. A Ro- 



PAV0RINU8. I3S 

Farorinn*, il would be arbitrary to make any nicta 
alteiatioo, and we muR ucquiem in wlut we 
ieam from Gelliue. A) fjr Uie lex Lidnia here 
■poken o^ Hacrobini (ii. 1 3), in ennnerating the 
(omptoBiy lawa, mention! one which was tarried 
by P. Liciniiit Cnaini Direi, and which ia. in alt 
probability, the one which waa inpported by FaTo- 
linua. The exact year in whicb thit U* wa* pro- 
toalEBted ia uncertain ; lome tMiga it to the cen- 
eorahipof LidnioeCraiaui, h. c- 69, oChen to hie 
conralibip in >. c 97, and otheia, again, to hii 
trihuDeihip, B. c 110, or hia piaetonhip, B.C. 104. 
The poet Lndljni i* known to haTe mentioned thii 
law in hia Salirea ; and *• tbat poet died in B. c 
103, it iiatun; rata clear that the law moit haTe 
been carried preTioui to the connlibip of Liciniua 
Ciaiana, i. a. preiiou to B. c 97- (H. Jdejsr, 
/Vt^at-Opoi. ftoiifcp.207,4c„2dedit.) [L.&] 
FAVORl'NCS. (*af«rw».) 1. A ;diilwipheT 
and (otdiitt of the time of the empenr Hadrian. 
He wai a natire of Arlea, in the louth of Oaol, 
and i* laid to bare been bom an Hennaphndila 
oraneunneh. (Pbiloctr. ra.jb;)*. i. 3. 1 1 ; Ln- 
eian, £W)tnL 7 t OelL ii. 22.) On one ocouion. 
hoverer, a Roman of lank bronght a charge of 
adultery againtt him. Ha appeaia to bare riutsd 
Romo and Greeee at an eariy age, and be ac- 
qnind an intimate acquaintance of the Greek and 
I«lin langnagei and liteiatare. Theae atlajnmanta 
combined with great philoaopbical knowledge, 
•----— leaniiiig, and coniideiable oratorud 






both a 



put* with him, aitd M into diagcaca, vhenDpoa 
the Athenian*, to pleaae the enpam, deatn^^ 
the bronae ■latne wbieb Ibe; bad preriowy 
erected la FaTorinuo. He ued to boaat of three 
thing* : that bein a eunaeh he had been chained 
with adalteiy, ^at although a natire of (hal 
he apoke and wrote Oraek, and that ho con- 
tinned to life although he had offended the em- 
penr. (Philortr.I-a;I>iDnCaia.liii.3; Spartian. 
Hadr, 1 6.) FaTninna waa connected by intunate 
friendafa ip with Demetrin* of Alexandria, Demetriua 
the Cynic, Conwliiu Fionto, and opedally with 
Phitarch, who dedicated to him hi* tread** on the 
principle of cold (vtpl rav wp<im Vyxpov), and 
among whoae loal woika we hare mention of ■ 
letter on bieodihip, addnaaed to Fairariinia. He- 
rodea Atticna, who wat likewiae on inliniatc tema 
with him, looked up to him with great eateem. 
and Faioiinu* bequeslbed to him hit library and 
hia hoiue at Rome. FaTOiinui foe aome time re- 
aided in Aua Minor ; and at he wat highly bo- 
Donnd bj die E;dieaian*, be excited the envy and 
beatility of Polemon, then the moat &moiu eophiit 
at Smyrna. The two K>phiita attacked each other 
in their declamation* with griBt billeineu and 



kini' 



Uewi 



' Tery fond of diiplaying hia leamuig 
%, and va* alway i paniculaiiy am- 
ion* u pieate hi* audience. Hia exIentiT* know- 
ledoo ia further attested by hia nnmeroui wotk*, 
and the variety of aubjectt on which he wrote. 
None of hi* woriu, hoveTCr, hat come down to 
ua, nideta we auppoae with £mpetiut, the lale 
editor of Dion Chryeottomua (in a diatcrtation de 
Orpine CoriiUlaata ftjta Dion Chrip. adtctifla. 



p. 10, Ac Bruiuiig. 1833), that Ibe onUon at 
Corinth, commoiilj printed unong thaw of Dior 
Cbrftaitotimt, a the wotIi of Faiorinui. Th( 
following an the title* o! the princi(^ irsrki 



TBoIoi, prohehly coniiiiing oE three booki, which 
vere dedicated retpectirelj to Hadnen, Drjun, 
and Ariitarchui. (Onlen, toL i. p. 6.) 2. 'AAici- 
tiiirit. [Oalen,iT. p. 367.) 3. A woik oddreued 
^o Epictetui, which called forth a repi; fkiin Oalen 



(i.. p. SI7). 



, A work on Socrato, which vai 



: allacked by Gulen (it. p. 369). B. lUnf- 
npx't fl "pt -TV' Ainiiivuiriti AiaWoMii. (Galen, 
L p. 6.) 6. nrpt U^armwal. (Suidai.) 7. Ui/i 
T^t'U)iij|MH*.Anr<i4^at. (Suidai.) 8. ni>|l^»« 
Tpiroi, ia len boolu, aeema to bare been hit princ 
pd work, (Pbiloilr. Vil. Si^ >. B. § i ; Gel 
xi. S.) FaTorinni in thii worii ihowed that lb 
philoKiplij of Pylrhon wai aiefnl to thoiewho di 
Toted ItieUHlvei to pleading in the court* of ju: 
tic«. 9. namiSawi 'Irrajija, coniUtiogof at teai 
eight hooka, probably contained biitoricol, geogra- 
phical, and other kind* of infonnation, (Oiog. 
Lae'rt. iii. 34, riii. 12, 17.) 10. 'ATo^uiifuinS- 
^Tc, of which th* third hook i* qooted. (Diog. 
Idert. iii. 40.) II. TntiuOuriaeL Philoitraliu 
(comp GeU. irii. 1-2) nenlioni le 
bat we baTe no nieani of judging 
BeiidcB the two principal Kuina, P 
Suidai, (ee J. F. Gregor, OinatailaHa de FamrmB, 
Laub. I7SS, 4to ; Fonmano, DuKrrlalia <U Faao- 
riMO, Abo. 17S9, 4ta. 

2. A follower of Arittotle and (he peripatetic 
Khool, who ii mentioned only by PluUuch [^^n- 
poK vii. 10). Hn ii otbcrwiae unknown, but muit 
at all oTcnti be diitingoiihed from Favorinua, the 
friend of Herodci Allien*. [L. a] 

FA USTA Some rery ran coin* in third biaH 
aiv extant bearing upon the obvenea female head, 
with the woid* Fjuati N. F. ; on the reverie a 
■tar within a wreath of laurel, andbeiowthe letter* 
TSA. M'ho thi> NMli-ima F^«ii*i may have 
been i> quite unknown. Some hnre imagined that 
(he wa* the firal wife of Conitantiu* ; but thii and 
arery other hypotbeaia hitherto pmpoMd real* 
upon pur« conjecture. NnmitDUloltgiiU term to 
urea that the medal in queation belong* to the age 
of CDnitantine,and it bean the deoreit resemblance 
to thai itmck in honour of the HaUna luppoied to 
haye been married to Criipu* [HiLiNi]. (Echhel, 
tdL liii. p. 118.) In 1323, the coin figured below 
wa* dog up near Douai. It differ* in iu detail* 
&om that deicribed by Etkbel, but evidently be- 
loDgi to the uuoe penonage, [W, H.] 




FAUSTA, CORNEXIA, a daughter of the 
dictator L, Coneliui Snlla by bii fourth wife, 
Caadlia MeteUa, and twin deter of Faualni Cor- 
nelia* Sulla, wa* bom not long before B. c 88, the 
;«r in which Sulla obtained hi* Gr*t conaaithip ; 
and ibe and her brother received the namo of 
Fanita and Psaitua reipectivdy, on account of the 
good fortODe of their father, Fauata wa* firal 
married to C. Memmiua, and probably at a very 
early age, a* her fan, C. Memmiua, wu one of the 



FAUSTINA, 
noblea who (opplicaled the judgea on behalf of 
Scanma in B. c. S4, After being divotced by her 
fint huibnnd. ahe married, towuda the tatter end 
of B, c 65, T, Anniu* Milo, and accompanied hirn 

murdered, a.c. 62. (Plat, SiUL 34; Cic. ad 
Alt.i.B; Aicon. n Scam: p, 29, h Milat. p, 33, 
«i. Orelli.) 

FauBlB wa* iobmoua for her adulteriea, and the 
hlatorian SalluK ia aaid to have been one of her 
paramour*, and to have nceited a aevere fioftgiag 
from Milo, when he waa detected on one oceauoa 
in the honae of the latter in the diaguiae of a alave* 
(GelLxvii.iei Serr. oJ »)y..4ni. vi. 612.) The 
- Villiu* in Faults Sullae gener" (Hor. SiL L 2. 
64), who wa* another of her faioarile*, wai pro- 
bably the Sex. ViUiui who ii mentioned by Cicero 
{ad Fam. iL 6.) ai a friend of Milo ; and the 
namei of two more of her gnllanti are handed 
down by Macrobiu* (Saimn. ii. 2) ia a toa mX of 
her brother Fan«tni, 

FAUSTA. FLA'VIA MAXIMIA'NA, tha 
daughter of Maximianu* Herculiu* and Eutropia, 
wa* married in a.d. 3U7 lo Conalantine the Great, 
Id whom (he bore Conitantinul, Conalantiut, and 
Conitana. She acquired great influence with her 
huaband in conaeqnence of having laved hia lite bjr 
revealing the treacherou* aebeme* of her father, 
who. driven to deapair by hia Eailuie, loon after 
dird at Taraua. But although, on thia occaaion at 
leoat, aha appeared jn the light of a devoted wife, 
ahe at the aame time played the part of a mo*t cruel 
atepmother, for, in conaequence of her jealou* ma- 
chination*, (^onatantine waa induced to put hi* aoa 
Criapui to death. When, however, the truth waa 
brought to light by Helena, who grieved deeply for 
her grandchild, Pauata waa abut up in a bath 
heated far above the common temperature, and was 
thu* (oaocated, probably in A.a. 326. Zoeimna 
aeemi inclined to throw the whole blame in both 
initaacea on Conalantine, wbora he ucu*ei aa tha 
hypocritical perpelrutor of a double murder, whil* 
' ^^ !r* BBiign the promiacuoui profiigacy of the tBO' 



Ulhel 



of her deal 



are involved in great obtcurity in conaeqnence 
■ vague and contradictory i^preaeniationa of 
latorical suthoritiea. {CoNST*NTtNiia,P 835; 

CFilSF'irs,p. 892; Zoaim.iL 1 0, 29 ; Julian, Onl. i ; 
<r, rJe MorL pentc. 27 ; Eutrop x. 2, 4 ; 
r. Eptt. 40, 41 ; Pbiloaloig. H. £. iL 4 ; 

Tillemonl, Hitbim da Etuptrtun, toL iv. art. IxiL 
224, and NaUt tar Comtbadm, xvii ; Eckhel. 

iviii. p.Ba) [W, R.] 



only dial 



FAUSTl'NA l,ANNl*a*LiRiAFAUBni.j, 
ihed a* Paulina Sniiar, whoaa 
the genealogical table prefiled 
luKiLius, married AntoDintu 



to the life "of M. 

Piui, while he wi 

when he beome emperor, in A,ii. 138, received tha 

title of Angailtt. Sog did not, however, linig ciijny 



PAUSTIKA. 

her honoon, br *hi died, ik. d. 1 4 1 , in tbc thirty- 
•fTtni^ jrai of ber igE. The profligncj of h«r 
life, mi tbe honoun irjtli irbicb ihe wu loaded 
bulb bcfon ud Bftfr her deceue, have been noticed 
<a6a ArrrotdNUs Piua. The medalt bnring her 
nme ud effigj eicnd.both in number and Tarietf 
of tjpet, t}io«« Btmck in honoor of any other royal 
pFiHagge ifiei death. One of the*e lepmenta the 
trmple dedialed to hei memory in Ihe Via Sacia, 
vhich uill nmaina in a Teiy peripcl itate. {Capi- 
Idiii. Jmbm. Pint, 3, 5 ; Eckbd, ToL Tii. p. 37.) 







Com or FitrsTiNA imNiaii, 
hunitiitian of the pKOat 
t^ai. See Antoninus Pius, p. 212. 
Z AiiNU Fai'stina, or Faaitaia Jmkr, wu 
if dingbter of the elder FauMuia. During the 
iff of Hadrian the vu beirolhed to the hd of 
Atlim Caeur ; but upon the acccHioD of her tillher, 

i>i|uf>ce of ihe eitRine youlh of L. Veiua, and it 
¥u Sied thai ahe ibould become the bride of 
tLAuieliut, althoogb ibe marriage wae not «>- 
kmniied iratU A. D. US or 146. She died in a 
'iCigr on the ikirtj of Mount Taunit, in the jear 

Sjiii. when he Tiiited the Eail for the purpoH of 
muring IiaoquiUil; after the rebellion of Aridiui 
Cunui, vhjch ia laid to hare been eiciled by her 
iauipiM [M. Aubilujh; Avidius Cassius], 
Ha jaofligacy *a* u open and injiunoui, that the 
pod nature or blindneu of her hiuband, who che- 
"•htd her fondly while aliie, and loaded her with 
hwnn after hei death, appear truljr marrellaua. 
(Dion Cau. IxiL 10, 32, 29, 31 ; Capilolin. 
M. iwd. 6, 19. 26 ; Eutrop. liiL b ; Etkhel, loL 




»liM and the younger Fi 

^:6.) 

4' Annia Faustina, a grand'daughter or great- 
Rnnd-daighler of M. Auceliu, waa the third of 
the immeroui wine* of Elagabaloa. The marriage. 



PAUSTULU3. 
Bive infer from nedali, took place at 



■■) 



Faustina, the third wife of Con- 
<lBntiu>,whom he married at Antioch in a. n. 360, 
a ihon period before hii death. She gare birth to 

FlBTiB Maxima Conilantia, and wR> eTentually 
united to the emperor Graliin. We know nothing 
wilh ngard to the bmilj dF ihii Pnuitina, but ihe 
appean again in hiitory along with her child, as 
one of the lupporten of [ha rebel Procopiua, who 
made good lue of the pretence of the youthful 
prineeaa to inflame (he leal of hii loldiert bj re- 
kindling their enthauaun for the glories of the 
house from which she sprung. (Ducange, FtMtn. 
%i. p. 4B, £9; Amm. Man:, iii. 6. g 4. ^^k^i 
iiTi. 7. 6 10, 9. i B.) [W. R.j 

FAUSTI'NUS, a pmbytsr, who adhered to the 
sect eilabliihed by the intemperate Lucifer of 
Cagliari, flouriihed toward* the cloac of the fonttii 
ceniury. Of hii personal hialory we know almost 
nothing, eccept in so &r at it can be gleaned from 

1. Fauilmi dc Triialate i. De Fide comtra Ana- 
ma ad fladllam Imptratricem Libri VU. This 
treatue, the lubject of which is sutEciently ex- 
plained by the title, has been emneondy ascribed 
to the Spanish bishop GicgoriuL It iidirided into 
seTec books, or rather chapters, and must hare been 
composed not later than A. n. 385, since Flacilla, 
the first wife of Theodosius. died in that year. 

2. Fimilmi Fida Tktodota Jmptntori ablala. 
A short Ccnfesiion of Faith, wrillen probably be- 
tween the yean 379-331, at whicb period Faut- 
tinus appears to have resided at EleutheropoliL 

3. LiUUai Frtcum, presented to ValenliniaDU* 
and Theodoiius about A. D. 384. It eontaiiu a 
defence of the tenets of the Lnciferiani, crares the 
pTDlectian of the emperon, and ii betieTed to hare 
been the joint work of Fauttinei and Marccllinns. 
Attached to it we find a Frof/alia, &ata which we 
learn that Ihe authors bad twenty years before 






I. [Da- 



.bubJ, 



of Uni 



which is e^ 



oniequc: 



to have been dr 



nd had I 
This introduc 



repteirnta- 
ttons, appears not to have been drawn up until 
after the publiiatian of the bvouiable rescript by 
Tbeodosius to the petitions of the Libellna. 

The Dt IWatloti! wu first printed u> the OrOo- 
dongraiiA. of Hemldui, foL BasiL \ibS; the 
Libdla, by Sirmond (8td. Paris, IfifiO, and Slr- 
mond, Oper. vol. I p. 230. foL Paris, 1696), to- 
gether widi the rescript of Theodosina and ancient 
testimonies regarding the controveny between Da- 
nuuuB and Ursinns ; the Fida by Queioel In the 
OusDiui el Omdilid. Ecd. Hom^ tol. ii. p. 138, 
4to. Paris, 167S. The collected works of Fausti- 
nns will be feund in the Bi6i. Max. Patnim, Lug- 
dun. 1677, ToL T. p. 637. and under their belt 
form in the Biil. Fatnm of Calland. vol viii. 
p.441. (Gennadius,deF^/^U.) [W. R.] 

FAU'STULUS, the royal shepherd of Amulius 
and huiband of Acca Launnlla. He foond Ro- 
mulus and Remns as they wete nnned by the she- 
wolf, and tarried tho twins to fais wife to be 
brought up. (Liv. L S.) He was beliend to have 
been killed, like Remus, by neii celatiTes, while 
he was endaavontiiig to seltle a dispale between 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



H2 PADSTU5. 

(hem, ind to bare been borisd in tha fotnm near 
the rotU*, were a itoiie Egnn oF a lion mukcd hii 
tomb. Othen. hoveTei, beliavcd thit Romnliu 
wu bmied there. (Fentiu, f. 0. Niger Lapit; 
Dionji. L 87; HutDog, £>if Ai^ d. Aon. nt. il 
p. 190.) [U S.J 

FAL'STUS, ■ tngic poet of tba tune of Ju- 
Tcnal (riu 12). 

FAUSTUa, an A&icwi biehop of the Muii- 
fhtmni. who, accDrdiiigta St. AagoMiu, vuKmiD 
of gnax natural threTdaeu and paruuriTe elo- 
qaencA, but altogether deitituto of cultivation or 
leaniiDg. He pahliihed about a. d. 100 aa attack 
tipoa tha Catholic bilh, a irork knovii to at from 
the elaboiala reply bj the bishop of Hippo, Qm- 
ira faw h t Mrmirjamt," «it«1iduig to Ihirty- 
tn booki, amnged in mch a mannn that the 
aignmenti of the bentic are firat itatod in hil own 
woidi, and then confuted. (See yA. liii. of the 
Benedictine edilion of St. Angmtine.) [W. B.] 

FAUSTUS. anraamed RnKiaig (otharwiM 
H/gaaiM, or Rtgiania) from the epiacopal eee over 
which he preiided, wae a native of Brittany, the 
coDtempoiarj and friend of Sid^iu ApoUinaria. 
HaTiog paaaed hil yanth in the Mcloiion of a 
eloiater, he nicceeded Maximoa, Ertt aa abbot of 
Lerint, aftenraidi in 1. n. 47S, aa biihop of Rien, 
in Frofanee, and died aboat a. d. 490, or, accord- 
ing to Tiliemont, lome yean later. For a coit- 
udeiable period he waa Rfjacded ai the head of 
the SemiprlBgiRni (Cassianus], and, in conte- 
quena of the eaneitneea and ancceu with'which 
he adiocaled the doctrinea of that aect, waa itig. 
matiHd at a heretic by the Catholic foUoweii of 
St- Aoguitin, while hia aaal agunat the Ariana 
aidtedthe enmity of Eiiric,king of the Viaigothi, 
by whom he waa driven into eiile about a. D. 481, 
and did not letntn until A. D. 484, after the death 
of hit perKcntoi. NDlwithatanding the heavy 
iJiergea preferred againat the orthodoxy of thii 
prelata, it ia certain that he enjoyed a wide t«. 
pntatioa,and poaaeaaed great Infloence, while alive, 
and wai wonhipped aa a aaint after death, by the 
dtiaeu of Rita, who erected a hatilica to hk 
mcRioTy. and bog oelelnated hit ftatinl on the 
ISth of January. 

Tha worka oF Fanatoa hate never been coDected 
and edited with care, and hence the accoanti given 
by different authotitiea vary contideiaUy. The 
fbUowiag litt, if not abaolntaly oomplele, ambracaa 
every thing rf nnportanoa : — 

1 . Pnfano Pidti, amtta am, qm ptr nim Dti 
V Um tia U m alioa diami ad Vham aOraii, aUot at 
MorHmdeprimL {BiU.Mia.Palr.Ljigiaa.W7, 
ToL TiiL p. £23.) 

3. D> Oralia Dti « Humuaiat MaOk Uien 
AtHtra LOri II. (BibL Mam. Fatr, Lngdnn. 
vol viiL p. 52S.) 

Theie two trtatJKa, snnpoted about A. D. 47fi, 
preacDt a full and diitinel developement of the 
aentimenta of the anthor with ngiid to original 
ain, pndeatinatioa, free will, elcctiozi, and giaca, 
and demoaalcala that hia viewt cotre^nded 
doaely with thoaa enlert^ned by Cataianui. 

3. AapoMB ad OlgKia quatJam d», RaHem 
Fida OalioHeae ; an eatsy, at the title impliea, on 
aofoa pointa coimeeted with the Arian contruveny. 
It ia inclnded in the collection of ancient French 
la pubUibed by P. Pithoa, 4to. 



m Set ad Mamadui, together with m 



Admomilio and eihortationt, all addreaud to tha 
monka cf Lerini, while he {(etided over Ibeir 
community. (Hartoie et Durand, Srr^ilor. ft 
■ OilMia, vol. ii. p. 142. foL 



peod. p. 469, tbl. Ang. Vind. l! 
/>atr.Lugdun.lS77.voLviilpLS4S,S47; Bastage, 
Tiaamia Maaamtmlnr. &c toL L p. 360. ioL 
Amat. 1T2S.) 

6. Homilia d» S. Matimi Ln n dA a t , erroneoiuly 
iDclnded among the homilica aaeribed to Enidiiiii 
Emeaenna, who flooriihed under Conatantiua belbre 
the eilabliihmimt of a monaitery at Letina. {SOI. 
Magna Pair. Cobn. Agripp.faL 1618, ToL v. p. I, 
No, 12.) 

6. ^piikJae. Nineteen are to be found in the 
third part of the fifth volmne of the BiU. Mag. 
Patr. Colon. Agripp. foL 1618^ and the moat ia- 
tereiting are conlomed in JJiU. Max. Patr. Log- 
dnn.voCTiii.p.524,fi4S-^£1. Sea alao Baioage, 
rW Afo-. ToL i p. 343. Tbeie lattert are ad- 
dreaied to di^rent peraont, and treat of VBTKHta 
poinla eomiected with apecnlativa theology, and the 
herenea prevalent at that epoch. (Sidon. ApcJIrn. 
Own. £W<lar. ad Fmtlim ; Oennad. de Vmi IB. 
85 ; Baroniua, AwtaL vol ri. ad ann. 490 ; Tilie- 
mont, voLivi. p. 433; Wiggeni,<i<,/ociinH Caniano, 
&.C. Rottoch. 1824, I82£, and other hiitoriani of 
Kmipelagioniun cnmneruted at the end oF the ar- 
ticleClS8UNl7B.) [W. R.] 

FAUSTUS, A'NNIUS, a man of eqnettriaa 
rank, and one of tha informer* (MaUrtt) in the 
ceign of Nero, wai condemned by the aeDale in 
a.D. 89, on the aecuution oF Vibioi Cri^na. 
(Tac. /fiif. ii. 10.) 

FAUSTUS CORNELIUSSULLA.ISuLLA.1 

FEBRIS, the goddeti of fever, or rather the 
averter of fever. She had three tanetnariei at 
Rome, the nott ancient and celebnted of which 
waa on the Palatine ; the aeeond wat on the area, 
which wat adorned with tha monnmenta of Mario*, 
and the third in the upper part of the vicni longna. 
Id theie lancCnarin amuleli were dedicated which 
people had worn during a fever. I Val, Hai. ii. fi. 
§ 6 ; Cic dt Leg. \i. n ; dt Nal. Dnt. HI 25 ; 
Aelian, V. H. xii. 11). Tha wonbip of thtt di- 
vinity at Borne ia anffioenily accounted for by the 
fact, that in ancient tim« the place waa viiited by 
teVRi aa much aa at the pieaent day. [L. S.} 

FFBRUUS, an andent Italian divinity, to 
whom the month of Febrnarr wa* Mcred, for in 
the latter half of that month great and gerteral 
purification* imd InaDationt were celebrated, which 
were at the aame time coniideted to |ROduce fap. 
tHity among men a* well a* beaata. Hence the 
month of Febmaiy wat aito ncied to Juno, the 
goddew of marriage, and the wu therefon iof- 
named Febmota. or Febmtii. (Feat. 1. e. Fibn- 
artw; Aniob. iii. 30.) The name Febrnna it 
connected with febnare (to pori^), and fibmai 
(puriGcatiaat). (Varro, <£■ X.^ vi. IS; Ov. ^biC 



the idea of pnrifiation, ii, that he w 
garded a* a god of tha lower world, for the fe*li«al 
of the dead {Ftratia) waa likewiie calobnted ia 
Febmary (Macrob. &(. I 4, 13 ; Ov. Fait ii. A35, 
Ac); and Anytnii (ap. J. Lydum, de Mem, i. 
p. SB) ilatea, that Februui in Etmacan tignilied 
the god of the lower worid (KornxjUinn). Hence 
Febrnna wai identified with Pkito. Whan tha 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



PEUX. , 
pialsfy amfien wen burnt, tha people threir 
p uhea laclmib oTei tLeit hodi into the 
(Sen. ad Virg. Gtarg. 
J Vd» i, Fij; - ■ 
PELl'CITAS, the 
Id vboa ■ temple w erected bf l^cnltua ia 
a c 7A, which, howem, wu bamt dova in the 
rr%D oT ClBodiut. (PUn. //. A^. soil. 8 ; Ao- 
gattin.<UCK.Dri,\i.l%2ii<xmf.Cit.mrerr. 
it. 2, 57-) Felicitu u frHincntly lem on Rotnwi 
medak. in t£e fsrra of ■ nutron, with the itaff of 
Hemrj (fa^Hnu) and A avnlicopi^ Sometime! 
also ihe bin other altribatn, accoiding to tbo kind 
orbsppiovi ibe reprMcntt. (ljj>inti,dt Fdicilal» 
Ao o JV«» dWnUo, Anutult, 1770; Buche, 
£u jVuL ii. I. p. 63G.) The Qieeki wonhipped 
the Hiiie penodiAatiini, nuder ibe name of E^ 
t«x1b, «bo U ficqncDtly repwm ted is warki of 

«. [ua] 

FELIX, u tgnoacn, unng; hke Hignn ud 
Angmtiu, ■ penMial ntber tkm > gntenl or EunJIf 
inpoM. (Sanec £■ CZmmW. K.) It wu given to 
tke dictator SoUa, md bManw a fteqiMnt lulditicin 
to ike impeiia] title*, being pmbablT borrowed 
Etna tbe fonnnla " felii biutom." [W. & D.J 

FEtlX, ANTtyNlUS, pncontor of Jodoea. 
was ■ bmther of the freedmoa Pilbi«, and (ru 
biMiaelf a beedman of tbe enperar cUndiui I. 
Soidn (>. c. KAuMut) call) him Oaadimt Felix ; 
and it i> pntliUe that be wai known h; iiii pa- 
tmq^ name ai well aa bj that which mailed bii 

wboB he maj ban been maniunitted. The data 
of hii appointment bj Claaditu to tba goremment 
of Jodaea ia aneeTtain. It wonLd aeem fern the 
accannt of Tadtiu (Jaa. liL 64), that he and 
Venttdina Comaont were far lonie time joint pre- 
onton, Galilee being hdd hj Cnmanna, and 
Snoaiia bf Pelii ) that hatb of then conniTed U 
the ictsof TioleDceandnbberjr uutoalhr committed 
k; their npeeti*a nbjeda, and enriched tfaem- 
•chea bj- tbe ipuU which ewh|aTtT bnmght back 



baliew Ibat Cmnanu wa* aide procoiatoi daring 
'■"■'" "m, and that, when he 

I, Felix wu lent from 
', pmbablj abont a. n. fil, 
and with an aathoril; extending orer Jndaea, 
Soman, Galilee, and Petian (JoHph. AnL xx. 
i— 7, BAJmd. iL 12; Eaieb. HM. EoL JL 19 i 
Talea. aJhe.). In hii private and hit public cba- 
acter alike Felii wu niuenipDlon* and profligate, 
Mr b be nnjoitlj deicribed in tbe kiUing woidi of 
Tadm (Hit T. 9), oper omnem Mwritiim M 
EladiiuBn rat Rginm aerTili ingenia exetenit.'' 
Baring Ulen in lore with Dm^la, daughter of 
Agrippa I^ and wifa of Aiiiu, king of Emeaa, he 
■ndaced her to leare ha haihand ; and ehe wu 
■till ti*ii« with him in 1. D. flO, n^ien St Paul 
pnacbed before him " ef tighteansuaa, temper 



ie."(J« 



(Joaeph. A 
or. 26.) Jonathan, ihe high prieat, 
tarmg iKCMne ebnoxioiu to him by tmpalatable 
adns, he arociirrd bii auaannition. (Joteph. 
AM. n.*. i S, BiO. JmL a. 13. I S ; Enteb. 



FELIX. 
HiM. EccL ii. 20.) 
though croe] and opptnuve, HR 
ancee were tigorooily rappreeeed, the eonntry wu 
deejcd of the nbben who inflated it, and the 
aeditiwu railed bj the blae piapheti and other 
bnporton, who aTalled IhenuelTea of Ibe hnaliciim 
oT the people, wen eSedwilIy qneiied. (Joseph* 
^■(.xi.8, BA J<hL ii. 13; Euseb. ffik. fbal. 
iL 31 ; comp. Aelt, uL 38, xxIt. 2.) He waa 
recalled in j. n. 62, and ioneeded bj Poidiu Fea- 
tos ; and the chief Jews of CwMreia (the aeit of 
hii goTemmenl] hanug lodged accniationi againit 
him at Rome, be was jared from cimdign poniih- 
msnt only by the inSoence of hii brolltei Palla* 
with Nen) (Joseph. Amt.xi.i.%9; Eueb. HiM. 
Kcd. iL 22 1 Ad*, hit. 27). For the accoimt 
which Tacitiit(W>f.T. 9) girei of hi* maniage with 
one Dnuilla, deariy a diflennt petion &aa the 
Jeweia already mentioned, and a grand-dan^tar 
of Antony and ClsopMra, see VoL I. p. 1075, b, 
aod eonp. Cannb. arf aMfoa. dad: 2B. [E, E.] 

FEL^^, BULLA, a celehrMed nAber duel; 
who, haTing collected a band of 600 Ibflowen, n- 
Taged Italy tor the ipace of two ycui, dnring the 
rciga of Septimio* Se'iemi. aetttDg at defianca all 
the eBbrti of the imperial affirm to efiect hi* ap- 
ture, till At length he was betrayed by a miatna^ 
taken pritoner, and thrown to wild bail*. Dion 
Caisiiu (Inii, 21) hu {mened seTcial cnrion* 
anMdote* of hi* exfJoit*, which were ehaiacteriaed 
by a corabination of m^loa daring and coninm- 
mate prndcDce. [W.R,] 

FELIX, CA'SSIUS. [CimuB Iitboio- 

FELIX CLAUDTUa [Fw-ix, AitroNioa.] 

FELIX, FLA'VIUS, an Africsm who Soniiibed 
towarda the doM of the fifth centory, the anthor of 
Rve diart pi»M in the latin Anthology. Of thea« 
the firat four celebrate the nn^pifir-nr- ud adlity 
of the " Tbeimu' Aliauae^" conunieled in the 
vidnity of Carthage by King Ttmuimind, within 
the tjte of a rinde yau ; the fifth ia a wUning 
petition for an fiTWi*i** tifiil ■ppfrintmmt, a ddrr ■ im 
to Vidorianu, the chief aecratary of the Vandal 
monaich. {Ao&iiL LaL iiL 34—37, tL 86, ed. 
BnTmann,orn.291—29£,ed. Meyer.) [W.R.] 

FELIX, LAE'LIUS. A jnriat, named I«liua, 
flouriihed in the time of Hadrian ; for it appean 
from a fragment of Paulo*, in Dig. b. tit 4. i. 3, 
that laelioi, in one of hi* work*, mentJons baring 
Been in the palace a free woman, who wu bnmght 
from Alexaiidria, in Egypt, in order to be exhibited 
to Hadrian, with fire children, bar of whom were 
brought into the world at one binh, and Uw fifth 
frirty day* afterwaida. Gain* (Dig. 34. tit 6. a. 7) 
tell* the aanH atory, withont mentioning tbe in- 
terrel of forty daya ; snd we find fiom hnn Ibat 
the nuno of riie woman wu Serapia. (Compare 
■1*0 Jnlianna, in Dig. 46. tit. 3. (. 36 ; Cajritotin. 
AiUfKL, Pva, 9 ; Phlegon, d» Ritxa Mini. 29.) 
Indeed, the Itamed Ant Anguittnua, vithoat 
Bufficient raiaan. anapect* that Qain* wu no other 
than Laeliua, deugnated by hi* piaenomen. laeliDS 
ia cited by Paulna In another pamge (Dig. 5. 
tit 3. *. 43), which also lelalea to the Uw of he- 
nditaa. 

The Laeliu of the Digest is, bj nwat writen 
upon the anbject (e. p. OniL Giotins, Heineccin^ 
and Bach), identified with Laelio* Felix, who 
wrote notes upon Q. Maeiu* SaeTok {liinim od 
q. JUadum), bum which Oellina (zt, 27) makee 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



Ui FELIX. 

*i>m< intsratnig axtncUieiplaiDUig (be diicinclunu 
betveen tha diSercnt kindi of corniGiL In thii 
vark FslLi cits l<b«. Zimmim (R. R. O. L 
g 89), after Conndi uid BfokenchHik, inoied by 
the BTctiui: ttyle of the eitncu in QeUini, thinka 
it not impnlnble thit the Laeliiu Fetii of that 
■alhor wu mon ancient than the Laeliiu of the 
Digeat. and that be may even be the (ame pensn 
with tlie pTMeplaroF Vam. If thi* be the cue, 
the Labea he diet moit be Q. Antiitiui LAbeo, the 



The, 



rot Van 
i. BJ to 



ndiPro- 

ftmi), a, according to a diSerent reading, not 
Kaliui, bat L. Aelliu. and wu peihapa the gram- 
mariMi, L. Aelini StUo. In Plinj [H. N. lir. 
] 3) it » doubtful vhelhet the name mentioned in 
connection with Scaerols and Capito «hotild be 
read Loeliua, or L. Aelina. ( DirkKn, findUiifiit 
aiudm SAriftai ifer Kimiidum JuruUa, p. 101 ; 
Moiau^ni, ad XXS. Ictormm F^rtffm. CommenL 
Tol. iL p. 208—217.) [J. T. O.] 

FELIX MAQNUS, a feUov-itadent and car- 
reapondent of Sidontoi Apollinarii, and conie- 
qnentlj lived between a. a. 430— *B0, Felii wai 
of the bmily of the Philagrii (Sidon. FrvpemjiL ad 
liMI. 90, Ef>. iL 3), and waa railed to the nmk 
of patriciiin (Bp. iL 3). The lettera of gidoDitu to 
Felix are coriouily iltuitratiTe of the diitieai and 
dianHcnbennenl of the Roman provincea north of 
the Alpa in the fifth centnrj, A. D. 

A poem (Carn. ii.) and five letter* (ii. 3, ilL 
4. 7, iv. G, 101 are addreued bj Sidonioa to 
Felii. [W.B.D.1 

FELIX, M. MINU'CIUS, a distinguiahed 
Roman lawyer, the author of a dialogue entitled 
Odaviut, which occupiet a conapienoui place among 
the early Apnlogiet for Chriatianity. Thetpcaken 
are Caeciliua Naulii, a Pagan, and OclBvina Jsnn- 
arini, a tme believer, who, while rambling along 
the ahoie near Oatia during the holidaya of the 
vintage with their onnmon friend Minucina, are 
led into ■ diicuHJon in oonsequence of an act of 
honiifte paid by Caecilina to a atatae of Secapia, a 
proceeding which ealla forth leveif , although Indi- 
rect animadveniona from OctBTioi. IcriUted by 
Iheie remarka, CaieiUni cemmencet a lengthened 
diicoone, la which tie combinea a formal defence 
of hii own pisctice with an attack npon the prin- 



Hii 



argun 



twofold chamcter. On tlii 
venled religion in genera!, and on the other the 
Chriilian religion apecialty. Octavjaa repliei (o 
ail hia ohjectiona with great force and eloquence ; 
and when he concludea, Coedliua, feeling himaeif 
defeated, freely acknowledge* hia enon, and de- 
darei biniielf a cDniert to the tnilh. 

The tone of thia production ia thropghoul eameat 
and impnaaive ; the ar^menta are well aelected, 
and ataled with precition ; the atjle ii (or the 
moat part tene and pregnant, and the diction la 
eitremely pure ; hat it frequently wean the aipect 
' ■ ' - ' tr of chi ■ 



« been I 



led fron 



There ia, 
implicity, and 



r, occaiionally a 
aome of the aentimenti are expreaaed tn language 
which bordera upon declamatory inflation. But 
Iheae blemiahea ate not ao nnroerona aa to aflect 
aerioualy our favoatable eatimale of the work aa a 
whole, whicli. Id tb* opinion of many, entiUet the 
author to nitk not mndi below Lactuiliiu. Iti 






FELIX. 

B theological point c 



a ready reply to the moat common popular objee- 
tiooL The cenaure of Dupin, who imagined that 
he could detect a tendency to materialiam, aeeroa 
to have been fotinded upon a miaappnbenuon of 
the real import of the paaaagea whoae orlbodoxy he 



>wever, at which Hianeiua Felix 
icartain. By •ome be ii placed aa 
p of M. Aureliua ; by aome ai low 
while othen have fixed npori 
intermediate between theae two 
cricica who, with Van Hoven, 
ai &r aa the middle of the aeeond 
sir opinion chiefly on the purity of 
hia diction, upon the indicationa afibrded by ailo^ 
aioul to the atate of the Church, both aa to ita 
internal eonttilution, and to the attention which it 
attracted from without, upon the atrong rewm- 
hlance which the pirce bear* to thoae Apologie* 
which confetaedly belong to the period in quealion, 
and npon the probability that the Fconlo twica 
named in the courte of the colloqay ia ibe aiine 
with die rhetorician, H. Comsliua Fronto, ao 
celebrated under the Antonine). But thia poai- 
tion, although defended with great learning, can 
acucely be maintained agalnit the poaitive evi- 
dence afforded by St. Jerome, who, in hia account 
of illualriou* men, where the indiTidoali men- 
liooed lucceicd each other in regular chronological 
order, acta down Minuciui Felii after TertuHiaD 
and before Cyprian, on artaiigement conhimed bj 
a paragraph in the EpiatoU ad Magnum, and not 
contradicted by another in the A^logia ad Pam- 
machium, where Tertullian, Cyprian, and Felix, 
are grouped ti^ther in the aame clau>& The cir~ 
cumatance that certain aentencea in the OOaviiu and 
in the £ii) liatonm FaniliOe ait word for word the 
■ame, although it provei that one writer copied 
&om the other, lead* to no inference aa to which 
waa the original We may therefora acquieace in 
the conctuaion that our author flouriahed about 
i. a. 230. That he waa a lawyer, and attained to 
eroinence itl pleading, ia diatinctly aaaerted both by 
St Jerome and Idciantiua ; but beyond thit ws 
know nothing of hia penonal hialory, except in to 
far ai we are led by hia own worda to believe that 
he waa by birth a Gentile, and that hia couveraioa 
did not take place until he bad attained to man- 
hood. We are further told (Hieron. I. c) ibat a 
book entitled De Falo, or Omtra Malitmalkar, 
waa drcalated andet hia name, but that, allhoogli 
etidently the worii of an accompliahed mao, it 
waa todiflennt in atyle and general charaEler from 
the Odaaut, that they couU acareely have pro- 
ceeded from the aame pea. 

It baa already been remarked that (hia dialogue 
waa long auppoted Co form a part of the tlca^ae of 
Amobiui, .^jeariai Oaitat. It wai firtt aaugned 
to ita rightful owner, and printed in ao indepeit- 
deni fonn, by Batdainut (Heidelberg; 1560), who 
prefixed a di>aenatian, in which he ptoved hia 



D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



fot n bUnteUj. tbM wc an mjriua Hut 
Hck m (iMi mDil taaTCMonitd the keen cfMof 
Ki^nn and oikct grart hSuiIui. Since thml 
(iae a mt aaBiber of sdilioa* Wn beoi pab- 
)iib< ■ bO MCOQiU tf which will b* (cumd in 
FnacoBi, Scbonanmi. and BKhr. for geiwnl 
^■■["■■■i itmi ti Jbc OnuuTiu (BnL Lug- Bat. 
1 707 1 fiammg not lA the Bria of Vuinnua 
ChMJis ; tlial U LindiKr (Son. Lon^OML 1760) 
Kfiinteil, with a prtAce br Emeali (ibid. 177S] j 
md that «f Hmllo, wilk a pRhie, bj Orelli 
(8niL Talk. 1836>. wiQ be fooad lbs moat uefaL 
Tb« OoDMD ttiBdationi b; J. 0. RoHwnim (4la. 
Haab. 1834), ukd b? J. H. B. LUbkert (Sm. 
Lap. )8M),iaa;be(enni]ted with adraalags. 

Is iDaibatisB, we dbj lead tba eia; of Bal- 
daiao*, wluek ia atqmded to the edition of Oio- 
■eina; J. D. Vao Horen, BpMa ad Gtri. 
Mtfrmam^ 4bL Camp. 1766, reprinted in Lind' 
ner-a editiOD of 1773l H. Heier, Commad. da 
Uimaaa FiHai (S<m. Turk. 1924) ; and the re- 
■aifci peefixed te the tnnalation of Ra»wiuTii. 
(Hknajn. di Ttn iTL 58, fy. ad Uagmttm, 
Apabg. ad AiMiiuei., ^liiapL Nrfot. ; Loclant. 
Bit. Iwitk. L 9, T. 1. 1 Dapiu, JNU. Ecda. loL L p. 
|]7iFaKdam&£.£. Fi^etu JkiHc(a(M.g 10— 
l< ; Le NouTT, ^nBBu!. od BibL Pair. nl. iu diu. 



originallj b< 



kduoek, iCi>AajMaU.TBLiii.p. 417;i 
nu, Sa^ Pair. ZoL iiL | 2 ; Bltbr, Cadu .br 
KimkA. LUL SuihiL Band ii. Abtbeil. g 16 — 
21 ) [W. R.] 

FELIX, SBXTI'LIUS, waiitationed, «.□. 70, 
IB tki frontier! ef Raeti* b; Antonini Prnnni to 
watch the DOTemente of PortiuA Septiminiu, piv- 
enater of that pnTim under Viteiliiu. Felix 



FENBSfTELLA, 
■deiaMe eelehritj, who Bouiiihed during the reign 
ef ADgnetoa, and died, Acconling to the Euiebian 
ChRude, A.D. 21. in the ifith j«i of hii age. 
Hit gnat wiafc, entitled j4»ki^ bequentl; quoted 
b; AaoeaJu, Plin}', A. Odliui, and oltaen. ei- 
ttaded ta at kait twenty-two booiu. 



I Nod' 






niwfainfid reij Ininnte, bal Dot alw^i peifectij 
■'*■—**, iaEiannation with repzd to the internal 
■Ain of ike dlj. The few fmgmenli pmerred 
nfate alBiMt culnnrelj (o erint* •abaeqaent to 
the CuthagiiiiMi wan ; bnt vhelfaor the iwinilite 
luihut fiam the Iboadatian of Rome to the doarin 
Ulaftha npahlie, ot csfapnhended onlf a portion 
of that Wftta, we hiTa no meaiit of deleiminii^. 
W< an OKtMD, bewanr, that it embiaeed the 
pnMcpait of (Seaa^caiacT. Ia wlditias to the 
Amaalm, we Gad a rilatian in Diomedea from 
** ri III il I llaia in Ubn EpiUmanm ■eeando," of 
wm ua otha ncotd nmaina ; and Su Jerooi* 
^(•fc* of Cvauaa aa well at Uitoriea i bat the 
A id aim, aaoibed in anne edition* of Fnlgcnliaa 
BBit belsag, it ndi a woA na 
w writer of a ruoch later epoch. 
Da Saardol^ tt Magi 
* £An //., publiahed at Vi 
1510, DDder the naiae of Fenettella, and often 
panted, ia, in reabtjr, (he pcodnGtion of a celt 
Andna Doneniai Flocchi, a Florentine joriM of 
tW fimtlMOth centDT7. ( Plin. H. N. na. 7, ii. 1 7, 
3S, IT. 1, iix. 11 i Senee. BpiiL 108 j SneL 
Fit Tereal.: OdLxT.SSi huOMti. dt Fain M. 



FEROX. 141 

L6;HieroiLHiAug& CVoa. OL exdi ; Diomedea, 

p. 561. ed. PniKh ; Nod. MareeH iL :ii. Prat- 
Kafa,iii. i.ti.Retiaimm,'n. ae. Amot,' Madiig. 
de Akvu PeJ. Ac. p. £4.) IW. R.] 

FE'NIUS RUFUS. tRo'Dt] 

FERGTRIU3. a lumame of Ju|dter, which ia 
probabi J derived bvm ferire^ to atiihe ; (or penoni 
who took an oath cidled npon Jnptttr, if thr^ 
awora bittij, to atrikc tben m they atmck the 
Tictim thej aacrificed to him. ( Feat. a. o. L^adem 
Siluait.) Othen derived it Entn/erre, becaoee be 
wBi thu girer of peace, or betania peopte dodialed 
[fentaml) to him ipdia opima. [Feat i. e. Fart- 
triui; Ut. L lOj Propert. iv. 10. 46 j comp. 
JirmuL) (L. S.1 

K/NIA, an ancient Italian fyinily, who 
belonged lo the SatMnet and Faljaouia, 
introdnced by then among the Romani. 
Qreek writera, aa anal, deacribe bei ai of Qreek 
origin. DianyaiDi<iL49) thoa telatee, that the 
Lacedaemonian! whio emigrated M the tiow of 
Lfcnrgua, alter long wandering* (fapituvw), at 
length landed in Italy, where they fennded a lawn 
Feiunia, and built a temple to OM goddeaa Fero- 

dilflcnlt to form a definite notion of the nature of 
Ihia goddeaa. Some conaider ber to have been 
the ^deaa of liberty, becanae at Tenaona alavea 
were emancipated in her temple (Serv. od ^ea. 
Tiii. 465X and becsuto m one oocaaion tho freed' 
men at Home eollected a aiUB of money for the 
purpoae of offering it to ber aa a donation. (Liv, 
nil. 1.) Other* \vJt upon her aa the goddeaa of 
commerce and tialllc. becaaae theee thing* were 
carried <hi to a grcst extent during the fettiTal 
which waa celebrated in tionoDrof her in the town 
of Fetonia, at the foot of mount Soracta. Bnt 
eonnieroe waa onied on at all Cntiiala at which 
many people met, and mnat be looked upon aa a 
natural retult of auch meeting* Bthei than aa their 
cBuae. (Dionyi. iii. 32 ; SUsb. t. p.22G ; Liv. 
lavi 11, Tivii. 4i SiL llal. xiiL 84.) Oilier* 
again i^ird her aa a goddeaa af the earth or the 
lower worid, and aa akin to Mania and Tellna, 
partly becBUaa ahe ia aaid to have given to ber aon 
I three aoula, *o that Biander had to kill his thrice 
b^ore he waa dead (Virg. Atn. iiL 564), and 
partly en aaiDiml of her connection with gonnna, 
whoae wor^p atrongly reaembled that of Feronia. 
[SoKiNUt.] Baaidea the aaneluariea at Tenacina 
and Dear nuani Swacte, ahc had o^ien at Trebula, 
in the toantry of the Sabinet, and at Luna in 
Etcnria. (Camp. Sen. ad Aim. li. 765 ; Varro, 
di ;.. £. T. 74 ; HHUer, iit Etmkrr, vol. i. p. 302, 
ToLii.^66,&t.) [L. S.] 

FEROX, JC'LIUS. [Finoi, Unmua,] 
FEROX, URSEIUS,a Roman juriit, who pn>- 
bahly Boniiahod between the time of Tibcriut and 
Veapwiani and ooght not to be conlounded (at 
PauiirDii haa done, £la tbru Inttrpr. Jarit. 38) 
with the Juliut FetDi who waa conani, a, d. lOO, 
of Trajan {Plin. Bp. ii. 11, viL 13), 



and who it mentioMd m a 
(Oroter, vol I p. 349) aa curator alvei et 
Tiberia et doacanim. The juriat Fern waa caRunly 
anterior to the juriat Julianna, who, according to 
the Florentine Index to the Digett, wrote four 
bookt upon Uraeiua. In the CbUaiia Ltgim Mo- 
laeamm. tt Bamaartim (li. 7), interted in the 
collection* of Antejuatinitn law, ia an Extrwt from 
Ulpjao, dlii^ a tenth book cf Undna \ bnt wlia* 



,.,.., Goiv^lc 



IM FEROX 

wki ths |i«dn ulAJeet of Iiii work* bu not been 
ncorded, dthongb it might peihapi be caQ«cted 
from m allantin enuDination of Ute extract* from 
JuUuiiu ad Uneiam, in tb« Digeit. In Dig. 6. 
lit. 3. 1. 27. I I, UtHiiu i> qnotad bf Ulpiu *■ 
rvporting bu opinicni of Procului (tt ila PraaAam 
9j i t li m a me Uneuu r^Brf ), and tuiuo it haa beoa 
infBind that Untiui wai a Piocnliaii. la a frig- 
muit of Panlni (Dig. 39. tit. 3. *. II. $2) oonin 
tfaa conlroierled aiprowon, ^lad Ftnxtm Pncu- 
bu ait. ConTcndf, in Dig. U. tiL S. & I. f 10, 
Cuiiw [i.*. C-Cawini LciigiDiu) ii qooted b; 
Uiplan u nportijig an ofHiiioD of UiHiu (of Oar- 
- mrrfeH);1iA,mOig.l.-" 
ran, in a ffagmest o Ajlp 



t. •. 10. i 6, 
thacoDtiDTe: 
KTjU. Doai tha vxfctman, apiti Pi 
adtm ait, mtm that Procshw u icpn 
whattoUom, 



Ittatm 
mPrg. 



•Hlu., io 



Ihe B 



I,BTlP III! 



BiproHjoD, m tho tooath of an 
Dgliih lawyer, L^tUton hj*, in Out* f or to the 
•ipcemoo, Cait «■ lAttiebm, tagt 1 Tha former 
inteqmtation waiu more probable, if we merely 
coniidei that io Dig. 9, tit. 2. •. 37. | I, Uraeioi ii 
rtprotentad aa quoting Procalm, for the latter in- 
lerpnlation would nqniie ni to mnKiie that each 
dtad the other, and it ia not thon^t like!)' that a 
aenior and mon diitingniahed jnriat would die oc 
comment upon a Junior coDtemponry. But thia tx- 
gument ii tteentd in the caae of Uneiu and Caa* 
iiul. It we admk that CaauuB dtei Undue, 
according to the pweent reading in Dig. 7. tit. i. 
a. 1 0. f i, il aeama Dalaid to iDteqiret Camivt aptd 
CrtnamteribU,iM riiowing that Caann* wrote upon 
Uneina. There ia leaa impnibabitilj thai Caaaini 
ahoald hara wriUaD npoi Urauna (ban that Pro- 
enlua ahootd ba** done ao, br Caiviu waa pmbably 
joungar than Procnlna, and, though older than 
Uneina, ha maj hare Ihou^t fit to crilidae tha 
wntiugi of a Jtyasf Collowtr of the oppoaile achooL 
What are we to eondnde ? An the expretdoo* 
GiaHni apmi Urmam leribil, and spKf Ftroam 
PnealuM ott, to be nnderatood in different tenaea, 
— maaning in the fint that Caaaiua annotated F^ 
FBI, — in the aecond, that Feni aanotaled Pro- 



It P la : 



anppoae that 



Perox annolattd both, tapedall; if there be inde- 
pendent gronnda Sot aappodng that he waa later 
than both, and died both in hia writing* ? To 
thia bypotheaia the diJef objection aeem* to be the 
paiaage in Dig. 44. tit, A. a U $ 10; but aneb di& 
ncultj, if it wen of impoitance, ought to be got 
orar by altering the reading (in accordance with 
Ibe more uanal Latin aider of object and autjecl) 

thia aimple change, we get rid of any KippoMtiaD 
a* to two juriata citn^ aoal edrr, and are able to 
auppoae Ferox to have been the annotator inddler 
both of Proenlai and Caidni. Thia ia likely on 
independent ground*. In Dig. SO, a. lOi, there ia 
an eitnet ^m the woHc of Juliano* upon Uneiua 
Fenii, in which, apparently in the tell of Unehia 
comtiHDted upon by Jalianua, ia giren a re^nauio 
of CaHJna. It ia alao by Uiadua thai Caadnt 
aeenu Io be died in D^. 23. lit. 1 a. (B. g I, 
taken from the aanie work of Julianua, for the part 
of thia Bitncl which containa the note of Jnlianna 
IbUowa the mention of Caaaiua. Again, in Dig. 25. 
tit. 3. a. 4S. ^ I (from Juluuiut in libra 2, ad Ui- 



FBBOX. 

part of Iba aitnet irtiil app) 
upon which Jnlianiu comBunta. ao una n nwj 
be antwered, but withoat mach phuuilHlity, that 
Jnltaaoa took Urmim mA tfa ■c«ai ^ Ihmin mid 
Proeaba aa the aubjeet of hia eommantary. 

It ia iingular that the meaning of the wvd iijiail 



■ to beOaU 



Ent Tiew, for the aaka of legal tuDgnvhy ■ 
duonology, to detemSne what that """"'"g ia, — 
ia atill a matter of undecided oBDtnweny. On tba 
one hand we haTe in an aitnci from Paolni (Dis. 
17. tit. 2. a. 85. g 8), Serriai i^md SIfimam melali 
in another extract from Panliu (Dig. 60. tit. 16. 
a. 77), amiat opwf Atfiami paMi and, in an 
extiwt from MareellM (1% 46. tit. 3. a. 67), vad 



acanely be nnderalood aa »imnn»miiig gpm hia 
junior. So we haia SntJM qpatf Melam $crMI, 
in an aRnct from Uipian (Dig. SI tiL S. a. S. 
I 10). Now Hefai, though be may haia baan boan 
before 3erTiuadied,wa* pnhaUyageBefitiaalatar 
than Serriu*. On the other band, we haie (Ul- 
inan in Ug. 7. tit. 1. a. 17. $ 1) Ariila apad 



temporary of Arialo, who aeema to ban been « 
pa^ of Caaaini (Dig. 4. tit. 8. a. 40), and to rw- 
pari biara^naan (Dig. 17. tit. 2. a. 2S. $2), and 
ve hare eridence that Ariato wrote noCea on Caa- 
dua. (Uipian in Dig. 7. til. 1. a. 7. f 3.) If tha 
priority of date be ulawed to deleimiiia the aenaa 
of ajmd, the eipteaaion Oaaiu ^md PiUKia* 
natal (Uipian in Dig. SS. lit S. a. & pt.) vonld 
indicate that Ciaain* wrote iMtM npon Vilelliaii 
for ViteUiui waa probably latber older than Caa- 
aiua, having been commented upon by Harariai 
Sabinua, a conlempoiary of TiberiuJk If il vera 
not for the objection thai Africanna wa* prohabij 
a junior contemporary of Julianua, the much cod- 
Iroiterted paaiage (Uipian in Dig. SO. a 39. pr.) 
4/nainiit, n libro 30. EpiibJarmm, apaiJtHamm 
fnoerit, patalqite, 4^ might be interpreted to implf 
that a woritirf Julian contained an exDact from lb* 
20lh book of the Epiatle* of Afrionua. in which 
Africanna propoaea a queatien and give* an cndnioit 
upon iL (See, (brother intcrpntatioiu of thia taa- 



ub). The eipreauon 

i.22. - ■ 






(Dig. 3. til. 14. a hi), and n lAro KjtimoDiga- 
tarnm J^iani Scaieoia nalat (Uipian in Dig. IR. 
tit. 6. a. 10). hare been gnuially thought to indi- 
cate that Co^ridiuB Scaerola coaunnled Qpcai Ja- 
lianua, ^Ihongh thia interpretadon woold aeem to 



eitact giren a* it appeared in the original work of 
Marcellna, or i* il taken fmn an edition of Har- 
oatlva, to the original text of which wen aab*»- 
qoently appended notea by Scaerola? From $ 83 
of the Pragauala Vatieaaa, it ia difficult Io avtnd 
eondnding that the note* of Scaemla wen written 
npon the text of MaKeDoa, inalead of aappodng 
that the text of MaroeDaaeondata of caaea with tha 
raaariu of Scsenda. What dee ean we andoda 



D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



lai Mtrndtm, la. tie. Dig. len&tC, nM Sanola 

TIhk dilBaillica ban indond ume Isgil Uo- 
p^Aoi (Htnigi, JiwMK Jv. c «3 ; Olta, 
Tlo. Jw.Sem. 1611-5 ; flniL Oiotiiu, Z>) Ftlii 
Jmriit. ii. 4. g 4) to wppoH thai Iha word ofmi 

k mod JBCOTUtAlldy, HO* 

ibt vriUr Tbo H ths mbjecl of 

tke Fnnt sb, we belieTe Ibol Uncini Feni 

■a jnniar to Gudm and Procoln*, aod that h« 



im^ vliidi were not eoDiidercd u atir 
ik a u m tt l ur m. Vft think il bhUIuI; Out 
C!wiD>, U> WD»r, cited Pooi, and therefsn are 
<iqi(iHl to adopt the aiteied mding of Dig, 44. 
tit. i. 1.1, f 10, iriiich wehaiealnadf mentiontd, 
ud vbich wai fint nggeited hj OiiiL Ontiiu, 
•Umgb n do not i^atd the alleiation M abw- 
hodj Biw— J-. The mdj geucnl cmdniion vc 
in lUe ta uriTe at, fnm a compariun of the pa*- 
■go iR bra oted, ia, that frnn aucii an eiprea- 
UBB u ^pmd Frtwevi Frt/eulia ail, it ia impouible 
u dra* any certun inference ai to the lelalire 
ittt gf Tata, and IVmhu. We think, DeraChB- 
\m, Oat the word ap«d in mch CDnncctiDn ia 
md coutaallj in the nniE Knte,~that the writer 
■boH nam it Bonnu i> m conception fia prm- 
efof, nd flte other the nbordinate. Thm i'm»- 
faipHl Armm ait mcani ^t the Hjing of Pro- 
aha waa contained in the work of Ferax ; — 
■Mhci the lajiDg weie contaiDcd in the text or 
ii the Dotn ;— if in the text,— whether il were in 
tht origioBl text, or in the receiTcd text aa altered 
W womt nkaetgncnl editoi ; — ^if contained in the 
KMo, — whether thoie natfi were eipreulj wrillen 
■p™ the text, ot were corapoied of lUuttiatitB ei- 
tacti turn prior or nhaeqaent lulhort appended 
to the text. In general, t^ui Kenu to govetn Che 
•ma if a wiiler whoae wink b«« been illnitraled 
W utta. In the maj^tj "^ caiet, ai in the caae 
■f Jralo ^Kd Gurin, the notei teem to have 
ka exfmaljr written npon the work of the 
ulMt whiaa name i* goremed bj apiidi but 
mm liiiin, M in the caae of Ssrrw apad Miiam, 
it naa that estracti from the wslingi of a pre. 
oding aaikor an dther contained in die original 
im, « ban been appeaded aa nolei bf • nfaae- 
qaml edilot, Wbiie, then, Savia ajmd Mdam 
>e>Bi SecTin ia Mela, in like manner, Ariibii^ 
CuHat ia a citation of Aiialo from a work, which, 
■kmifa it oDlain matter in addition to tbe text ik 
Coau, would, npon the whole, be thooght of aa 
Ue viik of Caaiina. Our nppiiaition that apud 
~ ■ *'" '' rho il in conetption 



Bay he daabted which anthor i> At principal, and 
•We, accordingl;, a rarietj of eiwe"ioni oacnra. 
Jahmoi ompowd ■ treaiiae which wsa umpiled 
fna ortain booka of Minicilia. with obaemliona 
rf laa awn, aa we lews fnm ibe inacriptitia of the 
otncl to Dig. 6, ti*. 1. a. £9, which ia headed 
JaStmu, Eb. 6. tx Minicio. Tbi* latj be com- 
|Bid witli tbe falhr expreuion of Oiiu (ii. IBB), 
■ iil Un, ^01 a Q. Jtfacu fiaaiu. The 
n>k aa can|Hled misfat eaailj be thonght of, 
vita m the wnk of Jnlianni, « aa the work of 
Miaiciiu. In the Grit ewe it might be cited, at In 
Kg. ^ lit- W. a. £6, where we read Julianna lib. 
liiD tlieieconda>ie,Jalianaa might 



n I^. 19. 
nua Ub, 1( 



10 iqni 

The fbtegoing explanation, which ia beliered t^ 
be new, appean to Rnore Hnae difficnltiea whuh 
haTebitbertoperplnedlegslbiographan. [J.T.C] 

FESTI'VUS, AUKELIA'NUS,« fteednua of 
the emperor Aurelian, wrote ■ hialory of the em- 
peror I^rmni, in whith be detailed at gnat langth 
all the sUj and extnTsgant doingi of the latter. 



brancei (t^i BaaAfiia liriiart Trpovniti) of Ctr 
racalla, by whom be waa bnhed in the Tr«d, with 
all the ceremoniea obaerred at tbe obaeqoiei of 
Patroclua. According to Heradian, a report waa 
current that he had hem poiaoned by tbe Emperor, 
who, being aeiaed with the fitncj of imitating 
Achillea, and being at a loaa for a dead friend 
wboae fate hemjgfal nonrn, after tlie &ahian of the 
hero, bad recoane to Ihia method of nipplying th» 
deficiency. Peatoa, the chamberlain (if Caiacalla, 



t been a diSere 



adbyDioi 
aa taking I 



I peraonage, ai 



Caaaiua aa alive nndec Macri- 
ig an actire part in the proeeedinga 
for letting op Elagabalai. (Herodiai). iv. 14; 
Dion Ctaa. liiriii. 33 ) [W. R.] 

FESTUS, ANI'CIUS, waaantmited by Ma- 
crinnawith the command of Aiia,aft« tbediigmce 
of Aaper. Feitni bad been, on former occvaioiu, 
paoed oier by Seiemi in the aUotment of pro- 
Tincei. (Dion Cm. Iiixnii. 32.) [W. R.] 

PESTUS, PESCrNNlUS, a lenalor, put to. 
death without trial by the emperor Seiemi, i. o, 
ise— 7, after hia victory over Albiaoi. (Spartian. 
Snrm, 13; comp. Dion Caaa.liXT. 8 ; Heradian. 
iii. p. 11£.) An hiatorian of thia name ia men- 
tioned by Idctantina [Iiutil. L 21), in ipeaking of 
the biunan aaciificei practited at Carthage. Lac- 
taotiOi calli the hiitoiy of Feilui Satva, i. e. ■ 
miaeellaiij. [1V.B.D.] 

FESTUS, SBXT. POMPEIUS, a leiicogn- 

S' er of oncertaio data. He certainly lined after 
aitial, whom he footed (i. v. Vapai^, and before 
Hacrvbiui, who refen to him more than onoe(&il. 
iil .t, !>, comp. B.). From hia remarka apon the 
word nppana we conctade that he muat bale be- 
longed to an epoch when tbe ceremoniea of tbe 
Cbriilian religion were fiimiliar to ordinary readen, 
bat Saie haa no aiKhority for fiijog him down to 
the clou of the fourth century (aKina((.i.D.39B). 
The naine of Festua i> attached to a dicliouaiy or 
glowary of remarkable Latin wordi and phraiei, 
whicb i> divided into twenty booka, and conimonly 
title Sad Pompeii FtM dt VaioraBi 



, raaoy ohicnre pointa, connected irCth anliquitiei, 
mythology, and grammar ; but before we can make 
nae of it witb anfely it ii neceiaary that we ihould 
undenland the hiitorf of the work, and be made 
acquainted with the nrioua conttitnenli of which 

M. Verriui Flaccni, a celebrated grammarian, in 
the leign of Aoguatoi {Fuccua Vaauus], waa 
the anlhot of a lery Tolnminooi tieatiie, Dt Signifi- 
ccUh Fertomni. Thit waa compreiaed into a much 
amaller compaat by Feitni, whu made a few altera. 

2nni)of hiicwn,iDKiled numeroui extracta from 



Caimm; Dt Pta-m OaUmlii! Dt Jwt Sam 
^^plfaf^ M>d olban ; bnl ■luntkd naittad tbDH 
w<^ which had Ukn inlo duoM (mHrmnUii it 
■qwIM), iDlaDdiiw to naks ihaa ttw ralqeelofi 
MpanM Tdnnw PHiBomm Vtrioram aim Srtm 
fii <w : V. pcrridam). FluUf , towudi th< 
end of Ih> aigblh sentiirT, Puil, md of Wunstrid, 
belter knowD mi PauIoi Diicamu, tnmx hHTing i ~ 
ciM«d >« ■ dnccm of (ha chnRh at AqiuJ 
■bridgad tha abnd|Dnil of Fcatna, dedioting 
pmdnetiaii In Charlnn^iis, after that princa liad 
dalhmwd DMidetfau, tha lait king of tha LoGk- 
barda, whoa Pul had wnad aa chuitsllor. 

Tha original wait of Vciriu Flaceiu bai alto- 
fethaw perubad with tha excrption oF am R' tw 
ineoD^danhta fragmanta. Of tha abatnct bj Foi 
tut ona impeilacl 119. onlv haa codm don to ni 
It wu bno^t, wa an tdd, from lUyiia, and f« 
tnU tha handa of Pomponiua laetm, a edabnted 
icholar of tha fifteenth centnij, who tor aome rn 
•on now lUikiiown kept poaMMon of a few lean 
whan bo tranifRTtd the remainder to a certai 
Manilini Ral^na, in whoae handi tha^ were aeen i 
1466 b; PcJilian, who ca|ned the whole togethi 
with the pan Rtuned by Pompimiui Laetu. 
Thia MS. of Halhit found ita waj eTaalualiy inl 
the Famaaa Ijbruy at Panna, wunce it waa coi 
vajti, in 1736, to Naplea, whert it Itill eiiat 
The portiiHi which remaiiMd ia the eualodj' of 
Laetna waa tepeatedlj lianicribed, bnl it it known 
that the archatfpe wu loat before lAGt, when 
Uninna pahliahed hia ediliiin. The oiiginal eodti 
wiitten upon panhment, probaUy ia the eleventh 
or twelfth centu;, appeara to hare (onaiatcd, when 
entire, of 138 leaTe^ or 2&G pagea, aacb page coa- 
taining two eotimin* ; bnt at tha period when it 
waai^eraidmd t^tha laaned, fi%-aight laana 
It the beginning wan wanting, comprehoiding aD 
VlettenbefbreM; thretg^a, ' " 
ro laarea, ocenned in diflennt 
leaf had been torn oft ao that o , 
wen left, of which eighteen wan aeparated ften 
the nat bj I^etna and bare diaappmred, whUe 
fsn^-one an atill found in tha Famaaa MS. In 
addition to the deficjanciaa deacnbad abovp, and to 
tha iBTuea made bj ditt, damp, and Tannin, the 
Tnlume bad inSeied aCTecatj una fire, to that 
while In each page the inude cdnmn waa in tder- 
able pceeariation. onlf a few worda of tha outiide 
•alamn aren h^Ua, and in aome inttanoca the 
wbola were deatnjad. Theae blanka hiTe been 
loganioiu] J filled up hj Scaliger and Uninoa, partly 
fron oanjeetdn and Jiartlj fna the com^ioad- 
ing paragraphi of Puhia, whoae paffonaance ap- 
p«n in a complete fbnn in manj MSS. Tbu 
rcitoniiirr, howerer, notwithatanduig hia boaat 
that he had paaaed otct what waa anpeiflnoni and 
iUutttatHi what waa obtcan, waa eridently iU 
qnalifted Kirhbtaakihr whenerar we hate an op- 
portnnily of eonparing him with Featna we par- 
ceiTe that he emitted much that waa nnpsrtant, 
that he alariahly D^ied ctccical tdnndaia, and thai 
when anj eipreaaian appealed perplexing to hia 
imperfect •cbohtrahip ha quietly dnpped it alto- 
gether. He added a little, but Tciy little, of bit 
own. aa, for example, the " ' 
the apoa^ (a. v. bariai '' 



I. n* fawmenta <£ Faataa eeal^Bid in Oa 
Panaaa M& now deponled in tbe Bojal libmj 
alNa^^ 



2. The Ih^DBite of Faataa nteinad br Pcaa- 
nonina L«tBa, tha allotype of whkh. althaa^ 
loat belbn the end of the aixterath coilaiy, M 



preTiouily been fnqnenllj tmnaoibed. 

Tbeae two aata of fiagmenta, aa br a* they go, 
are probaUy a tolenbly camel though nteane ceprt- 
lenlalign of the caniDBntariaa of Veirina Flaacoa. 

3. The etatome of Pantua DiacaiHia, annaiating 
of inaocniate.axceipta inm Faataa, a man ahadow 
of a ahada, bat aien Ibeae impeitBat oalEnet iie 
vary piacioua. 

4. The intnpoktiona of SadigM aad UaiaM^ 
filiated in tor the pnrpoaa af fiDinoap the Utnka in 
tha ontade colnmna of tbe MS. irf Peatoa. Tbaea 
an of oonne almott woitUcaa, ainca they mat ba 
iqnrded awTaiy aa apwfaimt of ingenai^. 

Although it ia manifett bow mch tbe Ion 
parta djffi^ from each otW in Talna, yd all are in 
moat editiona mixed up into ona diaoordant whole, 
ao that it ia in^oaaUai withoat BDeh loboot and 
naeaich, te analyae the maaa and RaolTe it into it* 
eletaenta. Hence we not nnfreqaently find in the 
eaaya of even diatinguiahed aehoUra qooiationa 
pnfeaaedly &am Featna, which upon examination 
turn out te be the baibamoa blonden of Paolaa, or 



R,nDt U 



hare now, howerer, been ba|^y relicred Eiom all 
Bach embamaamenla bj tha lobonn of Miilier, 
whoaa admiiaUa edition ia daaaibed mote paiti- 
cnlariy bdow. 

The principle npui which the worda an claiai- 
iied u at fint tight by do meant obviooa or inlel- 
ligiUo. Th« (RaagaawDt ia ao &c alphabetical 
that all worda eaaniencing with At lame letter are 
ptacad together Bat the wiudi ranked ondar each 
latter an, aa it were, divided into two paita. In 
tha Cral part da wordt an groaped, aacndiig dM 
oily teUeinitiaI,bntalto to tha aacatid and even 
tbe third and fourth lattan ; tbe gnap^ however, 
auceeed each other note* in an or£nai7 dictionaiy 
inesnlarly. Thiu we find at tbe baginniat of 
3Dt tha wordain Aa.but thaaeinAii,neittboaa 
thoae in Rum, next thoae in M, nail 
ttaoia in Hi and Ri mixed, next thoae in Ba, and 
B^n fit and Ai mixed. In tha teeimd partngtid 
ia paid te tha initial letter alone without refannce U 
thoae which follow it, but tha worda placed tagelher 

Thna in the Kcoad part of P wa find the aariaa 
7>aUBa{B, i>or<«fa, natabrn, /WjArm iVrmp- 
taU^ P^n, aU of which behmg W ncred rilet, 
and eqwcially to ontiHcea. Again, Pnfiiu Sothmc, 
PoiMMiio, fn^faawMV Pami, Pnalaai, Patroamia, 
foWJiiaw Hiioaw, letmtnlatlng to OTJl law t Pomp- 
(boo, Ft^ma. Papimia, Pi^/mia, namet of triba, 
andaooo. The ■ana wotd ia treqneallj eiplaisad 
both in the ftrtt and ia tha aacond part, and aosie- 
liDMa tha two eipltnationt an H variance ) thua, 
AcH, Ailw, Amm Pwa^ oecu in both the lint 
and aecond palU of R, while the remarka on Olu- 
dmm, OWdtowai, in the Grot part of O an incon- 
Batent with what to laid npon the loine worda in 
the asBHid part, The lame wcKd ia nevei lepeatad 
twice in the firat part, bat thio lometimea h^ipnii 
in the aecand. whan it Mi ta be inlennted under 
two beada, aa in the caae of JViaiu. The&nt[ut 
in aooie lalMn ia beaded by a faw wiffdi altc^thcr 
oot of their order, which aeem pbced in a cooapi- 

U:^:.,,c^; Google 



Lun tagn. Tbae facta, taken hi eambiiMtian 
wid tbe ulliaibn quoted hen uid there, wanld 
lad n ID inlet iliat the wndi ID tbt fint put of 

fait Vtrtartm of Vorhu, wlii] 
cad anCitole • lort of nppleiiKnc, coiueioa Djr 
FatH froB the Mbet writi^ of Ibe nina mthor. 
We nigln iIm nmuB, from the liiigiln Mdet, « 
mW wiM of order, dkoemiUo in Ihe fint put, 



ta of vord* apn KjiUEta ilieeU, and that 

' were boand up wilhnil ngui to m-j 

* the initkl totter. An elibo- 

n tbeee pointa will ba fonnd in 

■• ymm to the cditiooof MUUer. 

The editin pabKdied at HHui, bj Zuotu, oa 
till M If A^Bot, UTI, and inocribed. StA 
fm^mM Artuda Ferfom Sigmificaliim, that of 
Jhbh* da Colonia and J«uinoa Man^en do 
ebanaen, ilo. Venet. 17Ri, * toi? BBcient im- 
innn, peihafa aldar Aan either rf the abote, 
oi pnhiUj printad at Ronw b; O. Lauer, to- 
pdKr with M*ei«] othera, merelf repriou of the 
innd iii g , and aU beloDging to the EflHDth con- 
1BT< loeaenl aa with nothing (xoepi PbdIbi Dia- 
nent. A TBlmne appeared at Milan, in 1510, 
ccDBiiuif NimiiB HarceUai, FetCaa. Paoliia, and 
TtRD, Thia worfc waa canmeneed b; Jo. fiapt 
FiM. who miaed tha Nonina, and «** oiriod on 
li; a oetaJD CooaigBa, who wat acqvintsd with 
koih pmiana of the MS. of Peataa, vUdi he in- 
' ■ ~ ' ' i» giving ri»o to that 



■<ilf . Tba abon graaiiRWMiu were Rprinled, 
inhcMBa Imib, M Fui* in l&ll and \b\9, at 
Trail* hj Aldoa Muntioa, in 1513, and nry 
hqiBiIlj aftiTwaida, in diflirait pun af Emope. 
ut nhaUe than any of thoae riread j ntealioned 



^ Vewt U69-lS6fl, 
oaljr a comet collauoa of tlie Pantae 
a •epualioD of Fealui fton Paolaa. 
' ' ' " id by Jaanh Scali- 
great ikUl in hii 
d imlemeota, and by 
>81, tmt again collated 
•d pre a fakhrol trfme&f&m of llw Panieae 



__,__* Parii, I6B1. ha* been often «- 
fnatcd, bat poweeen na partedar Tahw. Linde- 
■o, HI hii Cntfm OrammaHamm tatmmm, 
"L D. Upa. IBS^ hu plaoed Ptnlua and Featn* 
" M ^t l Jj ^art tnn each other, haa leiiaed the 
tait of eadi witb great care, uid added a large 
bdj et Bstca, Migmal and aelecled i but &r M- 
|(rier U ^ sihaa ia the edition of K. 0. MiiUor, 
UpL 41a. 1839, in *hicb we Ihid,— 

I. A ftiAtx, with a eritiral acconnt of Ibe MSS. 
rf Partao and Panlu, their hiitorj, and a moat 
iy uiiaa a*d laboriona innatintion of the [dan 
Hewed ia the arrangement of Ua wordi. 

I The tax of Paolna in ita beet bnn, from tha 



FIDES. 
1, by Amdtt. The fragnien 



149 



intedei 



actlyailbey occur in the ftS.. in double tdamna, 
and placed (am to &ce with ibe corre^onding 
poftioni of Panlui, eo ai lo admit of eaay nm- 
pariaon. The moat planaibla of the ctmjectnnl 
upplementa by Scaliget and Uraimu an inaerted 
in a diBcrent type. 

4. The text of tbe Pompmlan ibeeta, printed 
abo in double (oliunni. the contenta of each page 
haring been determined by accurate cnlcalation. 

5. A csllactioa of the moat siefal conunentariea. 

rw.H.1 

FESTU8, POUCIUS, 
Felii aa p ' ' " 

iJy 



ii), by whom the pi 



Paul,. 



EO wa* infealed. It 
tbe inaocoBoe af 8l 
IB dejimded hinaelf before hfao in tb* 
Feitni died net loeg after bJa ap- 
jiDinuniiiit ■■ piDcnntar, and waa aoeceeded by 
ALBUfOi. (Joaeph. ^nf. n. S. f $ 9—11. 9. { 1, 
BtIL JmL ^ U. i i i AUt, ndr. 27, zxr. 
WTil [E. E.] 

FESTUa, VALFRIUa, legatu b Africa 
i. D. S8, and an actlTo, though aacnt, paitiiBn of 
Veapaaian in bia war with Vilelliae. Ma waa ana 
of the Hp^emeotary cddbdI* for the year A. D. 71. 
(Tac, tfirt. n. 98 ; Paid.) [W. R D.] 

PIDITNAS, a nraame of tha Seigu and Sep- 
Titia Gentet, deriTod Iran Pideiae, a town abool 
fire nilea from Rome, and which bequently occnra 
in the (aily hiitoiy of tho repablic "thx fint 
Seigini, who bote thia iamame, wai L. Sergiu^ 
wbo it nid to have obtained it becaaeo he waa 
elected connd in the year (b.c. 137) after tho re- 
Toh of Fidenae ; bat *» Fidenae waa a Roman 
colony, he may hare been a natira of the town. 
Thti eonuune waa uaed bj bia deacendanta aa their 
bmilyname. [See below.] 

Tbe lint member of tbe Sorilia »n> who re- 
ceired thie nuname waa Q. SOTriliue I'titeiit, tAa 
toA Fidema in bia diclatonhip, a. c. 435 ) and it 
omtinnod to be uaed bT '>>■ deacendanta aa aa 
agnomen, in addition to their rwular bmlly nam* 
of Priacna. [PaiMUK.] 

1. L. SiaaiuB C. r. C. N. PlliiHu, held the 
conanUiip twice, and the Bmanlar tribunate thie* 
timoa ; hut nothing of imp<»tan« ia ncoided of 
him. He waa coniol for the fint time in B. c 437 
(LiT. IT. 17 i Died, ail 4S) ; cenaalar tribune for 
tbe fint lime in 433 (Ut. it. S5 ; Diod. zii. SB) ; 
conanl for the tecond time in 439 (Ut. it. 30; 
Died. IB. 73) ; conaular tiibane for tha aee^ 
time in 424 (Ut. rr. SG ; IKod. liL 82) ; and 
conanlai tribune for the third tana in 41l> (IdT. 
IT. 45 1 Diod. liii. 3.) 

3. id'. Siasioa U r. L. h. PmsNi*. oonaular 
tribaDoinB.c404(UT. jr. 61 ; Diod. ut. 19), 
and again in B.C. 4I>2 (Lit. t. B, ft*. ; Diod. iit. 
36}. Hii bad cmdoct in the latter year, in which 
he aUoved hjoiaelf to be defeated by tbe enemy, 
and hii pnniahmeiit, in conieqnence, hj the peofM, 
an re btod nnder Eaciuiunin, No. 4. 

3. L, SiRoimi M'. r. L. n. Fismnab, eon of 
Na.3, aMiaalartribQnainB.cS97. (IJT. T. 16; 
Diod. xir. 85.) 

4. C. Sbboidb PiDinia, eoomlar tribone three 
lime*, fint in b.c 387 (Ut. tL fi), a aecond time 
inK.c 38S(LiT. TL 11), and a third time in a. c 
SBO. (LiT. Ti. 27.) 

PIDES, the patMaifiatian of fidelity or Ulb- 



,.,.., GAftgIc 



ISO 



novhvs. 



(ulnsn (Cic deC^. al IB). Nuu !■ nd ti 
bnilL a templi to Fid« pnbliea, on tliB C^tol 
(DioDji. ii. 7fi)i uid uothei *» built thoie ~ 
the eounUhip of H. AemiUo) Scauru*, B. c. 1 
(Cic it Nat. Dear. ii. 2S, SI ; iU. 16 ) d« L^g. 



ir kind lcaT€i, taAcairjiaj^ 

in nor nana com eui, at > bukst witb Eruit. 

<Ruehe. La Num. ii. I, p. 107.) [L. 8.J 

rmiCULA'NIUS, rA'LCOLA. [Fai^ui.] 

FI'DIUS, an andcitt Uaa of jUuu, occnn ' 



it, IM Daa (Aiji) JUaa, or the md of Zeiu, that 
U, Hacdlsi. HoQce ths eipMioa ■MdnH JuUai 
ji equiralent to ih fftrcuUt, biL jagtL (Gc ad 
Fam. x. 21 ; PliiL ^KiU iT. S.) Scmwlims 
Fidiu* n nwd ■lone \a the kiik of Itu "~ ' 
Xeni, or Heicnlsa. (Or. Fait. n. 213; 
'VknD,<& £. 2L T. 68 : Plant. ..In. L 1. S ; Tain, 
.Of.Nat.-mi.6S.) Sdrib of tha andsDli cmuwclHi 
lUwvitbjIdu. (Fettutkii. awlw} [US.] 
FI'aULU8,UA'IlCI[Ja. LCHabouhCx, 
Q. N. FiouLDS, conml in B.C. 162. During the oo- 
mitia for hii election the liader of the centnria piae- 
iDgaliTa died, and the haruipKei declared the electioD 
Toid. Tib. Sempronini Qracchiia, howeror, die con- 

lidil)', and Figolni dajaned U hit pniiiiice, Ciaal. 
pine OaiiL But afteTwaidi Oncchm Hnle to ihi 



taking theantpieet, and Fignlnireugnedtheoonnl- 
liiif. {Cic de Nat. Dnar.^i, d> ZH'ch. ii. 3B,ad 
« Prat. iL 3 1 V«L Mai. i. 1- § 3 i Plat. MaraH. 
t ; JnL ObH^. .74 i f aiL Cap.) Fignliu wai 
■gain coDdd ^in b. c. 1 66. HU pnTioce na Ifae 
war with the Dalmatae in Illyricum. At lint he 
allsired bii.om]) M be Ibroed by tb« Dalnalae, 
but ■ftenranli, in ■ winter fimpaign, he raac*- 
aielf took their aaialler lavnt, and finally their 
Ofiilal, JMmininin. (Polyb. iirii. U ; Appiu, 
lay.il; lM.Bpil.ii.Ta.; Flonia, It. 13.] 

2. C. MiKCiua FiatrLDi, ths un of the jnt- 
(vdine, ■ juriat oF great npatation, wai an onaae- 
c«aafiii (andidale lor ths conenlihiBt (VaL Ma^ 

fa. i § a) 

S. fC. JAktavH C. r. C. H. FiodLva, conml in 
B. C..64. In the detkls on the eenlenn of Cati- 
line'a.acconplicei he decland for apital ptuiiih- 
menl (Cic od ^tf. lii. 21 ), and approred of Cin- 
ro*! BKaiorea ganerally (Plaiipp. iL II.). In 
hii coninliliip the tenate aboliabed leren! illegal 
collegia, at pKJndkul to the fraedom of the 



rallL} JTietai 



d-OwlIL) 



B. (Aks 



u of nntUDal coitli- 
■'(Cit * £^. iL 25). [W. B. D.] 

FrOULUS, P. NIOI'DIUS, a PydH«oreaa 
philoaopher el high repnlation, vim Smmihsd 
about •iity yean Jl c. He waa » celebrated on 
•cconnt of tail knowledge, that Gelliui doei not 
haitBle to ptinunnce him, nait to Varre, the moat 
laained of the Ranani. Matbematiol and pby- 
aical inmtigatioiu appear to haTa occupied a large 
ibare of hi* attentiai ; and meh wai hii bne aa 
tm aalnikifer, that it wa* genenllj baliered, in 
later timca at baat, that be had pndicted in the 
moit unambigiuHia tenu the fiitnie gieatneia of 
OetaTianni on hearing tlw anaoimceaunt of hie 
lurth ; and in the EoHhian Chnmicle ha i* i^led 
** Pythagoricut et Hagoi." He, moraaier, na- 
iNaed coniideiabla innaenes in political anin 
during llie taM Mng^ai of tha rapsblic; wa* mw 



FIMBRIA. 
of the MiBtonidectedlgrCieaTalo lake down tha 
dapoutioni and oiaininaliDn* of the witataiei iriw 
gare eridence with ngard to Catiline'* OB^iia^, 
B.C. 6S; waa uaetot in B.C. G9) took an aetJTO 
part in tlie dTi] war on the aide ci Ponpey ; waa 
compelled in conaequcDce by Caeaar to Utb abroad, 
and died in exile ■. c 44. The latter of eataol^ 
tion addr m ed to him by Cieei* (oif Fam. i*. IS), 
which conlsini a Tery warm tiibole to hii laaiD- 
ing and worth, ia atill extant. 

A. Oelliua, wko tntartaiaad tha Mm«Mt ad- 
uinrtion fin dw taleala and aiiiiiaiiiiHiliK of Fi- 
galoi, aaya that hit wocki w«e Hik ttadUd, and 
wetB of no practical Talna^ in eoDaeqatBoe oif the 
•nbtlety and obacBijty t? wliidi tbty mra daiao- 
-■ »{«i^ 



r OM tko charge, 

tkantgaet. Tla 



14) at « 

whan wa .eoniidet the natiita of the nt>)aet. ' 
namea et the fbQoiring piasat ban bun pnaemd : 
De Sflmra Baitorva tt Oroanmiia, Di Amma- 
litmi, Dt Brtit, Da Augiiriit, D» FmUt, Omm m 



The fragmentt which have lurvtaod hare been 
arefiilly collected and iBDittalsd by Janna Rnt* 
genma in hit fariat Lmtioiut, iiL 10. (Gc. 
"• " 2, nL 34, oJ 



Fam. ir. H ; Lnwn, L 640 i . 

Dion Caia. xh. 1 ; Odl. It. 9, x 11, li. U, liii.' 

10, 3i, aix. 14 i Hienm. in Ona. EnA. OL 

dixuT. ; AuguilJn. it Oit. Dii, t. 8 | Bnider, 

HiHor. PUL tol. ii. p^ 24 ; Borigny, Mbt. dt 

rAaadtm.Imtaip^'vli.xni.f.lm.) [W. B.] 

FI'HBRIA. I. C. Fl&tiiib Fimbua, a liome 

vn, who, according to Cicen, nae to tba hi^Mtt 

honouit in llie npnbltc lEunngh fait own meat and 

itaJBDt In B. c 105 he wat a ondidala kt Iha 

coninlilMp, and the people n*e him tha iunfin»ii 

to fail coo^petitar, Q. Lotatiui Cataka; and aocor- 

dingly, Fimbria wat the coUeagBO of C. Marina in 

hit tecond connlthipi B. c 104. Fimbria owtt 

ban Bcqaired hit po|iulariIy aboat Ifaat time, lor we 

liam Eton £ioem (prvJfaiai).31), that pMnmalj' 

he had been an nntnccearfal landidate fu Ihw 

Aiboneth^ What pntinea be oh tain ad t t a n 

hia coniulthip it uknown, bat ha taeaa to hta 

I pnilty eX extortion daring hit adminittntioB, 

M, Omtidiui faongbl an actim of mualmJaa 

init hioi,and waa wipporled by tlw ondiBBa of 



leat acquitted. Dnrinf the rnidt of S< 

^ 100, Fimbria, with otbtrcaudan, iooknp 
to defend the puUic good. Cican deadibca 

Mderable power, bat wat tatter and vehoncnt ia 
•podiing. Cicero, in hit boyhood, read tha 
ipeoehet of Fimbria; bnt theyaom fell into ob- 
Inion, for, at a later tima, Ciocro hq* that limy 
were a^arcly to be found any wheiTb (Cic |w 
Pbne. 6, n Farr. t. 70, BraL S4, 45, ^n Famt. 7« 
pn Bab. ptri. 7, de Qf. iii. 1% da OraL iL 22 t 
Alton. H OtmI. p. 78 ; VaL Max. vii. 3. § A. 
rilLf. §3) J. Obaeqa. t OS, where be iiarrona- 
ruily culed L. ^accoL) 

2. C. Flatiub Fmaitu, probably ■ Km af 
No. 1, wat one of ths moat nolsot paMfaont of 
Matint and Cinna during ths dril war with Snlla. 
Cicero (pro JM. Aae. IS) eallahimahoNOOHfo- 

moniet of C. Marina, in a. c 86, C. I^bria 
BUed an attempt to ha made on the life of Q. 
UueiBi SeacTCl^ and, •* t^ kttv etcaped with k 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



innr 






DM hiu bdine tht people. 
Wb« wAti whit be bad Is i^ icuiiH u ei- 
eeOoit a bbd, be leplM. Dotbiiig^ •uept that he 
kad MM iSiiind the dcaidljr wnpon to penetnte 
br emifii into fail bod;. Aitei (he death of C 
Huim, in B. c 86, Ciniia luaiuiied L. Valeriui 
Flamu a* hia (nOragae to tbe coDmlihip, a thi 



Salk and tm^ the w 

" ' u Vilerina Flionu ww ineiperienced 
*- - - ^'imbria accmpuiied him tu hii 
er of the hong (not u queitoi, 
iL p. 596, (titci). FIucDi diew upon 
Uaiaelf tie haind of tha uddien bj lui ■tarice 
Bnd cnie4t;, and Rmhria took adTantue of it in 

While itajing at Bjantinm, Fimbria beome in- 
irind in ■ qnand with tbe qMettor tf Valariiu 
Fbwna, and tbe latter derided tbe di^nta in b- 
•ear of the i|innfiii, fht wfakh be wh auailed l)]r 
Pimhria in innhmg temu. Finbiia me de- 
■riired of hi* <iace is eouMqaeDCB, and VaL 
naca* niled to Cbikedon. nmbria, who i«- 
■sioed at Bjwntim, cnattd a mutin j among the 
■■Idien who wen left there. Flaeeiu RtotiKd to 
B^nniiiiB, bat wa* obliged to ^nit tha place, and 
took to fli^t. nmbria punned him to ChakedeD, 
aad Ihenca to Nicomedoa, where he killed him, 
in B. c 85. He fbrtbwitb undertook the command 
of tbe annj. He gained eereial itat animjnnant 
nctsiea oTeTtbegenualiofMithridatea, and when 
Ike king hinuelf took to flight, Fimbria Mlewed 
him M PennBna, and ebaied turn from thence to 
PmUk. Hete he might bate made the king hii 
priMMMf^ if LdchObi, who had the command of 
tbe fleM, had coodeaoended to co-opeiate with die 
■afper, and not allowed tba kmg to eicape. 
HariDg ttnn got rid of one eaemf , Fimbria itgm 
a Boat end war igainrt the Anada who had 
fnghtm tbannki of Milbii&tea, ordeetand in 
Etrear af SaDa. Among the plaeti of the latter 
cbia waa IliBn, whidi wm traadtemulj' taken. 
Bid waotBid; aiid naaOr deatcoved. Eei^edin 
Ab, witkoat Tettwnt, like an intane penon, and 
im e dad ia labdliag a great part of the coantry. 
Bat in b. c Bt, SaBa ooiBed orer from Oreece into 
Aaia, aa4, after hating conclnded pea« with Hi- 
thiidalei, be atUcked Fimbria in hii camp near 
tbe town of Thjatetra. A) Fimbria waa onabie 
to Bake hii men Aght agatnit Sulla, he tried 
te get rid <if hia enemj bf 

m tUi atterapt biled, be c .. __ 

bal wbca Sulla refiiMd, and demanded 

It with hii own 

■ to grie him 
cmcn wai ine miienble end 
...', which bad begira with trta- 
tbcfy. Cieen {Bnd. 66} deeoibet hii pnblie 
^eakiDg joM aa ws might eipect of a man of 
)u* iBBpenmeM: it waa of a fnrion* and moat 
ee h mmit kind, and like the raiing of a mad- 
aaa. (Ur. ^>it 83 ; Phrt. £UL 2, 23, SS ; 
Z-nH 3 ; Appian, MiOnfl. £1—60 ; VelL Pat. 
ii. 34: DioD (lata. Fnyim. Feinwe. 197—130, 
Rri-ar.j Ain.Vict.d.FB-.n(. 70; Orot. ti. 2 i 
VaL Max. ji. 11. (2; Frtmlin. SfroT. iiL i7J£; 




FIIUIIANU9. 151 

3- FLiviua FuBUA, a hnlher of No. 2, waa 

legate of C. Norbanui, in tbe war againat Snlla, 

a. c. 82. He and other officer* of Uie part; of 

Carbo wen iatiled to a banqaet by Atlnnatana*, 

and then tiowheroailj mordered. (Appian, B. C. 

i.91.) [L.8.] 

FIRMA'NDS, GA'VUrS. [Oinoa.) 

FIRMA'NUS, TARUTIUS, a mathematirian 

and aatrohger, eoatempDiary wiA M. Vam and 

Cicero, and an intnnate frmnd of then both. At 

Varro'i ivqaeat Firmaaaa took the horoacope of 

Romnlui, and &an the drcomatancea of the life 

and death ti the fbmider determined the era of 

Rome. According to the Mheme of Fttmanaa, 

Romnlaa waa bom on the S3d day of September, 

in the 2d year of tho 2d 01ympiad=B.c 771, and 

itome waa fonnded on the 9th of April, betweea 

tbe aecond and third bom' of the day. (Plnt.fi*aa. 

12 ; Cic lie Dam. '-a. i7.) PhUarch doe* net lay 

in what year Firmaou* phiaed tha fonndatian of 

Roma, hat the day ia eariier than the Palilis 

(Auil Slat), the niual point from which the ycara 

of ItoBe are reckoned. The name, Firmaaaa, de- 

I a natita of tirmam, in Picentmi, the modem 

of Fermo, in the Uarca d' Aneoaa, but Itxa- 

a an Etruaan apFHllation (Plot. Horn, b, 

■(. ifDsi. 36 ; Liciniu Macar, op. Afocn^ 

Saturn. L 10 ; Aagualin. it CVd. iM, n. 7), and 

' XD hi* Einiiean anceMoi* he may hate inherited 

i taate for raathemalicsl itudiea. [W. & D.l 

FIRMIA'NUS SYMPCSIUa. CAE'LIUS, 

(alao written ^FiaprlDaHii, or Sim^mn'a, not to 

cormptiooi,) ia the name 

iriea of a hundred inaipid 

riddle*, each comptlaad in three' hexameter liiiH, 

collected, aa we are told in tbe prologna, for tba 

pnrpoeo of pnmeting tbe fattiTitie* of the Satir- 

~~'" To the aaDW aothor apparently belong two 

odea ; one entitled Dt /'orfoo, In fifteen 

imhic Tetrametera, aioibed' in toma copiea 

Aaclepiaa or ABclepadiua, a' miatoJra which 



icifoanding the poet with the metre 
e employed ; the otbei; Bt La 
twenty-fiTc UeDdecaayllabict, altribnted oi 



itbei; Bt Lnat% in 



Euphorbn*, while both 
an fnqaently incladed among tba Cata- 
lecta of VirgiL We know nothing reprding the 
peraonal hi*t«T of thi* writer, nor the period 
when he fionrianed ; but from eertain pemliaritie* 
of oxpre**ioD it haa been conjectured that he «a* 
— ' *^ — "'" "^iction and teniflcation, altbeugli 
It of purity and coirectnc**, aia 
b remoied bom barbariim, and tbe enigmaa cou- 
taiu allnatona to tarioua uiagn which had oeaaed 
to pntaH long befbn the downfoU of the empin. 
The only relennce, however, in any anoient writer 
' Ibeae compoaitioiii ia to be found in Aldhelm, 
ho died at the beginning of the eigfatii century. 
The worda with which the prologue commeocea, 
Haec qooque Sympoilaa de carmine Inait inepto. 
Sic to, Seite, doce*, at te deliro magiatro," 
which point diitinctly to eome fonner effurta, hato 
been made the baaia of an eniatagant conjecture 
by Heumann. Aaauming that the reading a* it 
Dw atandi ia &u]ty, he propoaea, a* an emenda- 

Hoc qnoqne Sympsnum Inii de carmine inepta 
Sic ma Sicca docet. Sicca deliro magialm,'* 
nd endesToan to prote that the true title of tha 
tbal no ancb penon a* Syni- 

L.,.,.., Coddle 



153 PIRUICUS. 

poiio* era axiittd, and tlut tlii ml ulhor of 
th«M tiiflM i> no len k ptixmiga than th« LMin 
bther CmUiu Finnianu IjKUtntiiu, tb« pupil of 
Anobiai* vho tuight at Sicca ; tba author, ai wo 
leam fiwD JeronH, of a Sympotium, Tkit hj- 
potliad*, although wpported bj nndi Icatniog, ia 
•0 wild at Kaccct; to dtasrrs omfhtation. II will 
ba mffiacnt to nauA that all M3S. ^na in ra- 
pmanting j^riipoiau (or aoDaUiiiig like it) ai a 
pcoHT name^— dtat than an no gnmndi for mp- 
poiing tba i^ K^ M Himm at Laetuitiiu to haTo been 
ef a l%ht or icinil chanMer, bat that wo ue nihir 
lad to ooDctuda that it wu a gnrs dialect ic di>- 
qaiaiiian, mambling in [^ the Sympmia of X*- 
■aBbm, of Plata, and of Pklaich, or the Salur- 
nalii of Macntriiu. 

Tbo AaBjfmala wen lint printed at Puii. 8n>, 
153B, along with tho Safinn «f tba Serta Wiao 
M«i of Omeca : the mott elabonU edition ii that 
of HoDDiami, HinnoT^ Sto. 1723, which wu fol- 
lowed bj that of Hajnata, Fiancof. ad Viad^ 8>o. 
17T5 1 tke naal DHliil ii that contained in the 
Pait. Lai. Min. of WeniMlor( voL n. part ii. 
s. 474, with very oompleia prokgDmeDa (p. 410). 
The Odia an giren in the una ooltection, toL iiL 
pp. 3B6, 389. See alio Tol. t. part iii. p. 1464, 
■Dd roL iT. part iL p. 8£3. [W. R] 

FIR'MICUS MATERNUS, JU'LIUS, or 
perhapiVI'LLIUSL We poweu a ticstiBe, which 
bean tha title Jaiii Firmd Molina Jumipri, Si- 
euli V. C. MaOMBt Lilri VIU^ the writer of 
which, at we gather bom hii own itatement (lib. 
ir. pnieE), during a portion of hii life, practiied a* 
a foremic pleader, but abandoned the pnfcHion in 
diagiut. The production named above ii a fonnal 
introdaction to judicial aitrologj, according to the 
discipline of the Egjptiani and Bahyloniani, aa 
eip«inded bjr the moil nnown«d manten, among 
whom we find enumerated Petosini, Necepto, 
Abraham, and Orpbeue. The fint book ii chiefly 
occupied with a defence of the itndjr; the Mcond, 
thiol, and foulth contain the definition! and mai- 
inu of the idence, while in the remainder the 
« and natal iBfloeuce* {ofoldamata ) of the 



haaienlybo 



u an fnllr derelaped, the horaacopei of Oe- 
dipiu, Paiii, Homer, Plato, Archimedei, and 
niiioiu other BemaritaMe indiTidoali, being ex- 
amined, ucxamplta of the fffoporitioni ennncuted. 

It would Wpear that the taik wu commenced 
toward! tha cme of the reign of Conatantine the , 
Great, for a aotir eclipH, which happened in the 
connlihip of Optatua and Panllinui, i. □. 334, la 
^ken rf (lib. I 1.) u > ncent event. It leemi 
nrohable, hDweier, that tho whole wu not pab- 
liihed at once i for while each book i) (btmallf 
addreaacd to Mann^ua LoUianui, the title of pro- 
ooDiol ii added lo hii name in the dedication to 
the but bol onlj. If thii Lollianni be the Fl. 
Laltianai who appeare in the Fatii along with FL . 
Arbitio, in the nar 3£5, the concluioB of the 
work might be nftrred to an epoch •omewbit later 
than tbii date. 

Ailhongb we tan tmee in •ereral paaiagee a 
cormpondeDCS with tha A^nmonuca of Manilioi, 
wa an led to nippan that Finninu wu %nannt 
of the eiiatgnoe cHf that poem ; for hi* axpreuioni 
on two occanani (lib. iL Piaef. riii. 2) imply 
hia belief that aorcelj any Roman wrilen bad 
touched upon theae thonei except Cicero and Cae- 
ttt, the tnuulaion of Aratua, and Fnnio, who 



nHHicua 

had Ibltowed tbe Aianda of Hinutbu, bnt h^ 
erred in pnauppoiing a drvree of knowledH on the 
part of bit readen that vtieg wen little ukeljr to 
poateia. In the lAri Matiatot we find refeRiieea 
to other fiiecea pniionily compoaed bj the author 
npon ainular topict, eapeciaU; to a dia>natiiMi IM 
Dommo GmUmi tt GbnascralDM^ aad A> Fiat 
Vitae ; the former addreatad to a fiiend, MminB* 
(ir. 14, Til 6.). while bo p 
" iwelw booka" u a aopplen.... 
undertaking (t. 1), together with ai 
of the ^^rrv^tsHfu (TiiL Pne£), uc 
of NecepH upon bealtb and diieaae (niL 3). Of 
theie not one ha* been pnaerred. 

FiimicDi Materoiu wu fint printed at Venioe, 
lol. 1497, bf BiTilaeqna, from a MS. brought to 
Italy by Peeeenniai Fraudicnt tiiga from Coo- 
•tantinaple ; again by Aldna, foL 1499, in a to- 
lume containing alw Maniliut, the PhaenooWDa of 
Anioa, in Greek, with the ttantlatiou by Ckaro. 
Caeaar Oeimanicui, and Anenna, the Omtk rant- 
nwDtariet of Theon on the aame wo^ the %iheT« 
of Produt, in Onek, and the Latin rniion t^ 
Linacar ; a collection r^trinted Saei yean after- 
wBida nnder tbe iupedion of ManUt (fi>L Rb^ 
Ling. 1£03> The kat edition notiotd by badio- 
ET^hen ia that comcted by Pnckner, UL BaaiL 
l£51, and pabliabed along with tbe Qtadrvaiti- 
ten, the CWiiojauHK. and tha ImrraatHm SUt- 
tanm Su/n^calmHt, tnntlated from the Oredi of 
CL PlokmiBena i tha Aitraiomiea of Manilioi ; and 
■DDdry trscta by Arabian and Orienid aatnl^ara. 
(SidoD. Apidlin. Oirm. uil Ptart) 

In the ynt lfi63 Matthlu Fhro-- ' 
Struburg, from ■ Miaden M3i, n 
btuing the title JnUt FSrmi 



na pnbUab 
iwloit, a 



inference with Rgard to the penoaal buloiy of 
ounpoier. Tha m^ioiitiDn, at one tiBB geoenlly 
admitted, that he wu the iBiae panoa with tha 
aitnloger apikeo of aboT*, rait* upon no preoT 
whaleTci eunt the identity of name, while it ii 
rendered highly inanhable by aeraod canaideia- 
tiont, and ii much uakan by a ehronolooiia] aign- 
meut. For, ai we bare already aaan, tbe MoUa- 
Koi Libri wen certainly not commenced nntU aflar 
A. B. 334, and in aU likelihood not finiihed for a 
canaidemble period t it being erident, moieonr, 
fnm the qiirit which tliej loeathe, that tbe writer 
wu not a Chrialian ; while, on the other hand, tha 
attack upon the hfathen god* moit hate been 
drawn up befon A^ o, 350, aince in that yfv Coi>- 
Uan^ one of the snpemn, to wbcmi it ii inicribad. 

The object of the eaaay ia not m mtich la oilatgo 
upon the eridenee* of the true hith ta to demon- 
itinta the bliehood of the difierent forma of pagaa 
belief; lo tnce the itepa by which nwi feil away 
from the aerrice of the troe Ood, fint hy petanii^- 
ing the poweti of natoie, and iben by proceeding 
to niie mere men to the rank of dinnitiea. In 
thii portion of the argumnit the theory of Eoba- 
mema [EubhhdbJ, which erei aince the dan 
of Enniui had eierciaed gnat influence ont tba 
Reman mind, ii fdlowed out, and the dinauaiDii 
conclude* witb an exhortation b> tha bealben to 
abandon Hich a tyttcm of wonhip, and wilh an 
i^paal to tba empenti, niging tbam la iakw 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



FLACCU6. 
Ik Anatt ■■— Ilia far th« eitirpatum at 

n> Bditio PiiotcpK u wi lian FHDuktd iboT*, 
*■ pHntnl It SD^nuf in 1862 ; that of Womr, 
tn, Rnbaii, 1603, «>■ kng held in high «t»- 
wm^ kat Ike bcM md noM nnnt ii Chat of 
:(ilM(r, Stc, Hftnia*, 1896. Sue >1h the vo- 
kvrflhtDMAVtrionimChMciiiiaro, vfaieh 
oaHoi lliondai FaEx, Log. Bu. 1709. «nd lb* 
JdU.Afr.<irOdiu>d.nL*. P.2S. [W.R.J 

PI'RlflUS CATUSl [Catu*.] 

K. FIRIIUB, «w (f tha -miniuciili tTMiiiu" 
«l» iftanaop donu Ute E«gn of AnCBliiii. Ae- 
McdBf ta VopUen, ha «■■ a DMin of ScleooaU, 
*t UcndaDd (IljBf ZcBobn, md i^piun to ban 



anM aDMiin and InDiti** tnds. Wboa Za- 
Mla uak wf not ■grinat th« Romaiu, Fiimu, 
■ Hdv lo nnka a ^naaiga in hac &Tonr, niud 
^B Al ioa dria ; but tha nhaUioD wa* praniptlr 
mkd tn the TigDm and good focliuia of the 
mfim'. Tba AagMan hinoriu baa dinniided a 
^ahraf paiticdan with ngud to tba pcnonal 
^iiiaMit hodOj (Iraigth, alUaik and eonnrial 



FLAGCU8. IA3 

and M.ATtann. (Cie. ^ ftm. ziiL SS, 79.) 
" ' ' ' ' I mia to baTB bam angagad 

> paUk tana. In a. c &3, 
Calm, ths asn, to T. Tiliiia, 
ODa of Pflapej'i legate*, who Itad the BunagaiwDt 
of tha oorn-mackat, in accordance with the law 
which had ooDftind tha niHrintendeiica of it upon 
Pompef {ad FtaK. liii. 7a)> and. in B. c. 47> Ciouo 
neamaienda both ion* to A. Allianni, the pronit- 
Bl of Sicilj (orf Fam. liiL 7S). 

FLACCUS. CALPITRNTUS, a ihetoridan 
who WBi b'ing in tha cdgn of Hadrian, and 
whoa* GRy-oM dedaDatiou frrqoenti j accooipaDr 
thoH of Qnintilian. They wen fint poblidiod 
b7 Ktfaoeiu, Latet. IftSO. 8n. ; and mbaeqiienilT 
Ian been edilad with Qainlilian bj aimoriiu, 
Scholting. AWalonen, && Pliuy lS^r.2.) 
— '-'-- '- Flacoii, who^ in mid* >ditiina,_ii called 



„ f the HHisn ha anrtad 

Wmdt in a«p|i>ea>ag the nrolt, hr addnaring 
■A waipla aapaotdj, lad oHuing im mm of 
MBcj u be dktribatad aaoag thaaL Daring the 
h« >ng^ of Olbo, Platiaa Finna btaland 

ha M nane hk oaoiagaL (Tab HiM. L 46, 69; 
«.«.*».) [U a.] 

FISTUS, P. CURIATIUSiWilh the ^nomen 
TBI0BVINU8, eODMl B. c 4S3, in which tmt 
*» acj WW naitad with a gnal peatilaDca (LIt. 
iii. B i FmMi C^iL) { and one of the firU da- 
oarhata in M.C tSl. (Lit. iiLSS; Dionji. x. 

FLACCINATOR, M. FCSLIUa. 1. One of 
Ihc riiMilai bribmiaa in H. c iSt, in which jaar, 
■Mnthteding tha oppodtian of the plebeian tri- 
haet, tha lOMalar tribonea wen all patridau, 
(lif. JT. 25 ; Diod. xiL fiS, whan ha ii called 



-) 



l,aeooidiH 
idiog t>I^*7 inB.c;813 (iz. 
(alor and FlaooDator radgited 

the eonnila 



«)■ 1 

OB Ml 

rtfaUk I a^ both . 

Md bnarabh aciniitted. F1 

ia a.c S18 (Ut. u. 30), and 1 

•ccMdag to tha Faati, a ncono ime to l~ nae- 

Mia.c.S14, bat aococdiiv to Lif7 (ix. 28) to 

the dicMar C. PoatabB*. Tha caiue and dt- 

w*aiM of ha trial will ha batia ondantMd 

HniMwtolIuHiiia. [W. R D.] 

FLAC«JS.C. AVIA'NUS, waa an intimate 
tmi ttOBmoXmi had twa moi, C Anaiun^ 



CUn 



[W. R D.] 



■LACCU8, FU'LVIUS. 1. M. FoLviiia, 
Q. r. M. N. FuocUB, waa eDnnd with App. Clan- 
diiu Candex, in >. C 264, the jeac in which the 
fint Pmuc wai bnha oat. In hii oonnJihip tha 
fint ^adiuorial pmaa wan exhibiud at Rame, in 
the ionuB beariiim. (VeU. Pat i. 13 ; OelL ini. 
21 ; VaL Max. ii. 4. f 7 t Eatna ii. 10 ; Oroa. 
IT. 7, who aznxiooBilj ^la the coUeagna erf App. 
Claadiaa Caadai, Q. Fabint.) 

9. Q. FoLTiin H. r. Q. n. Flaccui, a acD *( 
No. 1, wa* coDsnl in b. c 337. He and hia col- 
leagne, 1* ConhflUna Loitnlui, boght againit the 
Lignnna in Italj, and triompbed crar them. In 
B. c 334 he waa counl a laeoaid lime. The wu 
in thaiMMthaf ltal]>waBMiUgringoa.andFIatciia 
and hii ooOaagiw wan the Bnl Soman geaeiali that 
led iheir aimic* acna* ihe riTor Po. The Qaala 



tonUp, ad 

being ncoided. The jeai befan h 
316. ha had bean elected pontifei ii 
Q. Aeliu Paetoa, who had fallen in the tattle of 
rannaa, In bia pnetorahip the aenaie placed 
twen^fbar afaipa at hii anamand, to pnted the 
coaat In the neigh bonxhood of the dtj, and aoon 
after the aenale deciead that he thould niae £000 
fool and 400 hone, and caiue ihia legion to be 
lamed lo Sartinia aa toon u pcedhU, and that 
he ahoald ^ipoint whoraaooTar he plaaaed aa ita 
ceanntander, nntil Q. Mndoa, who waa aererely ill, 
le eo rered. Placeo* aocoidinilir appointed T. Man- 
lina Tot^Moa commandei of the legion. In a& 
314 he waa the onlj one anna hia cdlMgne* that 
wa* le-elacted to Uie paaetoidiip, and a Banatoa 
oonanltam ordained, that he, aa<ra or J iaaai, abouU 
haTO the dtj Jbr hia proriooe, and that he ahonld 
haTe the comanod tbare during the ahaence of Ihe 
conaal*. In b. c. 318 he wa* wmntad magialer 
eqnilam to the dictator, C GandiaB Centho, and 
the jnar after waa r^aed to the coneolriupfot the 
third lime, together with App. Clandiua Pnlcher. 
In thia year he wai bIm a candidate lor the office 
of pontiiex muimoa, which, bowerer, he did not 
obtain, Duritig hia third conaulahip Campania waa 
hia proTince ; and ha according] j want thither wilh 
bia atmj, btdi np hia pOBtion at Beneiencom, and 



eiliBoidinaiT ntt Bnaaoceaafiil attriBpt 
the camp, wUdi wa* piti^Md ipon u al 



D,4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



154 FLACCU8. 

etMiUa 

until tha mxtd^, 

kb MhUeni md their indignition at hii mptml, 

Mlgai bin la BantiBlw hu ttttck. Hknng bam 

joined bflik edliagae, App. Clindin* Pnlehet, tlie 



milwcTi tlwD took pbc^ in which 
6000 Cutluigimui* ue nid U bave hMO killri, 
and BDi, thu 7000 ven tahni priMMii, with all 
that ths amp BontuDed. The Iwq oguial* tbtn 
Manad to BeDOfmliiBi, whsn thij aidd iha 
bootj, and diMribnlad tha piocMdi amoog thoH 
«4ia bad diitiDgiuihod thoawlTM doiiag tbo 
attack opon Hannah cunp. Hamn, who had not 
fccM <a tboounpat the time when itwu taken, 
tmad it MMMBrr to witbdtaw into the amntzj of 
the BrattiBu. 

Hennpaii the two eoMnli mardied agaiiiN 



agaimt Roma, the Mmala called Fnlriu Flacco* 
tuk to protect tho cil;, and fbr thi* pnipoie he 
teceiTed theiBiHpowaulhaacliidaninti. Bat 



to C^ua, and continued the nege with the ntoioit 
Bienion. The inhabilaata of Capua uren reduced 
to the keit aitreinitj, and toolied U Mimiidei ) 
but before the gate* were opened the moel dittin- 
niehed pereiHM pnt an end to their lirea. The 
uarfol catMtropbe of thia once flonriihing town, 
the cmel pimiihment of the Campeniane, the exe- 
cnlioii of all the enrriring leneLon, and the other 
•naDgenflnti, loch ae nuld be dictated onlj bj the 
noet in^calde hatied and hoelUitj, mnit be Ht 
down to the acconnt of Q. Fnlviaa Fbenu. To- 
waidi lb* end of tbe jaar b« had to retun to 
Rotaa, wbcn ba aoadoctad, a> dktata, the em- 
lalar elactiona. He hhuwlf teceired Cepoa h hii 
imnince for another jeu, bat hit two l^onj were 
tedued to one. In 209 he wu inTealed with tbe 

p for the foBTth time, end lecdved Ln- 
BiQttiamu hiipmince: the Hirpiniane, 

•, and Volcenliani nibmitted to him, and 
were mildly treated. Fer the year feHowing hb 
inpariom wae again prolanged, with Capua f« hie 
prorincs and one k^on at hie comniind. In 307 
M coaunanded two legiom at Brnttiom. Tbit ie 
tbe lail record we haTc of him in hiitory. He ni 
a Tety fbrtonate and suxeHfsl genanl during the 
latter period d the Kcond Punit war, bnt hi* 
menory ia branded with the ciuetly with which he 
treated Capva after iU &1L (Lii. niii, 21—34, 
TOT, 9, «T, 2, **., 13, to!, 20, nri 1, *t. B, 
JtC 22, 38, xirii. 6, ftc, II, 1 S, 22, 36 ; Eattop. 
iii. 1, Ac ; Zonat. viii. 18, Ac. ; Poljb. iL SI ; 
Otoe. It. 13, &c ; Appian, Amiit. 37, 40, ftc ; 
VaL Max. iL 3, | 3, 8. 9 1, iii- 2. EM- g 1, B, 1 1, 
T. 2. g 1 ; Cic. <<< J^ .4^. it 3.1.) 

3. Cm. FuLVtra M. p. Q. n. FLACcna, a ann 
of No. I, and a brother of No. 2, waa ptaetor in 
Iha third conaolahip of hit brotbar a-c 212, and 
had Apulia for hi* prarinee. In the neighbenT- 
hood of Herdonta ho waa delaited by Hannibal, 
and WM the Gr*t that took to flight with abont 
aOD honenen. The mt of hii army waa cut to 
pieco*, fbr oat of 32,000 n>D oidy 3000 Mcaped. , 



FLACCUS 
C. Saaftonrnt BbeioaaAarwarii charged biaba* 
ttm the peofle with haTing loot hia amy thteogb 
hiaownwantif aotionanipndensb Flaeca* at 
flnl andaaraorad (o throw Iha bait npaa the 
•oldieta, bat faitbai diaeanjoo and innttjgalion 
pnnd tkat b* bad beband aowardly. Ho then 
triad to ohtaio tha aaiatanea of hi* bntbar, who 
waa than in the height of hi* ghtrj and ngj^ed in 
tbe aiaga of Capaa. Bat aothing aniled ; and, aa 
ha had b> expect tba aararaM pnaithiBant ftota a 
trill, be went to Taiqninii into Tolnniary cnla. 
(Li*. SIT. S, 21, nri 2, 3.) Aoording to V*. 
leiiDi MaximaB (iL 8. g 3, comp. TiiL 1. § 3), be 
refnaed the braoor of a triumph ; but thia maat 
be a mialake, at leaat we do not know on what 
occaaion it could haTe happaned. 

4. C FuLVtu* H. r. Q. x. Flaocob, ■ aen of 
No. I, and a brother of No. 3 end 3, aerred aa 
legate nndar hia bntfaer Qointua daring the riege 
of Capua. In ac. 309 he waa oidetad to tmdnet 
a detachment of troop* in 
lack toRooiethelegiinuwl 
tbera^ (Lit. htL 33, xzrii a.) 

6. Q. Fdlviub Q. r. H. n. Flaccus, one of tba 
fbor Bona of Q. Falrin* Flaeen* No. 3. In n. c 
1B3 be waa aadiliB cnmBa daaJgnaM*; and aa tba 
dqr pnetot, C Dtdmoa, had jnat diad, ba olnetl 
himaalf aa a candidBto for kia ^aae, bat withont 
at ewtiena, and it 



and btinc 



II nol till B. c IB3, that be n 



BiriTal then, he eipelled the Celtiberiana, wbo 
poaaeeBiDn of the town of Uriricaa, whtcb 
, and aoon after ho defeated the Cdli- 
In ■ neat battle, in which 23,000 at them 
. to DBTB been alain and 4000 taken prv 
After the rednction of the town of Con- 
trebia he pined ■ lecond great Tictory orci tbo 



AttheendorOeyaoi 
of Ub ptaetoiBhipi whan be waa retDmlag fraai hi* 
pcorine*, be waa allowad lo taka wiu kia to 
Rome tkaa 



tbenuelre* in die gteat batUeB be hi „ 

C'>l>c thaakegiTing* win dacned at Rome far 
soeoBBBfal campaign. Bail whoi be ast oat fcc 
luly, tha Cellibenant, who pnbably llwaght that 
lie waa going to cany out aoma hoBlile adwrna 
^■inil them, ■ttacked him in a tuuiow de61a. 
Not with itanding hii diaedTanta^eona poutiai^ ba 
i^n gained a compbite Tictoiy, the merit of 
which waa chieflf owuig to hia caTiIry. The Cri- 
tiberiana, after baring loat no hai than 17,400 sT 
their men, took to flight Fnlrint Flaccna it 

g»™ain' ■" 

to Fortiina aqueitrii, 

He oelebraled hii Ticione* wiu a inompa m oi. c 
1 80, and wa* elected eoninl for the year Mlowing, 
together with haa brotbar, h, Maniioa Aridnma 
Fnlriann* (thi* nara* arow Eraa hi* being adopted 
into the family of Honliia AcidniBt). The gainaa 
in bonom of Ju]nler wan aanotiened ^thaaanalw 
and selebialed. He (onied on a war a^inet tW 
Lintian*, wbo were defeated, and whoae amp waa 
taken. On bi* retom to Roma, he criehrated m 
aeeond trnunpb on tha aame day on which the year 
be&re be had trionphed orer Ue Celtiberiam. la 
B. c 174 he wu made cenaor, with A. Poatamioa 
Albino*. In hia cenaanhip, hia own fantber, Cil 
Fnlriua Ftaccn*. waa qected from the aenale, and 



4,i,.=.otGoog[c 



FLACcns. 

MqJa ^bA he bd nwcd fn Spiun, and vUck 
n ta b> iMn ugiiifiBait than auj olhu at 
Huaa. For thu piupoiB h* took down half tha 
nat tt ihe umila of JmM Ijtinia, in Brnttinm. 
■> vteto on UwmaiUa iUm to forai the roo